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Norton Brothers

                                                  Prof. Henry Brace Norton.
                                                  Capt. Gould Hyde Norton.

[Note to file: I recently had the pleasure to meet Mr. Sam Dicks, University Historian, Emporia State University, who is researching Prof. Henry Brace Norton and his brother along with Prof. L. B. Kellogg. Both Profs. Norton and Kellogg were active members of the school that later became Emporia State University. Mr. Dicks provided me with a lengthy article taken from the July 2, 1875, and July 9, 1875, issues of the Emporia News. I quit looking for articles relative to early Arkansas City citizens in the Emporia newspaper before the issues referred to  were printed. I have inserted this article in date order with other material pertaining to the Norton Brothers. MAW January 22, 2001.]

Emporia News, January 31, 1868.
Professors Kellogg and Norton are both absent in attendance upon the meeting of the State Teachers’ Association at Topeka. Mrs. Gorham has charge of the Normal in their absence.
Emporia News, February 21, 1868.
N. S. Storrs has purchased the residence of H. B. Norton, on Market street.
Emporia News, July 3, 1868.
The State Teachers’ Association in session here on Thursday resolved to recommend H. B. Norton, of the State Normal school, to the Republican State Convention as its choice for State Superintendent. The contest was between Messrs. Norton and McCarty, of Leaven-worth. The vote stood 30 to 35. The selection was afterwards made unanimous. The selection is one we can most heartily endorse. There is probably no man in the State better qualified for the position than Mr. Norton. He has been for many years a practical teacher—just what is needed in the position of State Superintendent. . . .
Emporia News, July 31, 1868.
                                                      Schoolmasters Abroad.
There seems to be a conspiracy against the faculty of our Normal School. Prof. Kellogg and family, on a recent trip to El Dorado, were treated to a breakdown and supperless bivouac on the prairie beyond Cottonwood Falls; while Mrs. Gorham was lately robbed of her trunk and money, at Omaha. The pickpocket was caught, and part of the money refunded, but the trunk has not yet been found. Prof. Norton, though “spoiling” for a journey, is quietly at home, afraid to venture out, and waiting for the Governor to send an escort.
Emporia News, August 14, 1868. [Part of an article]

The State Normal School, which is one of the most important institutions of the State, is located in Emporia. It has two departments, the Model and the Normal. Prof. L. B. Kellogg is Principal, assisted by Mr. H. B. Norton, Mrs. Gorham, and Miss Plumb. The average attendance of scholars fitting themselves for teachers, when the school is in session, is about 130. The school building is a most substantial structure, three stories high, built of stone, and a portion of the twenty acres belonging to it, is enclosed with a fine fence.
Emporia News, September 11, 1868.
                                                                A CARD.
To whom it may concern: When I accepted the recommendation of the State Teachers’ Association for the State Superintendency, this was done with the understanding that Mr. McVicar’s declination was firm and final. However, feeling that he was really the first choice of the Convention, I had the honor of offering the following resolution, which was unanimously adopted.
“Resolved, That we regard the Hon. P. McVicar as a Christian scholar and gentleman, and an officer of great ability and worth; and that, with due respect to his sacred office, we greatly regret his withdrawal from his present field of labor.”
Within the past day or two, it has transpired that Mr. McVicar will consent to a re-nomination, if the people of the State so desire it; and therefore, with thanks to kind friends, I cheerfully withdraw from the field, assured that his re-election will best promote the interests of education in Kansas. H. B. Norton. Topeka, Sept. 7th, 1868.
Emporia News, September 18, 1868.
                                                           Eastward Bound.
Prof. Kellogg and family started on an extended visit to the East this morning. It is the Professor’s intention to visit many of the leading institutions of learning in the East, especially the Normal schools, with a view of bringing to our Normal school all the modern improvements in teaching, and to gain such other information as will be of benefit to the school here. The Board of Directors have granted him a leave of absence for three months. They will visit Mrs. Kellogg’s parents in Massachusetts. We wish them a pleasant journey and safe return.
Miss M. J. Watson, a graduate of the school, will assist Prof. Norton during the absence of Prof. Kellogg.
Emporia News, January 1, 1869.
                    [Portion of Official Report for 1868, State Normal School, Emporia.]
                                                          Estimate for 1869.
H. B. Norton, deficiency in salary as Associate Principal for 1868: $1,200.
L. B. Kellogg, deficiency in salary as Principal for 1868: $500.
Report submitted by
Executive Com. State Normal School.
In the Preparatory Department and Model School, we found 27 pupils.
The Instructors during the year have been L. B. Kellogg, Principal; H. B. Norton, Associate Principal; Mrs. J. H. Gorham, and the first two graduates of the Institution, Miss Ellen Plumb and Miss M. J. Watson.
The pupils enrolled during the year represent 19 different counties in the State.

There are about 150 young men and women now teaching who have received instruction here, some of whom are filling situations in prominent schools.
Committee that signed report.
A. D. CHAMBERS, M. S. CROSWELL, L. M. HANCOCK....Emporia, Dec. 16, 1868.
Emporia News, January 22, 1869.
[From from a correspondent...S.]  Giving only a portion of article.
Among the Emporiaites who have been here, are Messrs. Fraker, Norton, A. R. Bancroft, and John Hammond.
Governor Eskridge, Senators Mead and Murdock, and Messrs. Crocker and Stotler are stopping at the new hotel—the Tefft House, having made satisfactory arrangements with the excellent landlords, Messrs. Harris & Beasly, to that effect. The Tefft is unquestionably the best hotel in Topeka. The furniture and fixtures as well as the building are all new, and in first-class order. Messrs. Tucker, Drake, and Osborne are at their old favorite quarters—Dr. Ashbaugh’s. McNay is at the Capitol House, while Wilson and Case stop with relatives. The friends of Mr. Bronson, of Butler, will be glad to know that he has a first-class clerkship in the Senate. Also, Mrs. Bates, of Morris, is provided with a good place as Assistant Enrolling Clerk of the House.
The Editorial and Publishers’ Association of Kansas met at the hall of the House of Representatives last evening. Jacob Stotler was elected President of the Association for the ensuing year.
Emporia News, March 26, 1869.
                                                          [Legal instruments]
H. B. Norton to H. Schroder for lot 154 Mechanics St.., Emporia.
Emporia News, April 2, 1869.
Noticed: Announcement of Spring Term at State Normal School does not have the name of Norton listed...only L. B. Kellogg.
Emporia News, April 23, 1869.
Prof. Norton has contracted with M. Roberts for the erection of a brick residence on a five acre lot just east of Mr. Goodrich’s residence.
Emporia News, April 23, 1869.
As an evidence of the rapid advance of property in this town, we may mention that Prof. Norton sold a block of seven lots, a few days ago, on the ridge in the northeast portion of town, for $1,000. Two years ago Mr. Norton bought these lots at $15 to $25 each. Now they sell for about $143 each.
Emporia News, April 23, 1869.
                                                             [Legal notice.]
L. B. Kellogg to H. B. Norton, quit-claim for lot 154, Mechanics St.., Emporia.
Emporia News, May 14, 1869.
                                                 [Legal entries...E. P. Bancroft.]
H. B. Norton to John Dickinson, quit claim for s w 9 20 12.
W. K. Boggs to H. B. Norton, warranty deed for n h of s e of s w 4 19 11.
S. B. Smith to A. A. Newman, warranty deed w h n w 6 29 11.
C. R. Sipes to P. M. Foote, warranty deed, lots 22 24 26 28 Rural street, Emporia.

Emporia News, May 21, 1869.
                                       NORTON’S REAL ESTATE BULLETIN.
The first number of this paper has been placed upon our table. It is issued by H. E. Norton, Real Estate Agent at Emporia. [No mention as to whether he is related to Norton brothers.]
Emporia News, May 28, 1869.
                [Brief history of Emporia taken from H. E. Norton’s Real Estate Bulletin.]
Emporia was founded in the year 1857 by a company of pioneer, who then had the pick of all Southern Kansas. The Normal School was located here in 1863. The courthouse and other important buildings were erected in 1865. [SKIPPED REST.]
Emporia News, June 11, 1869.
Prof. Norton’s brick residence northeast of town is rapidly approaching completion.
Emporia News, June 11, 1869.
At a meeting of the Emporia 1st Congregational Church June 3, 1869, Rev. M. S. Croswell resigned the pastorate as he was going to San Francisco. H. B. NORTON, Clerk.
Emporia News, July 16, 1869.
Messrs. Kellogg & Norton, of the Normal School, have the contract for editing and publishing the Educational Journal for two years. It will be published at THE NEWS office.
Emporia News, July 30, 1869. H. E. Norton, of Emporia, publishes each month a neat little real estate paper full of good matter. He is one of the most reliable real estate men in the State, and is selling a great deal of land. Topeka Record.
Emporia News, August 13, 1869.
Paper indicates that fall term of State Normal School will begin September 13, 1869, and that L. B. Kellogg will be principal again and H. B. Norton will be associate principal.
Emporia News, August 13, 1869.
Big article re EMPORIA NEWS getting the first power press in the Neosho Valley from George Taylor & S. P. Rounds, of Chicago, Illinois. He gave thanks to his friends: Harry Norton, Major E. P. Bancroft, Col. P. B. Plumb, Major Wright, Profs. Kellogg and Norton, and others not named.
Emporia News, August 13, 1869. On Monday last Col. L. N. Robinson bought of Mr. M. Roberts, of this place, seven lots formerly owned by Prof. Norton, in the northeastern portion of town, for $2,500. Mr. Roberts bought them of  Mr. Norton some three months ago, for $1,000. We sold one of these lots two or three years ago for $15. . . .
Emporia News, September 3, 1869.
We had the pleasure, this week, of meeting the father, mother, and sisters of our fellow citizen, Prof. H. B. Norton. They seem to be much pleased with Kansas, and say that in all crops we are far ahead of Illinois, this year. We hope they will have a pleasant visit among our people, and we shall not be much surprised to hear that they have concluded to become citizens of our State.
Emporia News, October 15, 1869.
We notice the return of our friend, Prof. H. B. Norton, after an Instituting tour of some days. Wherever he goes the teachers will be benefitted.
Emporia News, December 3, 1869.

Mr. G. H. Norton, of Illinois, brother to our Prof. Norton, was in our office this week. He comes to Kansas, we believe, to make it his permanent home, and will probably “stick his stake” in Cowley County.
Emporia News, December 3, 1869.
Mr. G. H. Norton, who arrived here this week, left about 18 inches of snow in Ogle County, Illinois. We have not yet had much more than a heavy frost here.
Emporia News, January 14, 1870.
                                                    THE OSAGE RESERVE.
EDS. NEWS: With your permission, I will use your columns as a convenient medium for answering numerous questions concerning the Walnut and Arkansas valleys. Probably it will be hardly worthwhile to narrate all the ups and downs of a two weeks’ camping expedition; the game which we did not shoot, the poor jokes, and short rations. I will rather follow Mr. Gradgrind’s lead, and narrate the more important “facks.”
El Dorado seems to be flourishing beyond her former experiences. Business is brisk, whiskey scarce, town lots rising. The town is yet in its rough infancy, a total stranger to white paint and pine siding. We found our old friend, Dr. White, suffering from a most gratifying presence of customers.
Below El Dorado the valley widens, and farms are being rapidly opened.
Augusta is less excited than El Dorado, but seems to be doing a good business. Douglass, near the Southern line of Butler County, has a beautiful site, three stores, extensive water-power, and one of the best hotels on the border.
Butler County is larger than the State of Rhode Island: too large for convenience or comfort. There is much talk about carving a new county out of it and Cowley; in which case, either Douglass or Augusta would probably be the county seat.
Three miles south of Douglass we enter Cowley County and the Osage Reserve. The valleys grow in breadth and beauty, and numerous squatter cabins are visible, as we approach Lagonda, better known on the border as Dutch Creek. The word Lagonda is said to signify clear water, in the language of the Osages, and the name is well applied to a most beautiful stream, but the border settlers are not poetical, and adhere to the old name. The town consists, at present, of one log house and a log store, the former being the residence of Mr. C. Wood, formerly of Cottonwood Falls, and the latter owned by Baker & Manning of Augusta. This is a pleasant site, has one of the finest water-powers in Kansas, and is surrounded by a good country.
While at Lagonda we were somewhat amused and interested by attending a “claim trial.” The squatters on the Reserve are thoroughly organized for self-protection, and all claim disputes are referred to their league. Some fifty of the pioneers were present on this occasion, and the question was decided by vote. If legal forms were not very strictly adhered to, we at least concluded that substantial justice was done.
Below Lagonda the scenery changes. The Walnut Valley, still broad and beautiful, is bounded by vast precipices of white magnesian limestone. The stream is exceedingly tortuous in its course, and the timber large and abundant. Crossing the Walnut one mile below town, at the “Kickapoo Corral,” we climb the divide, and driving ten miles to the southward, stand upon high bluffs overlooking the Arkansas.

The river here is about the size of the Kaw at Lawrence. The bottoms are broad and fertile and the grass wonderful in its growth. We measured single stalks over ten feet in height. The soil is a sandy loam, loose in texture, but with an increased proportion of clay at the depth of four feet, and therefore not liable to “leach.” The settlers at Wichita tell wonderful stories about the adaptation of this soil to hoed crops. Immediately along the Arkansas, for a number of rods in breadth on each side, the soil is piled in sandy drifts, and dwarf oak and Chickasaw Plum are abundant. The Grouse, which flows into the Arkansas some ten miles southeast of the mouth of the Walnut, has broad bottoms, and even more timber than the Walnut. Its mouth is barely within the State. It flows for some distance parallel to the Walnut, about six miles from it.
Immediately east of the mouth of the Walnut, a range of limestone hills crosses the Arkansas, forming a gorge probably three-fourths of a mile in breadth, filled with timber from bluff to bluff. East of this range, we found hundreds of acres of oak openings, and very broad, fertile bottoms. Two other streams, the Neniskan and Shekaska, enter the Arkansas on the west side, within five or six miles above the mouth of the Walnut, each having broad bottoms, and abundance of timber. The Arkansas is far better timbered here than in the region further west. The uplands are generally smooth and fertile, based upon limestone.
The peninsula between the Walnut and Arkansas, towards its southern extremity, breaks off into a smooth swelling ridge, much like that upon which Emporia is situated, but narrower and somewhat lower. Timber, building-stone, sand, water power, all abound in the immediate vicinity. The site has every natural advantage to be found in Kansas; and here, on Monday, in the newest stage of the moon, and near the first day of the year, we laid the rude log foundations on which a thriving town may some day rise. We were spared the trouble of naming it; the charter of the Preston (Texas) and Salina railroad has already christened it Delphi.
The Sac and Fox and Osage Indians were camped close by. They are perfectly quiet and harmless; perhaps over-awed by the number of settlers. We made the acquaintance of a few of them: the superannuated chief, “Hard Rope,” “Little Bear,” E-keep-son-Ge, whose name is, translated, “Long-tailed Rat,” and some others. Like all the other settled Indians, the Osages are a dying race. Very few children now grow to maturity. “Strike-ax,” one of the principal chiefs, told one of our party that he had lost nine children, and only one remained. At the present rate of decrease, these tribes will soon disappear from the earth. “White man’s food” and consanguine intermarriages are mentioned as the most apparent causes.
We have the best evidence that the number of the Osages has been greatly exaggerated by interested parties; that 2,000 is above the figure. While encamped near them for some days, we were particularly struck by a sort of prolonged and unearthly wail, which rose every morning at daybreak from their villages—a sound that wonderfully harmonized with the note of the owl and coyote—rising and falling for several minutes in strange cadence. This was said by some to be their mode of worship; but Col. Manning, who has spent much time among them, told us that they were mourning for their dead. To us it seemed as if these pre-Adamite people were singing their own death-song.

Most of the timbered claims along the lower Walnut are now taken. The prairie claims are almost untouched. The valleys of the lower Grouse, the Arkansas, Neniskaw, and Shikaska, are almost totally unclaimed, and the best timbered lands await the pioneer. In its adaptation to grass, corn, fruit, and livestock, this region is hardly equaled in Kansas. The survey of the Walnut Valley branch of the A., T. & S. F. R. R. passes across the site of Delphi. A ferry for this point has been chartered, and will be put in operation early next spring. Other good things are in progress. Should the Osage title be extinguished this winter, the growth of this country will be wonderful; and it is impossible to describe the anxiety of the pioneers upon this point. Above all, they desire that the lands be sold only to actual settlers, and not made the plunder of great monopolists, in which prayer most of us will heartily join. If the present Osage Treaty be ratified, actual settlers will receive each a quarter section at $1.25 per acre. Now is the time to act. H. B. NORTON.
Emporia News, January 21, 1870.
                                                THE RIGHTS OF SAVAGES.
Sidney Clarke’s bills concerning Indians in general, and the Osages in particular, bring up a new point in social and political ethics. While the Rights of Man, Woman’s Rights, and State Rights, are being so generally discussed, the relations of these wild tribes to the nation and to humanity should not be passed neglected by.
Blackstone calls society a social compact, of which each member surrenders a part of his individual liberty for the general good. If the welfare of the nation demands it, he may be taken from his home by a military conscription, and carried to his death in battle. His property may be taken from him for the public use. His house may be torn down to make room for a street, railroad, or military evolution. Therefore, Mr. Jefferson’s phrase “unalienable rights,” must be understood in a qualified and partial sense. Man has no such rights, absolutely.
If this position be correct, we may be prepared for some rather startling and novel inferences in Mr. Clarke’s favor. Are the Indian tribes independent nations? If so, by what right do we claim their territory as a part of our national domain, and exercise legislative authority over it? If they are not independent nations, but rather wards of the government, why should we observe the usages of treaties, in diverting their land to the needs and uses of civilization?
Have these Osages the right to forever withhold from the world’s productive workers twelve thousand sections of valuable land—six sections for each man, woman, and child of the tribe—a territory as large as Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and half of Connecticut? We may say that civilization does not need this land; that there is room enough elsewhere. This is perhaps true today, but will not long be so. The number of young men pushing westward to seek new homes is each year greater than the last; and the vacant space yet available for cultivation is now small indeed. The prevailing maxim of the age is, “The world belongs to the workers.” If this is agrarian logic, we must abide the issue, for the principle seems certain to prevail.
If the principles suggested are sound ones, we may lay down this conclusion, that it is right for the government to condemn for public use the vast tracts of land now occupied by the Indians, duly compensating them, as in case of private property so used, and guaranteeing them safety in other homes.

If this be fairly and righteously done, it will be far better for all parties than those solemn farces known as “Indian treaties”—which are usually the work of fraud, bullying, and violence. There is the best evidence that this is true of the “Sturges Treaty.” The chiefs refused to sign it, resisting every blandishment, till they were assured that the government would wreak bloody vengeance upon them for the murder of a white settler which had recently occurred, and that this particular treaty was their only salvation. So hones men familiar with the tribe assure us. It is hardly necessary to allude to the bribery, the drunkenness, the ten thousand rascalities and villainies, by which these treaties have so often been accomplished. It would be far better for the tribes to carry out Mr. Clarke’s policy, appointing righteous, honest, God-fearing men as commissioners to execute the will of the government. H. B. NORTON.
Emporia News, January 28, 1870.
                                                         TEXAN CATTLE.
There is a prize within reach of Emporia, which she may grasp by merely stretching out her hand.
The cattle-trade of Texas is carried on over two principal trails: the Chism and Shawnee trails. The former crosses the Arkansas at Wichita, and the latter in the Indian Territory, below the mouth of the Walnut. The two meet above Wichita, and extend to Abilene, on the Kansas Pacific, where the cattle are shipped to the eastern market.
The best information we have been able to gather, is that 50,000 cattle came over the Shawnee trail last year, and over 100,000 by the Chism trail. It will readily be seen that this traffic is enormous in its extent. The sale of 150,000 cattle implies an exchange of not less than Three Millions of Dollars. A large portion of the purchase-money is paid in merchan­dise, which is obtained at the outfitting point. Junction City has reaped a rich harvest in this way.
At present, the cattle trails are forced by law within certain limits, on account of the dread of “Spanish Fever.” If the business were left to itself, it would naturally flow to Emporia. By this route, the traders would save 150 to 200 miles of driving and freighting.
Could the law be so modified as to allow the trade to come hither without endangering the interest of our own stock-growers?
The report of the Illinois commission shows that the Spanish Fever is not propagated by the air, nor by bodily contact. It is caused by “entophytes”—microscopic mushrooms bred in the secretions of the animals infected, and is communicated only to such as feed upon the pastures where the diseased cattle have scattered their saliva. Cattle kept off the trail seem to be never infected.

Between the Walnut on the west and the Verdigris and Fall River on the east, there extends a range of flint hills from the Arkansas nearly to a point on the Cottonwood, a little southwest of Emporia. It is totally uninhabited, and likely to be so for years to come. Wherever we have crossed it, it seems to be several miles in breadth. To all appearance, cattle, driven along this long divide would be out of everybody’s way, and injure nobody. If permitted by act of the Legislature, the trails would meet on the south side of the Arkansas near the mouth of the Walnut, cross at that point, and immediately ascend the divide of which we have spoken. It would be met by a spur of the railroads some three miles southwest of this place. There would be the cattle-yards. Emporia would be the shipping and outfitting point. It is difficult to imagine the enormous impulse which such a trade would give to business in Emporia, and the growth in wealth and population which must follow. We can probably secure all this by making the proper effort. Shall it be done? Is there any reason why it should not? H. B. NORTON.
Emporia News, February 4, 1870. TEXAN CATTLE. [Editorial.]
A communication appeared in the last week’s NEWS with reference to the Texan cattle trade. We would like to see the question of allowing these cattle to be driven to this point for shipment thoroughly discussed. Are Texas cattle really infected with Spanish Fever? Is not much of the furor against these herds caused by the efforts of beef men in the west, fearful of the competition of the Texas trade? If there really is infection, how is the disease communicated to other cattle?
H. B. N. [NORTON GENERALLY GAVE HIS INITIALS ONLY] mentions a route over which he thinks they can be driven to within a short distance of Emporia, without the least possible danger of injuring anybody. It seems to us this matter is worth looking into. What shall be done? Shall a meeting be called to take into consideration the expediency of throwing open our gates to this trade? We believe a public discussion of the matter, bringing to light all the possible reasons for and against the measure would do no harm and might result in much good.
Emporia News, February 25, 1870.
This new town (formerly called Delphi) at the mouth of the Walnut seems to promise good things. The town company consists of Messrs. Plumb, Stotler, Norton, Eskridge, and Kellogg, of Emporia; Judge Brown and H. L. Hunt, of Cottonwood Falls; Kellogg & Bronson, of El Dorado; Baker & Manning, of Augusta; and Messrs. G. H. Norton, Strain, Brown, Moore, and Wilkinson on the site.
Mr. John Morris, of this place, is intending to open a grocery store there speedily. The company have the material to start a newspaper as soon as circumstances will permit. The company have not yet received a title to the land, but hold it as yet by the border law. They make good offers to all actual settlers. Having 160 acres of timber adjacent to the town site, they offer a lot and the necessary timber to any person who will build a log house, and proportional bounties to those who make more costly improvements.
Mr. Clarke’s bill, to remove the Osage Indians and open the land to actual settlers, recently received a decided majority in a test vote in the House of Representatives; and the Senate committee has reported favorably upon a similar bill. It is almost certain that this will speedily become a law, and that the land will be dedicated to civilization within the next thirty days. There is already an immense rush of settlers in that direction. Thousands on thousands of fertile homesteads await the coming of the pioneer.
A considerable Welsh colony is already located upon the Arkansas bottoms, a short distance above Cresswell, the vanguard of a great host of most worthy, moral, industrious, intelligent people.

Cresswell is an excellent site for merchants, mechanics, mill-wrights, and all classes of workers. Owing to its position at the convergence of several of the finest valleys in Kansas, and only seven or eight miles from the southern border, it must be the center of a great traffic with the Indian tribes and the military posts. The soil and climate are especially adapted to livestock, hoed crops, and fruits.
Messrs. Hunt & Fawcett, of this place, have located there, intending to embark in the fruit and nursery business. No point in the State is better provided with building materials—
sand, timber, clay, sandstone, and the choicest magnesian limestone. For young men of energy and enterprise, seeking new homes on the border, we know of no better site than Creswell.
The place wants, immediately, a hotel, stores of different sorts, a sawmill, and a full representation of the various mechanical trades. For all these, the town company offer good inducements. Who speaks first?
Walnut Valley Times, Friday, March 4, 1870.
                                                [Correspondence of the Times.]
                                                        TRIP TO DELPHI.
On Monday, the 14th inst., a party of three of us started for the lower country. The day was pleasant, and the roads excellent. We stopped at Augusta to take in a better supply of rations.
Augusta is a lively young town, having two good stores, blacksmith shop, sawmill, and hotel. Messrs. Baker & Manning have a good stock of goods, and appear to be doing a good busi­ness. Our old friend, Dr. Thomas Stewart, is also selling goods at Augusta, and seemed in good humor as usual. The saw mill at Augusta is doing a good business, but cannot supply the demands of the country. Another mill is expected soon.
The next place we passed was the new town site of Walnut City, situated on a gradual slope of the uplands sloping towards the junction of the Little and main Walnut. One or two buildings have been constructed on the town site, and we noticed about one hundred logs piled up waiting for the mill that is expected from the Neosho.
                                            Douglas [Later Named Douglass].
After crossing the Little Walnut, we came to the flourishing town of Douglas, near the southern line of Butler County. There are in the place three good stores, good hotel, etc. Chester Lamb is proprietor of the hotel. Douglas has one of the finest locations of any town in the State. Douglas and Walnut City will in all probability be rival towns, as they are only two or three miles apart. Below Douglas the valleys grow in breadth and beauty, and numerous squatter cabins are visible all along the valley from Douglas to the mouth of the Walnut.
Walnut Valley Times, March 4, 1870. [continuation of article.]
About 18 miles below Douglas we come to Winfield at the mouth of Lagonda Creek, formerly called Dutch Creek. Here we found A. A. Jackson running the store of Baker & Manning during the absence of Col. Manning, who has gone to Manhattan after his family. We counted several new houses going up at Winfield.
                                            KICKAPOO CORRAL/DELPHI.

Just below the town we crossed to the west side of the Walnut, at what is known as the Kickapoo Corral. We ascended the divide through a defile with large rocks on either side; and from there south ten miles to Delphi is the most beautiful stretch of lands that I have seen in Kansas.
The Arkansas, about six miles west of the road, is visible to the eye all the way down from the divide to the mouth of the Walnut. About the middle of the afternoon of the second day, we reached Delphi, which is a new site just laid out for a future town. The site has every natural advantage to be found in Kansas. The site selected for the town is a smooth, swelling ridge sloping off towards the Walnut on the east and the Arkansas on the south and west, making one of the most pleasant sites for a town that can be found anywhere in Kansas.
The Arkansas at this place is about the size of the Kaw River at Lawrence. Fish are very abundant in the rivers at this place. On the evening of the first day after our arrival, we formed a party and went on a fishing excursion. The evening was most delightful, being very warm and clear; the moon being full, of course, made it almost as light as day. During the short time we were fishing, we succeeded in securing some very nice fish, which we feasted upon during our stay.
A day or two prior to our arrival, Capt. Norton caught a large cat fish weighing some 70 pounds, and a short time before, one weighing 60 pounds.
The second day of our sojourn at Delphi about noon, while surveying claims, etc., getting somewhat tired and dry, we stopped to take a drink—not of the “over joyful,” but out of the pure and sparking waters of the Walnut, and while so doing, our horses became frightened, and ran off. We immediately started after them. The horses after running through the woods came out leaving the wagon a wreck, scattered in different parts of the woods. After running a couple of miles, our horses were secured by a friend, and in an hour we had picked up the pieces, and returning to our camp, we went to work, and before night we had everything mended up, and ready to start home next day.
On returning to Eldorado (being absent only four days), we noticed three new buildings that have sprung up during our short absence, which shows that the people of Eldorado mean business. Yours,  * * * *
Walnut Valley Times, March 11, 1870.
We publish on the first page of this issue a communication by Mr. T. A. Wilkinson, of Creswell. His letter is of much impor­tance to the many who are interested there.
Walnut Valley Times, March 11, 1870.
                                                [Correspondence of the Times.]
                                             A TRIP DOWN THE WALNUT.
                                          A Description of Delphi and Vicinity.
MESSRS. EDITORS: As I have been requested by many to give you an impartial description of the country near the mouth of the Walnut River, where we are now executing the plan of establishing a thriving town, I know of no better way to meet the wants of all who are now looking in that direction than through the columns of your paper.
The incidents of our trip from Emporia to this point were only such as one might expect on a pioneering trip like ours. But for the benefit of those who will read your paper in Wiscon­sin and other States of a more northern climate, I will say here that pioneering in Kansas does not signify hardships; and if we may take the present winter as a type by which to judge the climate during that season, Kansas is truly a most delightful country to live and dwell in.

Our party carried tools with which to build our houses, as well as provision for man and beast. So it became necessary for us to walk most of the time. The roads, however, were quite dry all the way down, which made that part of the performance rather more pleasant than otherwise.
Captain Norton, our worthy leader, blistered one heel, but being of the plucky sort, he sat down by the wayside, and with a pin “took the conceit out of it,” and then came on rejoicing to think that brass instruments could make heels shed tears as well as play Hail Columbia; i.e., by simply modifying them to suit the performance.
Our town site is blessed as is your own Eldorado, by being situated in one of the finest river valleys in the State. It is about sixty miles south of Eldorado, and one hundred and twenty from Emporia. It is about two miles from the mouth of the Walnut, and one-half mile from the banks of that and the Arkansas River. The natural local advantages for a town here, aside from its commercial importance, are actually unlimited. Everything that nature can do for the happiness or prosperity of man has been profusely done here.
The undeveloped resources which are crowded together at the junction of the Walnut and Arkansas have no equal in this State. The Walnut Valley increases in size and beauty from its source to its mouth, and the timber and bottom lands increase in the same proportion until they spread out near the mouth and join the bottoms of the Arkansas, forming a vast tract of rich, deep soiled arable land.
This tract is skirted on every side except the northwest by heavy belts of all kinds of timber, and terminates at its south­ern extremity by a beautiful mound like Watershed nearly four miles in circumference, and upon this our party, under the supervision of Prof. Norton, has surveyed out one mile square for a town site.
One mile from the northeast corner of said site, we have discovered an excellent water power on the Walnut. A good ford immediately opposite the east side we have nicely improved, which leads to a splendid body of limestone, where we have just this evening completed a kiln which we will fire tomorrow.
The Walnut affords every variety of timber, many trees large enough for four cuts of saw logs four feet in diameter. The principal growth on the Arkansas is cottonwood, but very tall and straight, affording the best material for log house building.
Both rivers abound in fish, and Captain Norton’s heel affording him the opportunity of laying up the afternoon we arrived here, he improved the time by hauling in a large catfish, weighing nearly seventy pounds. Since then we have caught any quantity, and for once, we must admit, that we have had a genteel sufficiency of fish.
All along the lower Walnut, the action of the current in high water has thrown upon curves of the banks immense beds of gravel, which are beautiful to behold, and will be valuable for many purposes, as they can be readily reached with teams and wagons.

The different kinds of game which have come under my notice are deer, antelope, wild turkeys, ducks, prairie chickens, quails, wild cats, and beaver. The first two and last, judging from their tracks and work upon trees, are very numerous. Many cottonwood trees along the banks of both streams have been gnawed down by the beavers. They don’t always choose the smallest, for we have found many cut off measuring ten inches in diameter. The deer tracks along the Arkansas are as thick as sheep’s tracks in a pasture. We have seen a great many, but have had no time to spare in organizing a systematic hunt for them.
Opposite the town on the west, and about one-half mile distant, there is a fine sandstone ledge, and the sand bars of the Arkansas afford as good sand for building purposes as one needs to ask for. There are also clay beds which offer every facility for making brick.
The chances for water on the town site are very promising, and as soon as the six buildings now in process of erection are completed, we intend digging a well.
Speaking of water reminds me of a ludicrous accident which occurred to your humble servant this evening. Our boys had been at work across the Walnut getting out shingles for our houses. In the morning our team had crossed us over the ford, but Capt. Norton had gone to Winfield after some supplies, and it became necessary for us to cross in some manner the most agreeable to ourselves. The rest of the party had tight boots, and as the river is not more than one foot deep, they crossed over very nicely; but mine being rather the worse for wear, I thought it would be quite romantic to cross on stilts, as I used to be quite an expert with them when a boy, but I soon found that instead of being romantic, it was more antic than anything else, for in the center of the stream my stilts stuck in the gravel, and I being very obedient to the laws of gravitation, just then made a splashification, and came out somewhat liquified, if not liqui­dated.
I meant to have said something about the Indians, but I have said too much already. In my next, I will commence where I now leave off. Suffice it to say that the Indians have all gone to the Mission from here, and have taken their dogs (of which they have many), with them. Why I mention their dogs, is because of their peculiar individual characteristics as dogs. They are a very poor, long, lean, snapping, grinning kind of dogs; reminding me very much of a piece of rope with one end frizzled for a tail, with a knot in the other for a head, and four small sticks stuck anywhere in the rest of the rope for legs. In fact, I think they would look better roped up to a tree than any other way.
And now, dear editor, as it is 11 o’clock, P. M., while you “press” on with the labor of the press, I will press my overcoat for a pillow, and dream of the future greatness of Delphi.
                                                        T. A. WILKINSON.
Walnut Valley Times, March 11, 1870.
                                                     OFF FOR CRESWELL.
Captain Norton passed through town today moving to Creswell, and was joined here by Prof. Wilson, who is also moving there, and Mr. Frazier, of the firm of Betts & Frazier, who will open a branch store there. Creswell is getting lively.
Emporia News, March 11, 1870.
                                                      FROM CRESSWELL.

Capt. G. H. Norton lately arrived from this new settlement on the Arkansas. He reports buffalo abundant within one day’s ride; deer, antelope, and wild turkeys daily visible. Several parties from Illinois and elsewhere have passed through town within a few days, on their way to this point. Coal has been discovered within two miles of Cresswell; in how large quantities is not yet known. It is in the bed of a stream, and nearly covered with sand. The fragments taken out are clean, brittle, and burn with a brilliant flame. Cresswell has a beautiful site and a capital location for business. The Osages are not in that vicinity now. They are perfectly quiet and peaceable, being powerless in the presence of so great a number of settlers as are now pouring into this region.
No town in Kansas has a better prospect for the great trade of the border. The company have reserved some 400 lots to give away as bounties to those who shall make improvements on the town site. This offer is unprecedentally liberal. For the production of livestock, fruit, and hoed crops, this Arkansas Valley leads Kansas. We can scarcely doubt that the Osage title will be extinguished before the end of the present session of Congress. Here is a field for enterprise. Capt. Norton returned with a considerable party last Monday.
Beautiful mill sites, any number of excellent farms, ledges of the finest magnesian limestone, excellent commercial advantages await the settler at and near Cresswell.
Emporia News, March 18, 1870.
                                                    OUR KANSAS LETTER.
                          Biographical Sketch of the Kansas Normal School Teachers.
The following letter, published in the Elgin (Illinois) Gazette, was written by one of the students of the Normal. [Skipped part of article.]
PROF. L. B. KELLOGG was born in Ohio, Sept. 28, 1841, and his parents removed to Northern Illinois when he was but four years old. He was educated in a district school until the age of sixteen years. At this age he received from his father a gift of his time to the age of twenty-one, for the purpose of acquiring a better education; and the summer after his sixteenth birthday he commenced teaching as a writing-master. At the age of seventeen he commenced his career in the teacher’s profession, as an assistant in a country district school, at a salary of ten dollars per month. The next summer (1858) he taught the village school at Solon, McHenry County, Illinois, at a salary of sixteen dollars per month. In the spring of 1860, he entered the Normal University of Illinois as a student—stopping at intervals to earn money by teaching, and continued the course of study until graduation in 1864, where he left behind him a reputation for true morals, upright demeanor, and thoroughness in scholarship.
In the fall of 1864 he was engaged as Principal of the Grammar department in the Normal University, and in January, 1865, he was selected by the Board of Directors of the Kansas Normal School, through the recommendation of President Edwards, to commence the experiment of a Normal School in Kansas, and to accept the Principal’s chair, which position he still holds.
His appearance is manly—a young, boyish cast, his conversation elegant and plain, his views extensive, his disposition amiable, his great executive talent is indelibly impressed in his countenance. He is as much admired for his amiability, simplicity, and high-bred courtesy as for his remarkable abilities and acquirements.

In February, 1865, he took charge of the Normal School, and with a zeal, diligence, self-denial, and perseverance which have seldom had any parallel in the history of education, he has been able to make and sustain the rank and character of the Kansas Normal School; and has, by his unflinching labor in the cause of education in Kansas, gained a reputation as one of its best educators. All the friends of the Normal, as well as the students, are highly elated at the thought of having such a spokesman at the helm, and the manner in which he entered upon his duties more than answered their highest expectations. The consciousness of intellectual strength, the just reputation he has attained, the elevated station to which he has been raised, have not, in the slightest degree, injured the natural modesty of his character or the mildness of his temper.
                                                     PROF. H. B. NORTON,
Associate Principal, and a refined and accomplished scholar, was born in New York in 1837. Of his youthful years, I know but little; but that his education was not neglected, and that he applied himself with assiduity to his studies, I may fairly infer from his subsequent services in the teachers profession and the editor’s chair.
He was educated at the Rockford (Illinois) Academy and Beloit (Wisconsin) College, and graduated at the Illinois Normal University in July, 1861. From 1861 to 1863, he taught in the public school at Warsaw, Illinois, and in 1863-1864 he edited the Daily Pantagraph at Bloomington. In 1864 he was elected County Superintendent of Public Instruction of Ogden County, Illinois. In 1865, he entered the Kansas Normal School as Associate Principal, where he still remains.
To enter into the particulars of his early and eventful life—the continued offers of offices of public trust and honor; his fearless and manly defenses of the reform movements; to enter these and other numerous eventful incidents of his young life would be impractical for the writer to do and do him justice.
Prof. Norton is a very remarkable man. His power, as a speaker, as a writer, and of seizing and retaining a strong hold upon the popular mind, has seldom been equaled by the best speakers and writers of Kansas. Of great originality, and of strong and clear conceptions, which he is able to embody in language equally perspicuous and forcible, and has the power of making his oral instructions in the schoolroom superior to the text book. With a ripe scholarship, the patience to bear with dullness and waywardness (a peculiar trait with young people), those kind and urbane manners to win love and respect, that tact in controlling and governing the free and wild-spirited American youth, and that happy manner of illustrating difficulties and imparting knowledge, which are as essential as high literary attainment to form the perfect schoolmaster, has endeared him to the young men and women of the Kansas Normal School, and to his brother and sister teachers in Kansas and Illinois.
[Next Mrs. Jenette H. Gorman, teacher at the Normal School is played up...Skipped.]
The Normal School opened its present session with 160 pupils.
                                                               A. G. O. E.
Emporia News, March 25, 1870.
The directors of the Creswell Town Company met in this place on Monday last and effected a permanent organization as follows.
President, H. B. Norton.
Vice President, C. V. Eskridge.
Secretary, W. R. Brown.
Treasurer: L. B. Kellogg.
Executive Committee: C. V. Eskridge, H. D. Kellogg, and Capt. Norton.
Walnut Valley Times, March 25, 1870.
                                           EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE.

We have just returned from Emporia, and regret to find it too late for a full report of our trip in this issue. Suffice it to say, however, that Emporia is improving beyond all former precedent. As we entered the city, we could not but contrast the village of Emporia as we found it last spring with the city we see it today, with its broad and busy thoroughfares, lined with costly structures. Of course, we stopped at the Robinson House, for it is the only first class hotel in Emporia. The gentlemanly proprietors, L. N. Robinson & Son, received us kindly and treated us cordially. We observed that a large number of the bon ton of the city board at the Robinson House. We also noticed a large number of wholesale drummers and railroad officials, besides Alf. Burnett and his troupe at the Robinson House. . . .
We attended a meeting of the Creswell Town Company, which, besides transacting other important business, elected the follow­ing officers.
Prof. Norton, President.
Judge Brown, Secretary.
Gov. Eskridge, Vice President.
Prof. L. B. Kellogg, Treasurer.
Dr. H. D. Kellogg, Capt. Norton, and Gov. Eskridge, Execu­tive Committee.
Adjourned to meet May 5th, on the town site of Creswell. From the interest manifested by the stockholders, and the natural advantages surrounding Creswell, we predict for it the most brilliant future, believing it to be the very best point in Southwestern Kansas.
There was more to this article pertaining to other matters. He ended by saying:
“Dr. Kellogg was our right bower in the whole game, and is, indeed, a very pleasant traveling companion; being like all other doctors, entirely harmless without drugs, and we had a jolly good time of it. D.”
Emporia News, April 1, 1870.
                                   FROM CRESWELL. [Header had only one “s”.]

MESSRS. EDITORS: For the benefit of those of your readers who are interested in hearing from Cresswell, I give you what items of interest I have from that very modern city. Inquiries are constantly being made as to the chance of obtaining good claims in the vicinity of Cresswell. To all such anxious inquirers I would say that within a radius of eight miles from the town site there are still a large number of excellent claims remaining untouched, composed of choice bottom and timbered lands, lying on the Arkansas and Grouse, and a nameless creek on the south side of the former. The distance from Cresswell to the State line, measuring down the Arkansas River, is from twelve to thirteen miles, the river leaving the State two and three-fourths miles below the mouth of the Grouse. Not more than four or five claims are taken in this whole distance. A large number of fine claims can be found here on both sides of the river, many of them being well timbered, especially those in the vicinity of the mouth of the Grouse, and from there down to the State line. Up the Arkansas excellent bottom claims can be found on both sides of the river, but no timber is to be had except Cottonwood and Black Jack. South of the Arkansas, about five miles from the mouth of Walnut, is a fine creek, whose name we do not know, running nearly parallel with the Arkansas in a southeasterly direction, and entering it near the State line, probably a little below. This is a beautiful stream, timbered with hard timber, mostly Oak and Walnut. The land, judging from its appearance, is of the very best quality and is virgin soil indeed: not a claim has yet been taken on the stream to my knowledge. It runs a distance of at least fifteen or twenty miles in the State, affording room for thirty or forty good claims at the lowest calculation. Many beautiful springs rise in the hills and flow down to the stream, and all things considered, I think it one of the most desirable locations in Cowley County.
Much uncertainty has heretofore been felt as to the exact location of the State line, and certain interested parties above us on the Walnut have been in the habit of informing all those emigrating to our locality that Cresswell was in the Indian Territory, the State line passing some two miles to the north of us. These reports we have been unable to contradict, not knowing ourselves exactly where the State line was; but within the last week the Cresswell Town Company have obtained from the Hon. Sidney Clarke a copy of the field notes of Johnston’s survey of the State line, which settles the matter beyond dispute, and locates the State line as crossing the Arkansas two and three-fourths miles below the mouth of Grouse, and passing from six to eight miles south of Cresswell. Within the next four weeks the entire southern line of the county will be hunted out.
Cresswell is just beginning to assume the form of a town. The following are some of the latest sensations: Major Sleeth [they had Sleath] & Co. will move their new steam saw mill from El Dorado to Cresswell by the middle of May, and propose to add a shingle machine at once.
Daniel Beedy, of Emporia, will put in a water saw mill, shingle machine, and planing mill this summer and add a flouring mill as soon as there is a prospect of having anything to grind. This will be on the Walnut one mile northeast of town.
Two stores will be opened at once, one a grocery and provision store, the other a general assortment. A hardware and tinware and a drug store will be opened by June 1st.
Negotiations are now in progress which will undoubtedly give us a weekly newspaper and one of the best job offices in southern Kansas, within the next sixty days.
A solid rock-bottomed ford has lately been discovered across the Arkansas River, one half mile below the mouth of the Walnut. This we think will when improved make one of the best water-powers in the State; and now it gives us a good ford in low water and an opportunity to a ferry boat in high water, or perhaps in any stage.
The State Legislature at its last session ordered that a State road be opened from Emporia to Cresswell by the most direct route by the first of August next.
These are only a portion of the enterprises now on foot, but will serve to give you some idea of our progress and prospects. The weather has been fine most of the spring, and building, plowing, etc., is being vigorously pushed. Three buffalo were seen from Cresswell last week feeding on the bluffs south of the Arkansas. But enough for this time.
                                             Respectfully, G. HYDE NORTON.
Emporia News, April 8, 1870.
                                                    [Written for THE NEWS.]
                                                       FROM CRESWELL.
This town is situated on the Arkansas River, twelve miles above its intersection by the State line; said intersection being two and three-fourths miles below the mouth of the Grouse. The Walnut enters the Arkansas at Creswell, and the valleys of other streams on the south side of the Arkansas converge at this point, making it the natural center of business and population for Cowley County.

Creswell is named as a point upon four chartered lines of railroad, viz: The Walnut Valley Branch of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe road; the Preston, Salina & Denver road; the Emporia & Holden road; and the Arkansas Valley, or Fort Smith & Hays City road. It is also confidently expected that this will be the point of crossing for the Fort Scott & Santa Fe road. The Legislature, at its recent session, ordered the immediate survey of a State road, by the most direct route, from Emporia to Creswell.
The company have determined to spare no expense or effort to make Creswell the metropolis of the Arkansas Valley. The following are among the enterprises already inaugurated.
Sleeth & Co., of El Dorado, have contracted to put their steam saw-mill and a shingle-machine in operation at Creswell by the 15th of May.
Daniel Beedy, now resident at Emporia, has contracted to build a grist-mill, saw-mill, and planing-mill upon the Creswell water-power; work to commence by July 1st, 1870.
G. H. Norton & Co. have opened a general stock of groceries, dry goods, boots and shoes, which they pledge themselves to sell at El Dorado prices.
Betts & Fraser, of El Dorado, will at once open a stock of groceries, provisions, and campers’ supplies.
C. R. Sipes, of Emporia, has purchased an interest in the town, and is preparing to open at Creswell the largest stock of hardware, tinware, and agricultural implements ever offered south or west of Emporia.
A stock of drugs and medicines has been ordered by responsible parties, and a well-provided drug-store will speedily be established.
We are also happy to announce that the best job and newspaper office south of the Neosho will commence the publication of a newspaper at Creswell within the next ninety days.
Max Fawcett, recently of the Neosho Valley (Emporia) Nursery, has transferred his entire interest to Creswell, and is arranging to establish there the largest fruit and nursery concern in Kansas.
L. F. Goodrich, of Emporia, is now at work erecting a feed and livery stable.
A ferry has been chartered, and will be running upon the Arkansas by July 1st.
The above may all be regarded as certain and reliable.
First article had Cresswell except for caption...this one stated Creswell.
Did not pay attention to “Goodrich”...could be if I had studied ads more thoroughly, he might have shown up.
Emporia News, April 8, 1870.
Prof. Norton has gone to Creswell.
Emporia News, April 22, 1870.
                                            Written for THE EMPORIA NEWS.
                                                 MAX FAWCETT’S CLAIM.
EDITORS NEWS: Max Fawcett is well known to the good people of Emporia as a marked and peculiar genius, possessing much taste, refinement, ingenuity, and love for the beautiful. He has taken a claim one-half mile west of the young city of Creswell, which I recently had the pleasure of visiting, and which I propose to describe.

It is situated on the north bank of the Arkansas, here a noble stream forty rods in width. A bluff of magnesian limestone some thirty feet high here rises abruptly, washed by the river a part of the way, but bending in such a manner as to enclose a bottom of some thirty acres, covered with a splendid growth of timber and grape-vines. Out of this bluff pour three beautiful springs. One is received in a square cavity cut with a chisel in the soft magnesian stone. Another pours out of a pipe in such a manner as to form a miniature and fanciful cascade, showing some of the peculiar touches of the proprietor.
A few rods from this is a cave about ten feet wide and four feet high at the entrance, larger within, and passable to the depth of about one hundred feet; beyond that too small to conveniently penetrate, but of unknown extent. Here is a most perfect natural cellar for meat, fruit, and vegetables.
The cabin stands on the bank just above. It is not yet very thoroughly completed, and was, a few nights ago, invaded by a pack of prairie wolves, doubtless attracted by the scent of dried apples and graham crackers. One yell from under the blankets caused them to vanish more rapidly than they entered.
Just back of the house is Max’s garden. This is in a conical sink-hole, evidently connected with the cave below. He has shoveled this partly full of loose earth, and laid it off in garden beds with his own quaint taste. Various ornamental plants are also growing about the house.
The land is a warm, sandy loan, admirably adapted to the growth of corn, fruit, and nursery stock. The Chickasaw plum, now in full bloom, grows in thickets all over it. From the building site the scenery is truly magnificent, including many miles of the river, the town-site, and vast vistas of bottom, upland, and bluff. Here “Mac” has found a site exactly adapted to his genius. He seems perfectly happy here, and declares that nothing could induce him to return to dull, muddy, monotonous Emporia. His estate here will soon be the most beautiful in Kansas.
Creswell is founding. Dr. Wolsey, [Woolsey] of Iowa, is here building a hotel. He is a man of means and energy, and intends business. He will become the most popular Boniface in the state.
C. R. Sipes, of Emporia, is erecting a building for his new hardware store.
Mr. Sleeth, of El Dorado, is to move his new sawmill hither on the 1st proximo.
A stage-route, a water-mill, a newspaper, two or three stores, a restaurant, a ferry, and many other improvements are in the near future.
Hundreds of excellent claims await the pioneer.
Dr. Kellogg will soon be ready to show these to all anxious inquirers.
Cowley County will be known as the garden of Kansas.
                                      [Note: They had Dr. Wolsey...not Woolsey.]
Emporia News, April 22, 1870.
                                                       FROM CRESWELL.
                                                 CRESWELL, April 9th, 1870.

EDITORS NEWS: We arrived home on the 2nd and found things as we wanted them. Messrs. Smith, Thompson, Cain, and Gibson came down with us. Mr. Smith drove his stake on the south side of the Arkansas, on a first class claim within two miles of town; the others preferred claims on this side, but not having corn enough for their team, they were compelled to return to Emporia without having time to look them up. They say they like the country and are coming back again. We hope they will. They are just the kind of men we want here.
Charley Sipes is here. He has bought John Strain’s share in Creswell. He is wide awake and energetic, and will do more than a full share toward making Creswell the important place it is destined to be. He is building a house and will soon bring down a first class stock of hardware and tinware.
We have had plenty of rain during the past week, as much as is needed at present. Emigration is coming in fast, and our county is settling up with as good a class of people as can be found in any part of Kansas, and all seem perfectly satisfied. Many who were here from Emporia last winter and this spring will remember a lame man named Rogers. He died two weeks ago. He was a whole-souled and generous-hearted fellow; we all liked him.
On the east side of the Walnut, about a mile from town, in a rough, rocky ravine, there is a natural bridge; it is a perfect one, with not even the keystone lacking. The highest part of the arch is about ten feet above the bed of the ravine; it has about twenty feet span. The top of the bridge is level and just wide enough for teams to cross on; and if it had been made for that purpose, it could hardly have been made better than it is. The road to Grouse will probably pass over it.
A few feet above the bridge there is a round basin hollowed out of the solid rock; it is about twenty feet across and about three feet deep, and is filled with clear water that runs out of a little cave through a trough worn in the rock. On the side opposite the bridge the basin is half surrounded by a semi-circular rock ten or fifteen feet high, and a few rods further up the ravine there is a beautiful little cave, with a basin similar to the one I have tried to describe. It just fills the bottom of the cave. These were discovered by Captain Norton while looking for a route to the Grouse. Further up the ravine the geologist will find the book he likes to read.
On the third of this month I planted two weeping willow trees by my spring on the side of the hill by the river. I think I can safely claim the honor of planting the first tree in Cowley County. MAX FAWCETT.
Walnut Valley Times, April 22, 1870.
Prof. Norton, President of the Creswell Town Company, passed through town this week going to Emporia to move his family to Creswell. The Professor intends to grow up with the place, and we expect he will have a rapid growth of it.
Walnut Valley Times, May 20, 1870.
                                                [Correspondence of the Times.]
                                                  OSAGE INDIAN LANDS.
EDITORS TIMES: Pursuant to notice, the people of Cowley County met in convention at Creswell on Tuesday, 10th inst., to consider the questions connected with the Indian occupancy of the Osage lands. After some discussion, the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted.

WHEREAS, We, the citizens of Cowley County, in mass conven­tion assembled, believe that the time has fully come in which the interests of civilization demand the extinction of the Indian title to the Osage lands, and
WHEREAS, We regard with regret and distrust the inactivity of our Senators upon this question, therefore
Resolved, That we urge upon our Senators, Pomeroy, Ross, and Representative Clarke, immediate and definite actions looking toward the removal of the Osage Indians from these lands and opening them to actual settlers.
Resolved, That while we are opposed to all great land monopolies like those contem­plated in the “Sturges Treaty,” we favor the policy of aiding the construction of railroads by granting to them alternate sections of land now unclaimed, or the proceeds of the sale thereof, to the amount of ten sections to the mile, reserving to the immigrant upon said lands the right of pre-emption and ultimate purchase at a fixed maximum price, not to exceed two dollars and fifty cents an acre.
Resolved, That we regard immediate action upon this subject as of permanent importance, and we earnestly urge that the question be finally settled before the close of the present session of Congress.
Resolved, That copies of the above preamble and resolutions be forwarded to each member of our Congressional delegation, and to the WALNUT VALLEY TIMES, Emporia News, Topeka Commonwealth, and Lawrence Tribune. H. B. NORTON, President.
C. R. SIPES, Secretary.
Creswell, May 11, 1870.
Emporia News, June 3, 1870.
                                                LETTER FROM CRESWELL.
[The following letter was accidentally misplaced by the person taking it from the office, hence the delay in its appearance in our columns.]
                                                  CRESWELL, May 11, 1870.
EDITORS NEWS: Pursuant to notice the people of Cowley County met in convention at Creswell on Tuesday, May 11th, inst., to consider the questions connected with the pending occupancy of the Osage Lands.
After some discussion the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted.
WHEREAS, We, the citizens of Cowley County, in mass convention assembled, believe that the time has fully come in which the interests of civilization demand the extinction of the Indian title to the Osage lands, and
WHEREAS, We regard with regret and distrust the inactivity of our Senators upon the question, therefore,
Resolved, That we urge upon Senators Pomeroy and Ross, and Representative Clarke, immediate and definite action looking toward the removal of the Osage Indians from these lands, and opening them to actual settlers.

Resolved, That while we are opposed to all great land monopolies like those contem­plated in the “Sturges Treaty,” we favor the policy off aiding the construction of Railroads, by granting to them alternate sections of lands now unclaimed, or the proceeds of the sale thereof, to the amount of ten sections to the mile, reserving to immigrants upon said lands the right of pre-emption and ultimate purchase at a fixed maximum price, not to succeed two dollars and fifty cents per acre.
Resolved, That we regard immediate action upon this subject as of paramount importance, and that we earnestly urge that the question be finally settled before the close of the present session of Congress.
Resolved, That copies of the above preamble and resolutions be forwarded to each member of our congressional delegation, and to the EMPORIA NEWS, Walnut Valley Times, Topeka Commonwealth, and Lawrence Tribune for publication.
                                                   H. B. NORTON, President.
C. R. SIPES, Secretary.
Walnut Valley Times, June 3, 1870. Front Page.
                                                [Correspondence of the Times.]
                                              LETTER FROM CRESWELL.
MESSRS. EDITORS: In my last I promised to begin where I left off, but as events of that time are now in a fossil state compared with those of the present, I will merely state that since the Indians went to their mission east of here, we have seen nothing of them. Everything we once hoped for in regard to our town enterprise, is being reduced to practical tangibility.
Stores are being erected by parties who fully appreciate the importance of our location, and who mean business. Capt. Norton has a store well stocked with groceries, dry goods, and provi­sions, and is having a brisk trade.
Mr. Sipes has just opened his new hardware store on Summit street, and presents a fine display of goods in his line.
Mr. Walsey [Woolsey], of Iowa, has returned with his family, and will soon begin the erection of a large hotel. Mr. Wolsey [Woolsey] is a very fine appearing gentleman, and brings with him a son and two beautiful daughters, who share in a great degree their worthy parent’s polite and cultivated manners. And what makes him extremely welcome among us is the fact that he will start his house on the temperance principle.
The teams, we understand, have gone to your town to aid Mr. Sleeth in bringing down his mill, and we hope soon to manufactur­e our own lumber, which will certainly enhance the energy already manifested among businessmen here.
Mr. Bowen has the lumber on hand for another grocery store, and Mr. Goodrich hopes to complete his store the coming week. He tells me he has a thousand dollar stock ready packed in Emporia, and is only waiting to complete his building when he will have them sent down.
But I will pass over the business prospects of the town as an established fact, needing no further comment, and speak on a subject quite as important to us.

Society in all new countries necessarily is somewhat chaot­ic, and takes time to settle down to a permanent basis. It is therefore difficult under such circumstances for order loving and moral people seeking homes to always find a location suited to their past customs of life, and one where society will improve with age. Business prospects are important to all, but those bringing in families and wishing to educate them, and also realizing that influence outside of the family circle has much to do in moulding the character of their children, look for loca­tions that ultimately promise something aside from mere money making.
As I said before, it is difficult to always find just such locations. But as we can nearly always judge the character of any whole by being familiar with its component parts, so we can of society; regarding each individual as an element, and easily determine the general character of any settlement or community.
Old Mr. Endicott, familiarly known among us as Uncle H., comes properly upon our list of permanent residents, as he is the first pioneer we found when we came, is a man in every sense of the word, a gentleman—generous, hospitable, solicitous for the welfare of all whose good fortune it is to share his acquain­tance, and the number is truly legion, for his claim on the banks of the Walnut has been the general rendezvous for claim hunters during the past winter; and the old gentleman is still ready to accommodate newcomers to plenty of wood, and has always a kind word of welcome to offer to everyone. He has settled around him several sons and step sons, some of them with their families, and the old adage “a black sheep in every family,” does not apply to them in any respect whatever, for they all seem to be moral, energetic, and intelligent, and well suited to the work of building up and improving a new country.
Our worthy minister, Elder Swarts, knows not only how to instruct us in the ways of truth and religious duty, but also makes his religion practical by his examples of honest industry, which, though they sometimes soil his hands and outer garments, never seem to ruffle his well balanced mind; for under all circumstances, one is improved by his presence. He amuses while he interests, blending truth and good humor together in such harmony as to always please while he convicts. He holds a fine claim a half mile from the town site, and having just completed his house, he has offered it as a place of public worship each sabbath until a suitable house can be erected elsewhere. We understand that his standing as minister of the gospel was a very important one in Illinois, from whence he came, he having held the position of presiding elder for several years.
His daughter, a very fine looking, intelligent young lady, proposes to open a select school as soon as the condition of the town demands it, and from the recent numerous arrivals, that time is not far off. She is also prepared to give instructions in music and painting, and brings a fine piano with her. Having had the pleasure of examining some of her oil paintings, I simply add my testimony to that of many others, when I say they manifest very much artistic skill and workmanship; not only in the choice and blending of colors, lights and shades, etc., but in the design and general execution of the work. Painting, like poetry, is a natural gift, and those elegant and graceful touches which so much enhance the beauty of a picture, can only be accomplished when the brush is in the hands of one whose mind has an instinc­tive adaptation to the work.
Dr. Alexander and wife, recently from the best ranks of society in Wisconsin, show by their general deportment that they are well calculated to adorn it here, and make it better by the addition of themselves as members.

More recently among us is Professor Norton, with his family, who is so well known that we need hardly repeat that he is a leading spirit and general favorite, because of his impartiality, his mild and unpresuming deportment, his unlimited generosity, uniform urbanity, and constant self-control and good nature, and greatest of all his eminent knowledge on all scientific as well as general topics, making him doubly important to us as a citi­zen, for the simple reason that we are always benefitted when we enjoy the privilege of associating with our superiors.
Capt. Norton, the Professor’s brother, of whom we have spoken before, is noted for his energy and perseverance, and is doing much for the enterprise by imparting to others considerable of that go-ahead spirit which characterizes his general move­ments, and which is so necessary to give vitality to any great project when in an embryo state.
Thus you can easily see that we are not even now devoid of the advantages of good society, and I might say in a general way that Kansas is not being settled up after the old order of things.
In this State, under the present system, we are simply transplanting in great numbers, very rapidly, too, the youngest, best, and most enterprising portion of eastern society into new and better soil, for development. Kansas is being settled up by people who have left their aristocratic armor behind, and have come with open hearts and hands to aid in building up society, and seeking only to draw lines of distinction between virtue and vice, morality and immorality.
The poor man here actually enjoys what he simply hears tell of in the more eastern States in a sort of beautiful theory, or tradition of times gone by, viz: opportunity to improve his condition if he will. There is a kind of mutual dependence existing in all new countries that compels humanity to manifest its noblest and most liberal, whole-souled, benevolent qualities. Liberality, generosity, and charity pervades the public mind, of necessity, and the best impulses of our nature are developed and brought into action by the very requirements of our social condition.
In the east men’s fields are fenced to keep out their neighbor’s stock, and their hearts are also hedged in by a wall of selfishness and aristocratic austerity that prevents their neighbors, if they happen to be poor, from offering, or obtaining that sympathy that binds human hearts together.
As far as my experience goes, society in Kansas is free from such corruption, and being no longer infected by border ruffianism, Quantrell raids, or drouth, she will this year receive an impulse which shall continue to move her onward and upward until she attains the rank of one of the first States in the Union.
I have endeavored to give you a fair idea of the progress of events with us in this article. There are many other items which I might mention, but time and space will not permit.
Among the many projects in view, however, I will mention that of constructing a bridge across the Arkansas, and another important item which I almost forgot, is the new well. The first attempt by the town company was a failure, but they have just completed an excellent well, which furnishes plenty of good water.
Before many months we shall have a brass band connected with our settlement. We have now three players, Messrs. Baker, Chapin, and Max Fawcett.
Since I began this article, Mr. Page, a gentleman from Emporia, has taken a lot, and will commence a butcher shop shortly. More anon. T. A. WILKINSON.
Walnut Valley Times, June 10, 1870.

                                                  DISSOLUTION NOTICE.
NOTICE is hereby given that the special partnership heretofore existing between T. B. Murdock and J. S. Danford, is this day dissolved by mutual consent. T. B. Murdock is authorized to settle all business of the old firm, and will pay all debts of its contracting.
                                           T. B. MURDOCK, J. S. DANFORD.
Eldorado, Kansas, June 1, 1870.
Walnut Valley Times, June 10, 1870.
                                                [Correspondence of the Times.]
                                                      COWLEY COUNTY.
                                                CRESWELL, MAY 25, 1870.
EDITOR WALNUT VALLEY TIMES: Understanding that reports of Indian hostilities are being circulated in your vicinity, I will ask the use of your columns to correct misapprehensions.
The sum total of casualties is as follows:
Nobody killed or scalped.
Nobody hurt.
Two men scared by some fast young Osages.
The gist of the matter lies in the fact that the Osages are camped on the Arkansas, below the mouth of the Grouse, and desire that no homes be built by the whites on this part of the valley—not quite three miles in length—or on Chilocky Creek, which flows from the west into the Arkansas near the State line. They therefore ordered out of this region one family, and one young man who was there at work. No violence has been used toward anybody, and none will be used.
Certain exaggerated reports have been spread by parties who wanted to keep certain tracts of land vacant till their own particular friends should arrive from the east, and by others who wish to keep emigrants from passing through Eldorado, Augusta, etc., into the country below.
Permit me to say that the policy of certain merchants and other parties at Eldorado is rather short-sighted in this matter. To build up a wealthy and prosperous county here is to insure the prosperity and future greatness of Eldorado. Your town is now growing rich from the stream of immigration pouring hither through your streets. Your people cannot afford to so treat this current as to force its diversion into other and more direct routes.
Creswell was never more prosperous than now. Before Novem­ber 1st, this will be the largest town in the Walnut Valley, Eldorado excepted. There are houses and places of business now under contract to insure this. We have been blessed with heavy and abundant rains, two showers falling on the night of the 23rd and morning of the 24th, which completely saturated the soil.
The Osages have gone out upon the plains. We have enjoyed an interview with Chetopa, Numpawalla, and others. They are friendly and peaceable. If the average of white men would be as orderly and law-abiding as the Osages, the legal profession would soon become extinct.
                                                           H. B. NORTON.
Emporia News, June 17, 1870.
                                         THE FOURTH AT ARKANSAS CITY.

Our friends at Arkansas City (Creswell) will hold a grand celebration on the Fourth of July. Max Fawcett’s celebrated claim is the spot selected. Music, a big dinner, an oration by H. B. Norton, toasts, responses, and short speeches by Prof. L. B. Kellogg, General Ellet, J. S. Danford, and others, and unlimited boating, swinging, and sight seeing are on the programme. A large party will leave for the new town on the 31st inst.
Emporia News, June 17, 1870.
Gen. Ellet, celebrated during the war as commander of the Marine Brigade, which did such admirable service on the Ohio and Mississippi, was in town last Sunday—was Prof. Norton’s guest. He has two sons in this State, one at El Dorado, and another at Rock Creek, in Cowley County. He is intending soon to locate in this State, and has arranged to take a look at Arkansas City on the 4th prox., with the view of making that his future home.
Walnut Valley Times, June 24, 1870.
General Ellet, celebrated during the war as commander of the Marine Brigade, which did such admirable service on the Ohio and Mississippi, was in town last Sunday—as Prof. Norton’s guest. He has two sons in this state, one at Eldorado, and the other at Rock Creek, in Cowley County. He is intending soon to locate in this State, and has arranged to take a look at Arkansas City on the 4th prox., with the view of making that his future home.
Emporia News.
We are sorry for Arkansas City, but are happy to say that the General is one of the “old settlers” of Eldorado, having bought property and concluded to make this his home last fall.
Emporia News, June 24, 1870.
                                           ARKANSAS CITY, June 14th, 1870.
EDITORS NEWS: We are having frequent and terrific rains here now. Our town is improving rapidly, forty more houses are under contract, and are being built as fast as lumber can be obtained to build them with. Mr. W. H. Speers, of Peoria, Illinois, has a new thirty horse power stationary steam saw mill on the way, which will be here in a day or two. Mr. Speers has had a number of years of experience in the mill business, having run mills in Iowa, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Illinois. When his mill arrives we will have two mills. Mr. Wolsey has his shingle machine in operation and is turning out six or eight thousand first class shingles a day.
Our four merchants are doing a staying business. C. R. Sipes tells me that he sells four times as much as he expected when he commenced, and our other merchants, Norton, Bowen, and Goodrich, are not behind him in sales, and all sell at reasonable rates, nearly or quite, and sometimes below, El Dorado prices. Our carpenters are all busy. Messrs. Channell, Smith, and Thomson, carpenters, have just finished a neat, roomy cabinet shop, and are running a lumber yard in connection with their other business. Channell starts for Emporia tomorrow for the purpose of bringing back his better half.
Tomorrow we are going to commence tracing the southern boundary of Kansas from where it crosses the Arkansas River to a point directly south of Arkansas City, and then measure the distance from Arkansas City to the line. There are a great many first-class claims vacant down there. I will write you a description of that part of our county when we return.
We are preparing for a grand time on the Fourth, and expect to see a number of familiar and welcome faces from the North on that day. M. F. [Max Fawcett]

Emporia News, July 1, 1870.
                                           WHAT OUR FOLKS ARE DOING.
Prof. Kellogg and family have gone to Lake Superior to spend their vacation.
Prof. Norton will vegetate, ruminate, and rusticate at Arkansas City, on the banks of the “Walnut” and “Rackensack,” During the Normal vacation.
Several of our teachers, including Profs. Kellogg and Chambers, are in attendance upon the State Teachers’ Association at Wyandotte this week.
Emporia News, July 8, 1870.
                           THE EMPORIA & SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD.
Articles of incorporation have been filed for the organization of a company to build a railroad from here to the Southwest. The names of the incorporators are as follows: C. V. Eskridge, S. B. Riggs, L. N. Robinson, E. Borton, E. B. Peyton, T. J. Peter, E. B. Crocker, M. G. Mains, Jacob Stotler, T. B. Murdock, and G. H. Norton. The road is to run from here via South Fork and Walnut valleys to Arkansas City, touching at the principal towns along the route, and thence to Fort Belknap, Texas. It is intended as an extension of the Kansas City & Santa Fe road, which will probably be built to this point at an early day.
Emporia News, July 8, 1870.
                                         THE FOURTH AT ARKANSAS CITY.
Need I premise by telling where and what Arkansas City is? I think not, though three months ago, Arkansas City had neither name nor existence, and none save the Osage Indians had traversed its site. Yet, on the Fourth, it had denizens enough to celebrate, and being patriotic, as all American citizens are, they did celebrate. They did it after this wise. At ten o’clock the citizens and residents of surrounding country were formed in procession in front of the Woolsey House by Capt. Smith, and proceeded to Max. Fawcett’s grove, on the banks of the Arkansas. This grove, beautiful by nature, has been rendered more so by Max’s artistic hand. Arriving there, strolls and chats were indulged in until the dinner hour, when the crowd crystallized around different points of gastronomic interest, and proceeded to discuss, with much interest and apparent satisfaction, the contents of diverse and sundry baskets, buckets, and boxes. To our certain knowledge the Arkansas City people have good things to eat. The city takes pattern of its Godmother, Emporia, and discourages the sale and consumption of intoxicating drinks; but the oldest soaker would have gotten his “red eye” in the presence of the bountiful supplies of pure cold water flowing from Max’s springs.
Dinner dismissed and the crowd settled, a selection of vocal music was finely rendered by a number of ladies and gentlemen. I may say of all the music, both vocal and instrumental, that it was creditable, not only to a town not yet six months old, and standing as an outpost on the borders of civilization, but would have been considered highly meritorious in any place. After prayer by Rev. Swarts, and another piece of music, Prof. Norton, the orator of the day, was introduced, and for about three quarters of an hour, addressed the people in a most interesting manner.

Dismissing the past and matters of more general importance with a few eloquent remarks, he directed attention to things of the present and future of great local importance. He appealed to the people to plant trees, and urged the necessity of it, because of the climatic influence they would exercise; because they would afford homes for birds, the sworn enemies of all noxious insects; in order to supply the demands of the future; and in order that town and country might be made attractive and pleasant. He directed attention to the importance of railroads to their country. Spoke of the wonderful agricultural resources that would be opened up thereby; and of the cheapening of all foreign imports by means of a railroad that must soon be built to tide water, down the Arkansas Valley. He urged upon all the vast importance of the Common School System as an element of permanent future prosperity, and expressed a hope that that place would never exist a starveling college, with its wise looking and pretentious professors, and its conceited students pouring over the foolish fables of a long since dead language, while the living, scientific truths of a living age should go unstudied, but that in the place thereof should be the well regulated public school, full of the life and spirit of the age.
An abstract cannot do justice to the professor’s speech; it was eloquent, applicable, and well received. After the speaking and singing the crowd dispersed, some to their homes, some to the river to sail and fish, and all ready to declare that the first Fourth of July celebration in Arkansas City was a success.
There were well attended celebrations at three points in this county, in which county, one year ago, there were not a half dozen white men’s homes. The change is marvelous, and what is better, the people are happy and contented, and sanguine of the future. Of course, not very much of a crop will be raised this year on the sod freshly turned over, but next year the lower Walnut and Arkansas valleys will laugh with such a harvest as will surprise even Kansas.
Emporia News, July 15, 1870.
                                              A TRIP TO THE SOUTHWEST.
The third morning of our journey finds us, at an early hour, on the road leading from El Dorado to Wichita.
But we must abruptly break loose from Wichita and move suddenly down the river sixty miles to Arkansas City. This place is situated on an eminence; the former is in the valley. Here, we gain a splendid view of the whole surrounding country; there, no such privilege is afforded. Here, the valley is comparatively narrow; there, it is extremely wide. Here, there is quite a large quantity of timber; there, there is almost a total absence of it.

As to size, Wichita is about five times as large. But the place is growing just as rapidly as it can, with the present facilities for getting lumber. Two large steam saw mills are now at work and the supply cannot keep pace with the demand. Here, also, we find several of our former townsmen. In fact, the majority of the citizens came from Emporia. Prof. Norton of the State Normal School is the leading spirit. He is full of energy and enterprise, and is determined that the new town shall grow and the country develop. Max. Fawcett is laboring with a zeal that is truly commendable. The stranger has not been in town one hour before the question is asked him, “Have you seen Max Fawcett’s claim?” If not, you must go at once. When you get there, you are glad you came. With Mr. T. A. Wilkinson as our guide, we visited it early Sabbath morning. We reached it at a distance of one and one-half miles west of the town. It lies along the banks of the Arkansas. We first hasten toward the spring for we are thirsting for a drink of pure, cold water. A strip of timber lines the bank of the river ten or fifteen rods in width. We reach the edge of this timber and find ourselves on the brink of a precipitous bluff. Our guide directs our attention to a path that leads down the hill through the trees. Our eyes follow it gladly down farther and farther until they behold away down ever so far the most beautiful stream of pure, cold water flowing from out the hillside that it was ever our good fortune to see. The path has steps of stone carefully adjusted by the hand of Max. himself. Descending we find that an artificial reservoir made of stone receives the water to which it is conducted by means of wooden troughs extending back to the hillside. From this reservoir another trough carries the water eight or ten feet and precipitates it down a descent of three or four feet, where another smaller basin carved out of the rock receives it. A cup attached to a chain hangs by the side of a tree near the main basin. While you are drinking you look eastward and a few rods in front of you, carved on a big rock, you read:
                                            “Stranger, you are welcome here.”
You look southward and on another rock you read:
“Better than gold
Is water cold,
From crystal fountains flowing.”
You turn to the west and a few feet from you, you find two natural chairs formed of rock. On one is written “easy chair”; on the other, “hard chair.” You sit down on the easy chair and sure enough you sit as comfortably as on the softest easy chair in your parlor at home. A path leads you along the foot of the bluff in a westerly direction until you come to the mouth of a great cave whose inner chambers have not yet been wholly explored. We wish we had time and space to tell about this cave, other springs, and other pleasant retreats.
But we must say farewell to Max and his beautiful claim, with the advice to everyone who goes to Arkansas City to be sure to go and see Max.’s fountains, springs, and caves.
We are now on the road homeward bound. Between Arkansas City and Winfield, twelve miles north, you pass over some very fine prairie. The land is all rich, the grass tall and luxuriant. Winfield is on the Walnut, has a splendid location, plenty of timber in close proximity, and is the county seat of Cowley County. We remain overnight with an old friend of ours, Dr. Wm. Graham, in whose pleasant home we spend a happy evening, talking of the good old times. The next morning we are on the road bright and early, anxious to get back to Emporia. It is the glorious fourth. At Douglass the stars and stripes are flying to the breeze. They are making big preparations for a celebration. This is at present the best town south of El Dorado. We hurry on toward Augusta. Reach it at noon. We find several hundred people assembled in a pleasant grove celebrating our national anniversary in dead earnest.
Emporia News, July 15, 1870.
                                                  ARKANSAS CITY ITEMS.

Our celebration on the Fourth was a success; weather cool, no mosquitos, large attendance, and much applauded; instructive and entertaining orations, delivered by Prof. Norton, of Arkansas City, and Mr. Cunningham, of Emporia. A number of Emporians were present. The programme was carried out to the letter, and all were “gay and happy.” In the evening a large number repaired to Col. Woolsey’s commodious hotel, where many feet kept time to enchanting music till late in the evening, when supper was announced by Col. Woolsey, and all sat down to one of the best suppers ever gotten up in Southern Kansas. The Colonel is one of our most enterprising and accommodating men.
Prof. Norton (who is the mainspring of Arkansas City’s prosperity) and lady arrived home on the 2nd.
Mrs. Slocum and daughter, Mrs. F. B. Smith, and a number of others came down with them. Mrs. Slocum has a claim near Arkansas City, and intends making it her future home, and judging from what she has already done, we believe that in a few years she will have one of the finest places in Kansas. She went to Emporia in 1858, and immediately commenced planting fruit and forest trees, small fruits, shrubs, and flowers. She now has one of the most beautiful places near Emporia. Very few men have done as much.
Mr. Mains, of the Emporia Tribune, will commence the building for a printing office next week, and as soon as it is finished he will commence the publication of a first-class paper, worthy of the patronage of an intelligent people like ours of Southern Kansas. It should and will be supported. Suppose it will be called the Arkansas Traveler. The first number is to be out August 1st, 1870.
The following are among the more than fifty houses now being built, or under contract to be built in Arkansas City.
Norton & Co., a dry goods and grocery store.
Mr. Sleeth, one neat residence finished and another commenced.
Livingston & Gray, a clothing store, building 18 x 26.
S. P. Channell, a dry goods and grocery store.
H. O. Meigs, a building 20 x 32, two stories, with cellar under the whole building.
T. A. Wilkinson, building to rent.
Beck & Woolsey, restaurant and bakery.
E. I. Fitch, millinery and dressmaking establishment.
Mr. Walker, dry goods and grocery store.
D. Lewis, stone store building, 21 x 31 feet.
S. A. Moore, paint shop.
Mr. Johnson, carriage shop.
Harmon & Endicott, a building 20 x 50 feet, two stories, the lower for a store; and the upper for a hall.
Paul Beck, blacksmith shop.
C. E. Nye, harness and saddle shop.
A. D. Keith, drug store.
Dr. Alexander, office and drug store.
Mr. Groat, a restaurant. [Name was misspelled: Should be Grote.]
F. H. Denton, store 18 x 24.
Mr. Bridge, a hotel and bakery.

Pond &. Blackburn, of Emporia, have established a real estate agency here. Persons wanting to buy or look up claims will find it to their interest to call on them. They are accommodating, and are well posted as to the location and quality of nearly all the claims that are vacant, and those that are for sale. They are honest and upright young men. They are building a neat office.
The citizens of Allen, Wilson, Howard, and Cowley Counties will meet in general and mass convention at Fredonia, on Saturday the 16th of July, 1870, for the purpose of effecting a railroad organization and electing directors of the Humboldt, Fredonia & Arkansas City railroad. Eminent speakers from a distance will be present.
We had another splendid rain last evening, and the weather is now delightfully cool.
There is little or no sickness here now, not a case of ague in this vicinity. Our doctors and lawyers are the only men that look downcast and discouraged.
The Arkansas River is rising, and is nearly or quite past fording.
We were unsuccessful in finding the State line when we went to look for it a week or two ago. We are going down again this week to try to find the marks on the east side of the Arkansas. We found plenty of mounds while on our last trip, but they had “dead Ingins in ’em.” M. F. [MAX. FAWCETT, I am certain.]
Walnut Valley Times, July 15, 1870.
                                EMPORIA & SOUTHWESTERN RAILROAD.
The people of Emporia are alive to the importance of an immediate railroad connection with the Southwest. They are making strenuous efforts to secure the Kansas City & Santa Fe Railroad, and have formed a company for the extension of the road on Southwest. The Emporia News says that articles of incorpora­tion have been filed for the organization of a company to build a railroad from there to the Southwest.
The names of the incorporators are as follows:
The road is to run from there via South Fork and Walnut Valleys to Arkansas City, touching at the principal towns along the route, and thence to Fort Belknap, Texas. It is intended as an extension of the Kansas City & Santa Fe road, which will probably be built to that point at an early day.
Walnut Valley Times, July 15, 1870.
                                                [Correspondence of the Times.]
                                            ALL ABOUT ARKANSAS CITY.
                                             ARKANSAS CITY, July 6, 1870.

EDITOR TIMES: The glorious Fourth was a decided success here. The celebration took place on Max Fawcett’s celebrated claim, about half a mile west of town; a beautiful grove on the back of the river, in the immediate vicinity of some remarkable springs and caverns. The procession formed on Summit street at 10 o’clock, A. M., and marched to the grove, headed by a beauti­ful new flag—Mrs. H. B. Norton’s donation. Hundreds of people were present; the turnout was truly astonishing. The dinner was excellent and abundant; all were filled, and more than twelve baskets full were carried away. Prof. H. B. Norton and Judge Cunningham, of Emporia, were the orators. The orations were such as might have been expected from the distinguished speakers—energetic, witty, eloquent, and entirely practical in their tendency. The band discoursed wonderfully sweet music at suit­able intervals, both vocal and instrumental. All sorts of dainties, fireworks, and cooling drinks, were dispersed on the ground. Some boats were on hand for those aquatically inclined. A brilliant ball at the Woolsey House closed the festivities of the day. Everybody looked happy.
Arkansas City was first settled—that is, by an actual resident upon the town site, on the 7th day of April, three months ago. It is now, beyond dispute, the largest town in the Walnut Valley, Eldorado alone excepted; and it bids fair to soon rival the “Queen of the Walnut.” The census taker reports our village population at about 200 people. Two saw mills and a shingle-mill are vainly trying to supply the demand for building materials. The Woolsey House is uncomfortably thronged. Work has begun upon another hotel—a large stone building, 50 feet front, three stories high. Some forty business houses and residences are now actually under contract, and being built as rapidly as possible. Four new buildings were raised today. All is energy and enthusiasm. The second public well is situated at the intersection of Summit street and Central Avenue, the center of the corporation, and on the very crest of the ridge. It has about seven feet of excellent water. There are now two public wells open to everybody, besides those dug by private persons. No town in Southern Kansas is so well supplied with pure water as Arkansas City. Settlers are coming in by hundreds. About two hundred claims were recently taken in one day on the creeks west of the river, and there is yet room for many more.
The type and press for our newspaper, “The Arkansas Travel­er,” are now on the road. Be prepared to exchange about August 1st.
A tri-weekly stage line is now running from Eldorado to this point. Come down and see us.
A mass meeting of citizens of the county will be held here on Saturday night, to nominate two directors, and elect delegates to the Fredonia meeting in behalf of the Humboldt, Fredonia & Arkansas City Railroad.
A new mail route from Wichita to Arkansas City has just been established by the Department. X.
Emporia News, July 29, 1870.
                                                            AN INQUIRY.
Editors News: Who is “Wec,” that writes such a partial, one-sided report of the picnic at Arkansas City, July 4th? What he said of Prof. Norton’s oration was but a just tribute to a well written, well delivered address. But he entire ignores that fact that we had another speaker. A Mr. Cunningham, of Emporia, who spoke equally as well, was as heartily cheered, and as highly complimented. He gladdened many hearts by his cheering words to our brave pioneers, and his manly words for human progress. His pleasant address will be remembered for many a year by the first settlers of Arkansas City.
Hoping that “Wec” will apologize to Mr. Cunningham, I am Yours truly, J. H. Slocum.
Emporia News, August 19, 1870.
                                                  FROM ARKANSAS CITY.
ARKANSAS CITY, August 2, 1870.

DEAR NEWS: The Osages have been enjoying very much of an unbender among us. Yesterday, according to previous arrangement, “Haul Robe” [Do they mean Hard Rope??] rode into town, at the head of his band, some one hundred and twenty in all, clad in all the splendor of beads, red blankets, paint, and every sort of fantastic Indian finery. Some of the party brought willow poles, from which, with the aid of blankets, they speedily constructed a long tent, large enough for the entire party. A subscription paper was passed around among the spectators, and after the contributions had reached a satisfactory figure, “He-wah-hug-gah,” the chief of the dancers, formed his cotillion. This consisted of about twenty of the young men arrayed in a style which is simply indescribable. Their faces were painted in red, green, blue, yellow, and every other color of the rainbow; their bodies streaked in a style somewhat resembling mahogany graining, their heads shaved to the scalp-lock, and adorned with plumes, beads, green boughs, horns, bears’ claws, and everything in the line of the grotesque which Osage land affords. Buffalo tails, turkey wings, and feathers, every possible device which the imagination could suggest, were hung to the dancers, and the general effect was like that of a pack of howling devils just let loose from the pit. The music consisted of a couple of drums formed of raw-hide stretched over a hoop; each drum being borne by two of the old men, and beaten by two more. There were also fifes, or whistles, formed of hollow reeds and cane-stalks. The general effect was soothing to weak nerves.
The procession moved from the tent to the shady side of Norton & Co.’s store, where a large ring was formed about the dancers, “Hard Robe” [Hard Rope] being seated in smiling dignity at one side. The band was in the middle of the ring, and the evolutions of the dancers were performed around it. The dancers carried bows, spears, queerly ornamented shields of raw-hide, a huge tomahawk (evidently a “theatrical property” of the tribe), and various other articles. Extravagance of gesture, unearthly noises, indescribable contortions, and very profuse perspiration, were incidents of the dance, which lasted for about half an hour. It fulfilled my most impossible anticipations. No picture or description ever yet made public could do justice to its demoniacal grotesqueness.
The Indians remained camped in town all night, entirely peaceable and quiet, except the strange ululation with which, at daybreak, they mourned their dead. The trade in jerked buffalo, rawhide lariats, sugar, coffee, flour, and calico was particularly lively.
Four tons of goods—the first installment of Keith & Eddy’s drug store—arrived today, meeting with a hearty welcome. The type and press for the Arkansas Traveler also arrived today. We hope to greet the first issue next week. Livingstone & Gray’s stock of ready made clothing it is just open. Mr. Meigs has a stock on the road; he it is planning a wholesale grocery business. His new store, now enclosed, is the best building south of El Dorado. Benedict Bros., of Dayton, Ohio, have arranged to put in a wholesale stock of hardware and goods for the Texan trade. Hamilton & Kinney, of Ottawa, have just sent in an order for the necessary lumber to erect a two-story building, some 20 x 50 feet. Pond & Blackburn, of Emporia, have just built and opened a real estate and claim office. Paul Beck, of Emporia, has just put up a good blacksmith shop, and has arrived with his tools and stock. Bridge & Lewis are hard at work on their three-story hotel. Our 200 people are now permanently located on our town site, and “still they come.” Some eighteen buildings devoted to business purposes are now up, and many more in progress. The country about here is rapidly filling up with an excellent class of citizens.

I forgot to mention that Mr. Silas Moore, of Emporia, has just erected a paint shop, and has already commenced work upon the store-fronts, and that Mr. Grote, also of Emporia, has just enclosed a two-story building for a bakery and restaurant.
The concentration of immigration and capital at this point it is truly remarkable. We are decidedly ahead of everything in this valley, El Dorado alone excepted, and we may even challenge comparison with her, if the work goes on six months longer.
Come and see us, Mr. Stotler, and “view the land where your possessions lie.” N.
Walnut Valley Times, August 26, 1870.
The Arkansas Traveler, a six column paper, published at Arkansas City, by M. G. Manes, is received. The Traveler is a credit to this new town and will no doubt be handsomely support­ed. The first number contains a great deal of matter de­scriptive of the lower country. Prof. H. B. Norton will be “special contributor” to the Traveler, and of course will make things lively. [Note: They had “Manes.” His name was “Mains.”]
Emporia News, August 26, 1870.
Prof. R. B. Dilworth, graduate of Princeton College, New Jersey, has been appointed to fill the temporary vacancy in the Faculty of the State Normal School, occasioned by the absence of Prof. Norton. Mr. Dilworth it is a ripe scholar, a man of energy and influence.
Emporia News, September 2, 1870.
                                                  FROM ARKANSAS CITY.
                                                  Arkansas City, July 31, 1870.
MESSRS. EDITORS: When we left Emporia in January last, I promised you that I would try to write frequently the progress of events connected with our town project; but as I passed through El Dorado, my good friend, Danford, took a potent grasp upon my sympathies by means of an excellent dinner, and I must needs have written for his paper, or incur the lasting displeasure of my lacteal system. So I “writ,” and my wants being all supplied (physically, I mean), I forgot my moral obligations to you, and to you I did not “writ,” hence the theorem, etc. And I now return as did the prodigal, full of repentance and literary husks, to eat the fatted calf which, of course (following the example of Scriptural injunction are in duty bound to kill for me), will have in readiness. If I should set out to write a fairy story, I could find no fitter subject for my plan than to describe a wild region of country, inhabited by savage beasts and a degraded and ignorant race of human beings, transformed in an inconceivably short time, as it were, by some mysterious hand, into a lively town of civilized people, bringing with them refinement, moral culture, and social advantages far superior to a great many towns of a number of years standing in the east.

Such it is the brief history of Arkansas City, as she now stands without a rival this side of Emporia. Many others, realizing the importance of this point, came here soon after our town company did, and on finding the ground occupied and themselves disappointed in their plans, instead of wisely taking claims nearby and cooperating with the company, they made the vain attempt to discourage our efforts, by various detrimental rumors and insinuations. Good judges of human nature would have known that such a course of conduct, if it had any effect whatever on enterprising men, would be to stimulate to greater achievements. But it has not had even that much effect. The town company have treated all of their blowing with silent contempt, not even giving it a passing remark. No more than does a train of cars notice the whiffit that comes on its track and barks in ignorant impudence, until the engine, wholly unconscious of its presence, crushes the insignificant creature out of existence. No trivial cause can retard or accelerate the growth of this place, for it is simply the unfolding or developing of a preconceived plan by men who have fully proven in a former enterprise that they well know when and how to make the most of a good opportunity. I refer to the rise and growth of Emporia. I have before mentioned that our project actually began on the 1st of January. But the principal work up to about March 1st was simply to hold the claims in the interest of the town company. Before the latter date the town project was all ideal, but since then it has actually sprung into existence, and when we consider the time since the first family (that of Capt. Norton) moved onto the town site, and behold the change that has been produced since then, we cannot but express our candid admiration of the genius and energy of the men who are operating the machinery so successfully in this great scheme. Nor do we think it detracts from their credit at all to say that they have every natural advantage in their favor, simply because it was their wise foresight which enabled them to discriminate in choosing from the many inviting points in the Walnut Valley the one having all these natural commercial advantages, which, when combined, enhance the importance of any location.
A mountain’s peaks catch the first gleam of the morning sunlight long before it reaches the valleys below. So great minds illumined by superior wisdom acquired by long experience, which enabled them to see the possibilities and advantages of this section long before it entered the minds of the great mass of immigration now pouring into the country, foretold the future greatness of this point, and are now simply fulfilling their own prediction, much more rapidly, however, than the most sanguine expected. Nor shall we be unmindful of the credit due to the many individual enterprises now in successful operation, each of which may be regarded as an important spoke in the wheel of town building.
Our principal hotel, Mr. Woolsey, proprietor, is doing a flourishing business. We also have a good-sized boarding house with daily increasing patronage; a hardware store by Mr. C. R. Sipes, a young gentleman noted for promptness in business, and whose general address is candid and right to the point. Mr. Bowen has a very good stock of groceries and provisions; and bids fair to come out a successful merchant as the town advances. Mr. Goodrich has a general assortment of dry goods, groceries, and ready made clothing, and no one who goes there to trade comes away dissatisfied with either price or quality of goods. Capt. Norton and brother still hold forth at their old stand, but soon intend to move into a large and commodious building on Summit street. The increase in the number of stores has not diminished their custom, because the influx of immigration more than keeps up the demand, and their sales, which have been heavy from the first, are constantly on the increase.
Several new buildings are now looming up, the most important of which is Mr. Meigs’s store, a fine two-story building, 20 x 32, with nicely finished paneled open front. Messrs. Gray and Livingstone have just opened their new store, inviting the public to invest in a new stock of ready made clothing. Their building is a fair-sized two story square front, with fine walnut finish. Mr. Freeman will soon commence the building of a ferry across the Arkansas, the timbers for which are now being sawed at the mill.

Our reliable blacksmith, Paul Beck, has commenced blowing his bellows for Southern Kansas, and one would think, from the manner in which he opened up his business a few nights ago, that he was obeying the divine commandment of “Let there be light.” And as it shone out into the street and flashed upon his sturdy figure, with his right arm raising the hammer to strike an additional blow for the advancement of Arkansas City, and
Our hearts kept time to the clinking sound,
And throbbed a welcome to him,
While a horse near by came up with a bound
And neighed for Paul to shoe him.

Thus man and beast, to say the least,
Were thankful for the favor
Bestowed upon our busy town
By this new branch of labor:

For labor is life, and life is joy
To man or beast, in season;
But the sluggard hangs back like a snail on his trek,
Or a drone devoid of reason.

Then to each branch of industry
A welcome we will give;
Our motto now, and e’er shall be,
“To labor is to live.”

Then hail to the sound of work and mirth,
May they ever be found together!
Fibres of life’s golden thread on earth
’Til death that thread doth sever.

For labor gives strength to head and heart,
To bone and brain and muscle,
And mirth chimes in her cheerful part,
Adding joy to toil and bustle.

Messrs. Channell and Thompson are still pushing the work they so nobly began, as architects and builders. To the three Thompson brothers, Channell, and Capt. Smith, belongs the credit and honor of building the first several buildings on the town site, and like the first volunteers who went into the army without bounty as an inducement, they should properly be regarded as the veterans of the cause.
Mr. Chamberlain [they had Chamberlin] expects soon to open a cabinet shop. He has shown himself to be a first-class workman in a general way, and fully competent to conduct his special business in a successful manner.

Pond & Blackburn are on the ground to act in the capacity of claim and insurance agents. They seem to have that peculiar tact that wins friends, and which is so essential to success in their peculiar department of business. They have erected a very neat building for an office, and are ready to accommodate newcomers in finding claims suited to their wishes.
A new hotel is about to be erected by the town company.
Our weekly newspaper will be out next Wednesday, August 24th.
There are still plenty of good prairie claims to be had for the taking.
One more item and I will cease for this time. I visited Mr. P. F. Endicott’s home not long since, and was very much pleased as well as surprised to find several large bunches of grapes on this year’s sets of the style Concord. This speaks well for this locality as a place for grape culture. T. A. WILKINSON.
             [Emporia News had “F. A. Wilkinson” which I believe is wrong! MAW]
           [Note. NEWS had Channel, Chamberlin...wonder how many others are wrong?]
Emporia News, September 2, 1870.
The Arkansas City Traveler has at length made its appearance, and is a very handsome 24-column sheet. The local department is full and interesting, and promises to be a faithful exponent of the business of this rapidly growing town. Prof. H. B. Norton is announced as a special contributor.
Walnut Valley Times, September 9, 1870.
                                                [Correspondence of the Times.]
                                              LETTER FROM DOUGLASS.
After our slight spring acquaintance, and long absence, we again greet our friend, the WALNUT VALLEY TIMES. All of its patrons, and indeed, all fond of progress, are proud of the paper, and Eldorado deserves it. A short time ago we were in town, and the rapid advancement she has made in one year, is great. A wide-awake, living town, will support periodicals characteristic of it.
Augusta, we confess ignorance of, to some extent; not having been there to see, neither having heard, nor having seen her husband, C. N. James, to inquire of her welfare; but of course, it is to be expected that Augusta enjoys her usual prosperity, if not a little more so.
Winfield, our south-door neighbor, we have not heard from lately, though the last news was favorable. In a back No. of the TIMES we noticed a description of Creswell, which told of her marvelous strides. We have intended to take a trip in that direction, to luxuriate in the beauties of her locality, but plead the old excuse—procrastination.
At the rate she was growing then, as given by the writer—200 claims being taken in a day—why, we cannot locate her boundary-line; of a necessity, she would take in Winfield, and us; wholly ignoring Prof. Norton, who, ere this, should have succeeded in teaching his pupils the beauty of proportion. We are glad to know that our country is being settled so rapidly—and hope there will not remain a foot of ground on the thirty mile strip unoccupied.
[The remainder of his correspondence dealt with people in Douglass: Huffman & Brown, Quimby, Chastain, Dr. Morris, Mr. Drea, J. W. Douglass, Mr. Uhl from Humboldt, Mr. Shamleffer, Mr. White, Mr. Kelker, C. H. Lamb, Esq., Mr. Stone, W. H. Douglass, Mr. R. Odell, Mr. S. Shaff, Mr. Flint.]
                                               ARTICLE SIGNED “LEDA.”

Emporia News, September 30, 1870.
We have cheering news from Arkansas City. There are now forty-three buildings up, and many more contracted for. Trade is good. The location of this town is at the junction of Arkansas and Walnut Rivers, and it cannot fail to be an important town. Liberal inducements are offered to settlers. H. B. Norton, at Arkansas City, is the President of the Company. Among the towns in the Walnut Valley, it is only second to El Dorado in size and the amount of its business.
Emporia News, October 7, 1870.
                                                  FROM ARKANSAS CITY.
EDITORS NEWS: Possibly an item or two from our young city may not be entirely devoid of interest.
And first of all, I wish to correct one ridiculous rumor which has come down from Emporia—that the government survey has located Parker and Arkansas City in the Indian Territory. The fact is that no government survey has yet been made at all. Max Fawcett’s survey shows our town to be six or eight miles north of the line. There is not the slightest reason to believe the contrary. The report is pure nonsense,—a lie, manufactured out of whole cloth, probably through the jealousy of rival towns above.
Arkansas City is growing as no infant border town has grown before it. The forty-fourth in our list of residences and business houses went up yesterday, and many others are in progress. Business is brisk, and all sorts of improvements are in rapid progress.
Among our latest acquisitions is Mr. Topliff, of the well-known firm of Topliff & French. He comes here to commence an extensive livestock business.
The health of our town is something remarkable. The aguish month of September is drawing to a close, but we have had not a single case of ague yet, or any form of malarious fever, in a population of 250 people. This may partly be attributed to our elevated and breezy town site, and partly to the abundance of pure, soft water. The people living down upon the bottoms, and drinking river water have suffered as usual.
The recent heavy rains have somewhat dampened the operations of immigrants, but business and the work of improvement were never more brisk. Large enterprises are being hatched here, of which the world will hear in due season. H. B. N.
Emporia News, October 14, 1870.
                                                   GOOD NOMINATIONS.
We are glad to hear that the Republicans of Sedgwick County have placed in nomination for representative, J. M. Steele, of Wichita. . . .
Prof. H. B. Norton has been nominated by the Republicans of Cowley County for the same position. This nomination is a good one. Prof. Norton, as the public knows, was for years connected with the State Normal School. He is a gentleman of liberal education, a forcible debater, a man of thorough knowledge of the wants and interests of the section of the State from which he hails, and a man of unimpeachable and never-failing integrity. If elected, he will be heard from, always on the side of right, in the next Legislature. At this distance from the “field of battle,” we are inclined to the opinion that the people of Cowley County cannot do a better thing than to let Prof. Norton try his hand as a legislator.
Walnut Valley Times, October 21, 1870.

                                            REPUBLICAN NOMINATIONS.
The Emporia news of the 14th says: we are glad to hear that the republicans of Sedgwick County have placed in nomination for representative, J. M. Steele, of Wichita.
Prof. H. B. Norton has been nominated by the republicans of Cowley County for the same position. This nomination is a good one. Prof. Norton, as the public knows, was for years connected with the State Normal School. He is a gentleman of liberal education, a forcible debater, a man of thorough knowledge of the wants and interests of the section of the State from which he hails, and a man of unimpeachable and never-failing integrity. If elected, he will be heard from always on the side of right, in the next Legislature. At this distance from the “field of battle” we are inclined to the opinion that the people of Cowley County cannot do a better thing than to let Prof. Norton try his hand as a legislator.
Walnut Valley Times, October 21, 1870.
                                                      COWLEY COUNTY.
Prof. H. B. Norton has been nominated by the Republicans of Cowley County for Representative to the Legislature from that county. Mr. Norton lives in Arkansas City; and as a county seat war is going on in that county, another ticket will be put in the field. The second convention will be held on the 20th inst.
Walnut Valley Times, November 11, 1870.
From the Cowley County Censor of November 3rd, we take the following:
PRAIRIE FIRE. We regret to state that a very extensive prairie fire swept through the valley and over a large tract of upland, yesterday, burning up a large quantity of hay and doing other serious damage for miles around. Our neighbors Messrs. Oakes & Oakes, lost over 200 tons of good hay, and we hear of many others who have sustained heavy losses.
COUNTY LINES. Prof. Norton has pledged himself not to change the county lines of Cowley County if elected. He has been driven to this position by the people of the county. He started out with the full determination of cutting a strip off from the north end of Cowley, but he found the measure so unpopular that he has abandoned it for the present. He is still in favor of the measure, but offers to not favor it this winter if elected. Besides this project, we have been told that Prof. Norton report­ed on Grouse Creek that we and Mr. Manning, especially, intended if elected, to cut a piece off from the east of Sumner, and attach it to Cowley, and to drop a piece off of the east of Cowley on to Howard. We are authorized by Mr. Manning to say that he has no such desire or intentions; but that he is opposed to any change in our county lines.
Walnut Valley Times, November 11, 1870.
A report came from Cowley County that H. B. Norton, of Arkansas City, is elected to the Legislature.
Walnut Valley Times, November 18, 1870.
                                     ARKANSAS CITY, KAN., Nov. 15, 1870.
ED. TIMES: In order to declare E. C. Manning (People’s Candidate) elected over H. B. Norton, Republican, the two Winfield Commissioners have thrown out, as informal, the vote of Rock Creek, Cedar, Dexter, and Grouse—just two-thirds of the County!
Of all known feats of political shystering, this is certain­ly the largest on record.

Of course, the case will at once be contested, and somebody will get hurt. X.
Walnut Valley Times, November 18, 1870.
                                                      COWLEY COUNTY.
Immediately south of Butler is Cowley County. It is unnecessary for us to eulogize the last named counties. They are only to be seen to be appreciated. Write to H. B. Norton, Arkansas City, or to E. C. Manning, Winfield, for information about Cowley County. We are convinced that these three counties are the best in the State, and would advise home-seekers to come and see the great southwest.
Emporia News, November 18, 1870.
Arkansas City. Wanted—a good Blacksmith at this growing young town. To a live man we can offer first-class inducements. Address C. V. Eskridge, Emporia, or
                                               H. B. NORTON, Arkansas City.
Emporia News, December 9, 1870.
                                       ARKANSAS CITY—RAPID GROWTH.
This new town, located at the junction of Walnut and Arkansas Rivers, is building up rapidly. We glean a few items in relation to the town from the report of the President—Prof. H. B. Norton—and Executive Committee of the town company, made at a meeting of said Company held in this place last Monday.
The first building was completed in April last, and by a liberal policy in donating lots to those who would build thereon, fifty-six buildings are now up and occupied; twenty more are in process of construction, and will be completed within the next twenty days; twenty-five others are under contract to be built as soon as the materials can be had. It is believed that over 100 buildings will be completed by the 15th of January. This is now the largest town in the Walnut Valley, leaving out El Dorado.
The buildings now occupied include some of good dimensions, such as the City Hotel, just erected by the Town Company, which has a basement and two stories, and the main part being 25 x 30 feet. Many of the business houses are 25 x 40 and two stories high. The Woolsey house, which is in running order, is 22 x 34, with a two-story wing nearly as large.
Among the branches of business now being carried on is the following: Carpenters, dry goods, harness shop, boarding houses, millinery and dress making, land office, bakery, grocery, restaurant, paint shop, blacksmithing, livery stable, wagon making, billiard hall, hotels, hardware and stoves, tin ship, drug store, printing office, clothing store, candle factory, meat market, jewelry store, shoe shop, feed store, soap factory, etc.
Trade is good in the town, and as the Walnut and Arkansas valleys are rich and arable for miles, the country will be thickly settled, and business will steadily grow better. It is so situated, also, as to command the trade of several tribes of Indians, in their new homes in the Indian Territory.
Parties are erecting a large building for the sale and manufacture of agricultural implements; also, for a town hall 25 x 60 feet. Another hotel is underway to be 30 x 50 feet in size, two stories high.

The Southern Kansas Italian Immigration Society has made Arkansas City its headquarters, and has already erected a building for an office. Two hundred families will be located in the vicinity, by the agent, who is already making arrangements for them, early in the Spring. They will engage in silk and grape culture.
The total number of lots donated, so far, for the benefit of the town, by the Company, 253. A large number more are yet to be donated.
A ferry is now running over the Walnut River at the town, and one will soon be running over the Arkansas, and arrangements are being made to cross Texas cattle at this place next season. A road has been laid out south to intersect the well known Chisholm trail, and traders pronounce the route via Arkansas City superior in every respect to the Western trail.
Two of the best saw mills in Southern Kansas are running day and night at Arkansas City, and they cannot supply the demand for lumber. Two shingle machines are also in operation, and to one of the mills is being added a lath mill and gig-saw.
Beedy & Newman who entered into contract last season to improve the water-power near the place, are already at work on a large water mill, which will be running next summer.
The flow of immigration to the town and country is steadily increasing, and the demand for town lots on the liberal terms offered by the company, was never so great as now.
The company will obtain title for their site at an early day, and the town will have a growth next season which will be rapid and permanent. Few towns in Southern Kansas have a better location.
Emporia News, December 9, 1870.
                                              CHANGES IN THE FACULTY.
At the close of the quarter of the fiscal year, H. B. Norton, Associate Principal, resigned his place in the school. Ill health, coupled with a desire for an active, out-door life, constituted the motives inducing the resignation.
Report was signed by L. B. KELLOGG, Principal.
Emporia News, December 9, 1870.
Prof. H. B. Norton has been in the city for some days. When he goes back Arkansas City will be supplied with more goods than we can make room to enumerate. He reports great prosperity in his city.
Emporia News, December 30, 1870.
We learn from the Arkansas Traveler that Capt. Norton has just returned from a trip to the Little Osage’s camp, on Slate Creek, where he has been for some days trading with them. He informs us that about thirty of the hunters had just got in from a twenty day’s hunt, and brought with them over 400 robes. This was an unusually good hunt. The balance of the hunters, about 150 or 200, are expected to come in a few days. They state that they did not see any wild Indians on the plains, and think they are below the Cimarron. Big Hill Joe’s band killed over 300 buffaloes on their first day’s hunt on the Salt Fork. The Osages will get about 5,000 robes on their first hunt, this winter. Their second hunt will come off early in January. It is calculated, from the way the hunting has been going on this winter, that 200,000 buffaloes will be killed by next spring.
News that Prof. Norton has acute hepatitis...
Emporia News, January 13, 1871.
                                                        From Arkansas City.

                                  ARKANSAS CITY, KANSAS, January 9, 1870.
DEAR NEWS: We are pained to hear that you have been suffering a little touch of the arctic—have been mourning over nearly a foot of snow.
Well, we are sorry for you. Here in our warm, tropical Arkansas Valley, we have had no snow at all, except a few scattering flakes, that melted as they fell. Roads and weather are lovely.
Arkansas City is growing faster than ever, our seventy-seventh building was raised on the 6th. It is our new schoolhouse, built by subscription, 25 x 40 feet. We have already an excellent school, in two departments. In a few weeks more, this will be the great staging center of Kansas. The consolidated line of the two great companies are to be at once extended from Parker and Eureka to this point; the former line to be pushed on up to Wichita, and another line will speedily be extended to Fort Sill.
Prof. Norton has for several weeks been lying severely ill, unable to sit up or move much of the time. The disease is acute hepatitis. He is slowly gaining, but will not be able to move for some weeks. This is a great disappointment to all who desired him to claim his seat in the Legislature.
Our big new mills are being rapidly built. The immigration is remarkable. The survey of the lands is in progress, and we are beginning to know where our claims are.
A. G. O. A. C.
Walnut Valley Times, January 27, 1871.
The Traveler says that Norton Bros. Indian Trade this winter will amount to over $30,000.
Walnut Valley Times, January 27, 1871.
Prof. Kellogg is making arrangements to enlarge the Arkansas City Traveler to an eight column paper.
Emporia News, February 3, 1871.
                                         CHICAGO, KANSAS & TEXAS R. R.
A company has been organized under the above name, having for its object the construction of a railroad commencing at Council Grove, Morris County, Kansas, and thence by way of Cottonwood Falls, Chase County, Chelsea, El Dorado, Augusta and Douglass, Butler County, Winfield and Arkansas City, Cowley County, and thence on the most direct and practicable route to Florence, near the mouth of the Little Wichita, on Red River, Texas.
The capital stock of said company to be one million dollars.
A meeting of the directors of said company was held at Cottonwood Falls, Chase County, Kansas, January 4th, A. D. 1871.
The proceedings of the meeting were as follows.
In the absence of Hon. T. H. Baker, President, Vice President C. A. Britton took the chair. After a lengthy discussion of the project by Messrs. Wood, Baker, Stover, and others, the meeting proceeded with the following action: At the request and recommendation of
G. M. Simcock, treasurer by the charter, William Shamleffer was elected to fill vacancy as director and treasurer. H. L. Hunt was also elected to fill vacancy of director.

S. N. Wood, superintendent, was authorized to cause books to be opened in the Indian Territory and in Texas for subscriptions to the capital stock of the company. Hon. E. S. Stover was authorized to open books in Council Grove, Morris County; H. L. Hunt in Chase County; T. H. Baker in Augusta; H. T. Sumner in El Dorado, Butler County; E. C. Manning in Winfield; and H. B. Norton in Arkansas City, in Cowley County, Kansas.
On motion Hon. E. S. Stover, Hon. James Finney, Hon. S. M. Wood, Hon. L. S. Friend, Hon. T. H. Baker, and Hon. E. C. Manning were appointed a committee to ask the Legislature of the State of Kansas for the passage of a memorial asking Congress to grant the right of way to the above railroad company through the government lands in the south of Kansas and the Indian Territory to Texas.
It was moved and adopted that S. N. Wood, H. P. Dumas, and A. Eldridge be a committee to procure action and the influence of the Legislature of Texas in favor of obtaining the right of way through the Indian Territory and also obtaining a grant of land from the State to the company. The said committee were also authorized to present to the proper authorities the question of getting a transfer of the Atchison branch road as required by act of Congress, running from where said Atchison road crosses the Neosho River to where the Leavenworth, Lawrence and Galveston road crosses the same, to run from Cottonwood Falls, Chase County, by way of the Walnut Valley in Butler and Cowley Counties, to the south line of the State of Kansas.
Moved and adopted that the Superintendent cause a preliminary survey of the road to be made, if the same can be done without involving the company in debt. Moved and adopted that the proper officer, as soon as local subscriptions are sufficient, cause to be let under contract any portion of said road and, also, to negotiate with any other railroad company to construct any part or the whole of said road. It was also resolved that the secretary correspond with the secretary of St. Joseph, Wamego and Council Grove R. R. Co., in relation to the probability or possibility of forming a continuous line of the two roads. It was moved that subscriptions to capital stock of the company be received, payable in county and township bonds, lands, or town lots at their cash value, and that certificates of paid up stock be issued therefor as well as the ordinary subscriptions of stock in money. Ordered that the secretary furnish a copy of the proceedings of this meeting to the newspapers of Morris, Chase, Butler, and Cowley Counties. Moved and adopted that the meeting adjourn subject to call by the secretary. C. A. BRITTON, Vice-Pres’t.
W. S. ROMIGH, Secretary.
Emporia News, February 3, 1871.
                                                           ON THE WING.
                                           Augusta, Kansas, January 29th, 1871.
Over a week has passed since an opportunity has presented itself for us to forward an account of our wanderings to the NEWS. Within that time we have traveled through the Walnut Valley from El Dorado to Arkansas City, near the mouth of the stream, and returned to this point; a distance of almost 60 miles.
South of Augusta, a distance of 12 miles, is located the village of Douglass. It is situated on the Big Walnut, at a point almost three miles below the junction of the Little Walnut. The town site is an excellent one, being on a gentle rise in the prairie, and gives it drainage that will, in a great measure, protect it from the mud incident to towns built on the tenacious soil of Kansas.

The storm clouds that covered this youthful village, and enveloped it in gloom a few weeks ago, have all dispersed, giving place to the more genial sunshine of prosperity, and leaving the atmosphere much purer and healthier than before. Unless the stranger asks questions, he would never suspect that such a thing as hanging men by fours was ever resorted to by the quiet working people of this little frontier neighborhood. But the fact that eight men were shot and hung in this vicinity not long ago, can’t be denied; as a conse­quence, the citizens from Augusta to Arkansas City claim that they have no need of watching stock, but wake from peaceful slumbers to find their horses where they left them the previous night. They go to work in the morning thankfully, remembering long days in the past spent in fruitless search for missing horses.
Douglass contains about twenty houses, with all the stores, shops, etc., usually found in such places. In the town there are three general country stores. L. Shamleffer & Bro., brothers of our enterprising friend, Billy Shamleffer, at Council Grove, are carrying on an extensive trade here in dry goods, groceries, etc. They are young men of large business capacity, and are working hard to advance the interest of the town and country. Huffman & Brown are engaged in the grocery and provision business. The Douglass House is one of the best hotels in the valley. C. H. Lamb is the proprietor. Here the traveler finds good beds, good hash, and an accommodating landlord. Mr. Lamb is postmaster and is also dealing in blank books and stationery. The country around Douglass is well settled and supports a good trade. They are in need of a drug store and a shoemaker here; anyone starting a business in either of the above will be liberally supported.
From the mouth of the Little Walnut, the timber becomes heavier the further one travels down the valley.
Ten miles below Douglass we arrive at a trading point called “Polk’s store.” This store is owned by A. V. Polk, a native of Pennsylvania. He has a good location for his stock of goods. The post office here is called “Lone Tree.” This will make a good trading point, and we rather wonder that a town has not been laid off here.
After crossing Big Dutch Creek, a large stream, we found ourself at Winfield, county seat of Cowley County. This town presents an extremely new appearance. In fact, it has been built, with the exception of a very few houses, within the last three months. Some good wooden buildings are being erected. On our road to the mouth of the Walnut, we stopped at the Walnut Valley House at this place. That night was a new experience to us. We have heard of the hair of one’s head being turned gray in one night. Heretofore we were incredulous, but its truth has been demonstrated and we believe it. This house needs “ventilation,” but we will leave that for the citizens of Winfield to do. We found some enterprising men here, and with their excellent location and rich surrounding country, they will have a city of no mean dimension at some future time. Among some of the principal businessmen of Winfield are Maris & Hunt, dealers in groceries; and Deloss Palmer, formerly of Emporia, dealer in hardware and tinware. W. C. Orr is proprietor of the Indiana House; his table is always loaded with the best the market affords and he spares no pains to make his guests comfortable. The present term of the school here is taught by Miss Melville. A. J. Patrick is publishing the “Censor” here. This is a good paper and is becoming extremely popular in Cowley and Butler Counties.

Arkansas City has one of the finest locations for a town to be found any place in Kansas, but as this has been written of so often and so extensively, we will pass it for the present. The city contains about eighty houses, some of them are very good buildings.
H. O. Meigs has recently erected a large building, in which he has opened the City Hotel, one of the best hotels in the valley.
G. H. Hamilton & Co. are doing an extensive business in groceries and provisions; they have a large stock.
Charley Sipes is engaged in hardware, etc.
Keith & Eddy, a Leavenworth firm, are selling drugs.
E. A. Rennin and C. M. McIntire are dealing flour, feed, and groceries.
Norton & Bro. are trading extensively with the Indians.
The Arkansas Traveler, the property of L. B. Kellogg, of Emporia, published here, is superintended by C. M. Scott, the local editor. Mr. Scott is a first class printer and gets up one of the neatest little papers in the State.
Owing to the bad condition of the roads, our return trip was not as pleasant as dry soil and fine weather would have made it. G. G. PATTERSON BRIX.
Walnut Valley Times, February 10, 1871.
                                           THE COUNTY LINE QUESTION.
Elsewhere we publish the proceedings and resolutions of a public meeting, held in Eldorado, on Monday evening, February 6th, in reference to the County Line Question. We are all aware that the people residing in the southern portion of Butler and the northern portion of Cowley Counties want a new county formed out of the territory now comprising the two named counties. This proposition is one that we are all more or less interested in, and should engage the candid consideration of every citizen of these counties. The question is, whether these counties are not too large for practical purposes.
Leaving out local issues, would it be to the best interest of the taxpayers of these counties to have a new county formed, embracing the territory in the south of Butler and north of Cowley counties. E. C. Manning, Representative of Cowley County, was elected on the issue of “no change of County lines.” H. B. Norton, his opponent ran on the same platform, but was defeated.
L. S. Friend, Representative elect of Butler County, dis­tinctly stated in his canvass of the County, that he was opposed to any change in county lines, and would not, if elected, do anything to change them, unless a majority of the legal voters of the county petitioned for a change; then, and not till then, would he act in the matter. He has held his seat more than half of the session and has adhered strictly to this pledge.
Mr. Baker, who was a candidate for Representative, was also pledged to oppose any change in county lines.

All the citizens in the lower portion of this county want a new county. Quite a number of people scattered over the county are favorable to the proposition. It is claimed by the advocates of this measure that a county thirty-three miles wide by forty-two miles long, is too large for practicable purposes—that what is for the interest of one part of the county is not for the other—that so long as our county remains as large as it is, so long will it be engaged in local fights. There is and can be but one fair way to decide this matter, and that is to leave it to the people who are interested in the matter and who are affected by it.
Mr. Manning and Mr. Friend are not going to take up this question unless the people move in the matter. This session of the Legislature is so far advanced that it will be impossible to do anything this winter.
Therefore, there can be but one thing for those who are favor­able to this third county movement to do, and that is to submit the proposition to the people and let them decide the matter. We shall favor the following proposition, which, in our opinion, will settle the vexed question.
Let those who are in favor of the new county movement, nominate a man for Representa­tive who is distinctly and positive­ly in favor of the movement; and, on the other hand, let those opposed nominate a man who is opposed to a change in county lines. By this move we will ascertain the will of the people of the county, which should be law, in this, as well as all other matters. We are opposed to any change in our county lines, if it has to be secured by fraud, deception, or misrepresentation. A part of the town may resolve that they are in favor of a new county, while others may resolve to be opposed to it. We shall endeavor to discuss this question candidly and frankly, and shall do what we can to secure to the people their rights in this matter. A fair discussion of this question will do no harm, and we hope to see it settled by fairness and not by fraud. It is for the people to say when this county shall be cut; how it shall be done, and where the lines shall be drawn.
As Cowley County is in the same boat with us, these remarks will apply equally as well to her. Those of our friends in the southern part of the county who want a change, should give the people time to consider this matter, as they will gain nothing by undue haste.
We attended and acted in the capacity of Secretary of the meeting that passed these resolutions. We did not vote for them, nor can we endorse them. We publish them by a request of the meeting, as we would publish the proceedings of any other meet­ing. We do not know the exact sentiment of this community on the county line question, nor do we know what the masses of the people, outside of those who are directly interested in this matter, think of this movement. As this county line question has been the prime cause of all the local quarrels in this county, we want to see it come squarely before the people, without being mixed up with any county-seat movement, and let them decide whether or not a new county shall be formed.
Emporia News, February 10, 1871.
                                       [Part of this item is missing...all chopped up.]
We clip the following notice of Prof. Norton from the Schoolmaster, an educational periodical published at Chicago.

“Hon. H. B. Norton, late Associate Principal of the Kansas State Normal School, has left [??] we suspect, forever. When the prospect of wealth appears, most of us kindly accept the situation. His ability and energy [??] to select a spot in Cowley County, Kansas, at the junction of the Walnut and Arkansas Rivers, upon which to build a city. He and his brother, Gould Hyde, put up the first log house in June. Today there are nearly one hundred buildings, including mills, etc. A large trade is already opened with the Osages and Texan drovers. Capt. Norton will handle $30,000 in furs and robes this winter. As the Norton boys have a large share of the land, and as two railroads are sure to pass through their town, we, on the whole, are not disposed to blame the ‘Sage’ for leaving the school room.”
Emporia News, February 10, 1871.
                                                STATE NORMAL SCHOOL.
Ex-Gov. Eskridge favored the application of the teachers of the Normal School, and also an increase of their salaries.
Mr. Overstreet opposed any increase in the number of teachers or their salaries.
Mr. Kellogg spoke in explanation of the former action of the board.
Superintendent McCarty urged that we pay the principal of the Normal School a respectable salary and then demand that the money shall be fully earned.
Mr. Eskridge moved that the estimates submitted by him be passed upon by items, and the motion was carried.
The following estimates were then adopted:
The following estimates were then adopted:
Salary of Principal: $2,500.00. [Skipped the rest.]
Mr. Overstreet moved that an itemized account of expenses for fencing be filed with the Secretary of the board, which motion was carried.
Emporia News, February 17, 1871.
                                                          FROM TOPEKA.
                                               More About the Normal School.
[Skipping article...seems that Eskridge and Stotler were furnished salary increase figures by Kellogg...Overstreet only heard of meeting after it had started...ended up making Kellogg’s salary $2,000. Many questions raised!]
Emporia News, March 31, 1871.
H. B. Norton spent a few days here this week. He is as enthusiastic as ever for the Arkansas Valley, and Arkansas City in particular. He says there are now over ninety buildings in the City, and more going up. Shares are selling rapidly. Norton & Bro. are doing a large trade, as is every business house in the town.
Emporia News, April 14, 1871.
Max Fawcett left upon our table a specimen of hydraulic cement, taken from his claim near Arkansas City. He has a ledge on his place that crops out above the surface for a distance of one hundred rods. Being in doubt as to what it really was, he took a specimen to Prof. H. B. Norton, of Arkansas City, who pronounced it hydraulic cement. In order to feel yet more certain, he took it to a Professor in the Normal School at Bloomington, Illinois, who is a first class geologist, and he pronounced it to be the same that Prof. Norton thought it was. This cement is a matter that being made of hydraulic lime is very extensively used for cementing under water, but is not abundantly found anywhere else in this country, we believe, except in Michigan. It may prove of no inconsiderable value to Max. We hope it may.
Emporia News, May 12, 1871.
                                                 FROM ARKANSAS CITY.
                                                  Arkansas City, May 1, 1871.

EDITOR NEWS: About one week since, a strong working force stated from this point for Fort Sill, accompanying a train sent out by Neal & Co., of Humboldt, to the Cheyenne and Wichita Agencies. Col. O. P. Johnson commands the party.
The object is to completely open a road to a point near the crossing of Red Fork, just above where the “Jackson Trail” diverges. This will give us an air line to Fort Sill, through a most magnificent country, and over a road made as perfect as a strong working force can make it in one season.
We have an excellent ferry at this point. Only 50 cents ferryage across the Arkansas, and freighters from Emporia will save 50 to 75 miles by taking this instead of the Wichita route.
                                             Very respectively, H. B. NORTON.
Cowley County Censor, July 1, 1871.
Board of County Commissioners met in special session at the County Clerk’s office in Winfield, June 27th, 1871.
Present: T. A. Blanchard, G. H. Norton, and E. Simpson.
Proceeded to canvass the vote of Beaver Township, which resulted in declaring the following officers elected.
For Justice of the Peace, Alfred Jenkins and T. W. Morris; for constables, N. Wertman and J. L. Ritchie; for Trustee, L. M. Kennedy; for Treasurer, Isaac Beach; for Clerk E. J. Smalley; Road Overseer, H. Freeman.
Petition of M. S. Cobb was then presented, asking for a license to keep a dram shop in Arkansas City. Petition reject­ed on the ground that said Cobb failed to satisfy the Board that a majority of the citizens of the township were on said petition. There was also a large remonstrance filed and present­ed.
Petition of Gillmore and others for road was presented. Laid over until next for want of evidence of publication.
Petition of Jasper Trusty and others for a new township was granted, with the following boundary lines: Commencing on the west bank of the Walnut, at the crossing of the north line of Township 33, Range 4, thence west to northwest corner of township, thence south to southwest corner of township, thence east two miles, thence south two miles, then east five miles, thence north six miles, thence west to Walnut River, thence up the Walnut River, to place of beginning. Name of Township: “Pleasant Val­ley.” Election ordered July 25th, 1871.
Remonstrance against the State Road that runs from Eureka to Arkansas City, running through Pat Sumner’s [Somers’ ?] claim laid over for the report of the viewers.
Petition of A. Kelley and others for a new township granted, with the following boundaries: Commence northeast corner of Township 30, Range 6, running south nine miles, thence west one mile, thence south one mile, thence west one mile, thence south one mile, thence west eight miles, thence north six miles, thence east one mile, thence north one mile, thence east one mile, thence north one mile, thence east one mile, thence north three miles, then east to place of beginning. Name of township, “Richland.” Election ordered 25th day of July, 1871.
Petition for the sale of school section sixteen, 7, 31, Range 7, east. The following appraisers were approved by the Board: Joseph Trumbell, Henry Wilkins, and E. D. Sutton.

Petition for the sale of the southeast quarter of Section thirty-six, Township 21, Range 4, of school land. The following appraisers were appointed by the Board: J. C. Monforte, S. R. Richards, and W. J. Orr.
Petition for the sale of the northeast quarter of Sections 36, 7, 32, Range 3, east of school lands. The following gentlemen were approved as appraisers: D. A. Millington, J. D. Cochran, and E. C. Manning.
Petition of L. B. Goodrich and others for the sale of school lands was laid over until next meeting of the Board.
The following bills were allowed.
One in favor of T. H. B. Ross, services as Deputy Sheriff, $5.00; H. J. Keffer, as judge of election, $6.00; cost in case of State vs. Thomas Shippley, $52.15; E. Case as Deputy Constable in above case, $5. T. A. BLANCHARD, Chairman. A. A. JACKSON, Clerk.
Emporia News, July 21, 1871.
The papers have been filed for the organization of a company to build a railroad from Ottawa (the present western terminus of the Kansas City and Santa Fe railroad, and soon to be the western terminus of the Holden road) up the Marais des Cygnes River Valley, thence to the Neosho, up the Cottonwood and South Fork to the Walnut Valley, and down that magnificent stream to its mouth, at Arkansas City. This, today, is the most important railroad project on foot in this State, as it traverses five of the best valleys in the western country.
The following gentlemen, who are incorporators of this great enterprise, are men well known for their sagacity, enterprise, and devotion to the interests of Kansas: S. T. Kelsey, Franklin County; J. Mather Jones, Osage County; F. R. Page, C. V. Eskridge, S. J. Crawford, E. P. Bancroft, E. P. Peyton, Lyon County; T. B. Murdock, M. Vaught, J. D. Conner, T. H. Baker, Butler County; D. A. Millington, H. B. Norton, Cowley County.
The length of this road is about 180 miles, and the capital stock is $4,000,000.
Osage and Franklin Counties have already voted bonds to this road to the amount of $175,000. It is supposed that on the balance of the road $600,000 can be voted, making a total of $775,000. This will insure the speedy construction of the entire line. . . .
It will be remembered that about a year ago companies were organized to build over this same route. It has been thought best to consolidate them into one company, and thus have a more united feeling.
We urge, in behalf of the people along this line, immediate action.
Walnut Valley Times, July 21, 1871.
The above Railroad Company was organized this week, and will receive its charter from the State within the next few days.
Prominent Railroad men are interested in this organization and give assurance that the road will be built as soon as the franchises are worked up. This road is to start from Ottawa, and run up the Marais Des Cygnes Valley to Arronis, in Osage County, thence up the Neosho Valley to Emporia, thence up the Cottonwood Valley, crossing over to the head of the Walnut and passing directly to the mouth of the steam, via Chelsea, Eldorado, Augusta, Walnut City, Douglass, Winfield, and Arkansas City.

The Directors of this Company are: R. M. Kelsey, of Frank­lin County; J. Mather Jones, of Osage county; F. R. Page, C. V. Eskridge, Gov. S. J. Crawford, E. P. Bancroft, and E. B. Peyton, of Lyon County; M. Vaught, T. B. Murdock, J. D. Connor, and Hon. T. H. Baker, of Butler County; D. A. Millington and H. G. [G. H.] Norton, of Cowley County.
One hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars in bonds have already been voted to secure the building of this road from Ottawa to Emporia. Lyon County will give one hundred and fifty thousand dollars for the continuation of this road to the west line of the County in the direction of the Walnut Valley. Should the counties of Butler and Cowley each vote two hundred thousand dollars in bonds to this road, it will be built the entire length of the Valley within fourteen months. We are assured that the Company proposing to build this road will commence at Emporia and build both ways. We consider this road a feasible one that will reach the Valley sooner than any other, giving us a shorter route east, with better connections than any route now proposed. We shall give further particulars next week.
Emporia News, September 22, 1871.
For Sale. Three shares of Arkansas City town property have been left with me for sale.
                                                          L. B. KELLOGG.
Emporia News, September 29, 1871.
                                                  FROM ARKANSAS CITY.
                                Settlers Moving North—Railroad and Other Matters.
ARKANSAS CITY, September 24, 1871.
DEAR NEWS: As your readers have not had a letter from this section for some time, I thought one might prove interesting.
What seems to be agitating the minds of a great many of our people just now is the vexed question of the exact location of the State line. Emigrants came in last spring and settled up the country immediately south of here quite densely. In their eagerness to get good claims, many of them, I am afraid, got too far south, and settled in the Territory. Superintendent Hoag’s recent instructions, ordering intruders out of the Territory, has created quite a sensation. Many are moving their houses one, two, and three miles north, upon unoccupied claims. It is unfortunate for them because many of them have made improvements, such as breaking, etc., which they are compelled to abandon, thereby losing one season’s labor.
The sectioning of the Territory is under rapid headway. Col. E. N. Darling has four hundred men employed on the work. His aim is to get it completed in January next. Quite a good many men have gone from here to engage in the work. The survey headquarters have been established on Deer Creek, twelve miles south of here. Major A. N. Deming, of New York, is in charge. This being their basis of supplies, our merchants are wearing smiling countenances.
Touching railroad matters, Cowley congratulates Lyon County for her work on the 13th inst. This county is alive to her interests, and when called upon she will follow your noble example.
The Nortons are down in the Territory among their Wausasha friends. All miss the graceful Professor and the fair haired Captain.
The drawing of lots due on certificates is announced to come off on the 30th inst. Everything bids fair that the drawing will be conducted in an honorable manner. M. J. M.

Cowley County Censor, October 21, 1871.
Last Saturday the Republican Delegate Convention met at this place and, notwithstanding the day was stormy and disagreeable, all the townships were represented except Creswell. The follow­ing named gentlemen were the delegates.
Richland Township: James Kelly and Frank Cox.
Windsor Township: S. Wilkins, B. H. Clover, and John Dudley.
Vernon Township: Geo. Easterly, T. A. Blanchard, and F. A. Schwantes.
Beaver Township: T. W. Morris, B. Y. Hunt, and L. M. Kennedy.
Tisdale Township: G. W. Foughty and A. B. Lemmon.
Pleasant Valley Township: W. E. Cook, D. Hostetter, and S. W. Greer.
Rock Township: John Irwin, A. V. Polk, W. H. Grow, and J. Funk.
Dexter Township: Jas. McDermott, J. H. Reynolds, and G. P. Wagner.
Winfield: E. S. Torrance, I. H. Coon, J. W. Hornbeak, C. A. Bliss, J. A. Myton, Capt. Tansey, D. A. Millington, and Jno. Stannard.
The convention was called to order by J. McDermott, Chairman of the Central Committee.
E. S. Torrance was chosen temporary Chairman and L. H. Coon, Secretary.
                                          CANDIDATES FOR NOMINATION:
Representatives: E. C. Manning and S. M. Fall.
Sheriff: T. A. Blanchard, Warren Ablen, J. M. Pattison and E. M. Conklin.
Register of Deeds: John Irwin, F. A. Hunt, G. C. Swasey, and J. W. Tull.
Treasurer: A. H. Green, W. H. Grow, and G. W. Bullene.
Coroner: G. P. Wagner.
Surveyor: W. W. Walton.
County Clerk: J. W. Hornbeak and J. A. Myton.
Superintendent of Public Instruction: Jno. Dudley and A. B. Lemmon.
                                CENTRAL COMMITTEE FOR ENSUING YEAR:
Dexter township, James McDermott.
Creswell township, G. H. Norton.
Beaver township, L. M. Kennedy.
Rock township, John Irwin.
Winfield township, L. J. Webb.
Walnut Valley Times, December 1, 1871.
                                                           Cowley County.
                                     [FROM THE ARKANSAS TRAVELER.]
The Arkansas Traveler will be enlarged and greatly improved soon.
There is no let up, no diminution of zeal and enterprise with which the citizens of Arkansas City work for the interest of the town. The prospects of this young city were never brighter than now. All goes well with us.
The citizen’s Association has ordered the printing of 5,000 pamphlets, descriptive of Arkansas City and vicinity.

H. B. Norton and L. B. Kellogg have been appointed to edit the pamphlet. It will be printed at this office.
Walnut Valley Times, July 19, 1872.
                                               RAILROAD CONVENTION.
Delegates from the several conventions along the line of the Kansas City, Emporia & Walnut Valley Railroad, and from Kansas City, met at the courthouse in Emporia July 11th to consider the matter of raising money and apportioning to each locality along the line its equitable share to build the road. Prof. H. B. Norton, of Arkansas City, was made chairman, and Prof. Warner Craig, of Osage County, secretary.
Entitled to seats in the convention—
Cowley County: H. B. Norton, L. R. Kellogg, C. A. Bliss, and C. A. Millington.
Butler County: W. M. Sparks, A. L. Redden, and T. B. Murdock.
Among those who were made directors—
Cowley County: C. A. Bliss and Thomas Blanchard, of Winfield, and A. D. Keith, of Arkansas City.
Butler County: Wm. Sparks, of Chelsea, T. B. Murdock, of Eldorado, and Neil Wilkie, of Douglass.
Walnut Valley Times, October 25, 1872.
H. B. Norton, of Arkansas City, was at our Teachers’ Insti­tute during its session and thus writes of us in the Arkansas Traveler.
The town was full of handsome school ma’ams and their cavaliers. An Institute of over seventy teachers convened on the 23rd prox. It was a gala week. Everybody kept open house, hospitality ran rampant, and we “boarded round” right royally. Our bighearted and digestive friend, Bent Murdock, gave away a big edition of his paper to the teachers.
The TIMES is building a cut stone block, and waxes fat. Eldorado is the largest and most wealthy town in the valley. Judge Campbell is opposed to the one term principle, and is going to be re-nominated. So be it. Dr. White resembles Jeshurun, and sells infinite piles of quinine. His lady’s ministrations of hospitality will be remembered for a long time to come. They are glorious hosts.
Walnut Valley is full of people, full of corn, full of grit; but hogs are scarce, fruit scanty, and money wanting. We wait for a railroad with anguished hearts. Heaven speed the day.
Winfield Messenger, November 8, 1872.
Will the Traveler please tell us who its “special contribu­tor” is—whether he is the “H. B. Norton” that lives “in Arkansas City” or the “H. B. Norton” that lives “adjacent” thereto. We would like to know for our own information which it is.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 20, 1873.
                                          RECAP OF PARTICIPANTS ONLY.

Charles Williston, J. B. Parmelee, Mrs. Bostwick, Mrs. J. C. Graham, J. B. Fairbank, Prof. Wilson, Prof. E. P. Hickok, Mrs. N. J. Ferguson, Prof. L. B. Kellogg, Mrs. Mina Hawkins, Prof. H. B. Norton, H. H. Martin, C. L. Rood, J. W. Cowgill, Alexander Limerick, Mrs. Bostwick, Miss Helen Parmelee, Miss Lizzie Swarts.
Efforts are being made to secure the presence of our State Superintendent, H. D. McCarty. T. A. WILKINSON, Co. Superintendent.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, May 8, 1873.
                                                            Sheriff’s Sale.
W. T. Soden, et al       ) In the District court for Lyon County,
         vs.                      ) Kansas.
H. B. Norton, et al.     )
By virtue of an order of sale issued out of the District court, for Lyon county, Kansas, and to me directed, wherein W. T. Soden, E. R. Holderman, I. E. Perley, and J. S. McMillen are plaintiffs, and H. B. Norton and G. H. Norton are defendants, I will, on the 24th day of May, 1873, at one o’clock p.m., in front of the court house door, in the city of Winfield, Cowley county, Kansas, offer for sale, to the highest bidder for cash in hand for not less than two thirds of the appraised value thereof, all the right, title, and interest of the Defendants, H. B. Norton and G. H. Norton, in and to the following described real property, as follows to-wit:
Lot 19, block 44, lot 17, block 109, lot 14 in block 17, lot 11 in block 116, lot 25  in block 53, lot 7 in block 9, lot 15, block 120, lot 21, block 110, lot 2, block 95, lot 30, block 136, lot 14, block 133, lot 5, block 124, lot 16, block 82, lot 15, block 51, lot 25, block 19, lot 26, block 151, lot 10, block 30, lot 15, block 39, lot 17, block 150, lot 18, block 86, lot 11, block 39, lot 13, block 17, lot 23, block 94, lot 10, block 116, lot 19, block 93, lot 15, block 131, lot 8, block 9, lot 16, block 120, lot 14, block 32, lot 1, block 95, lot 29, block 136, lot 14, block 76, lot 18, block 104, lot 7, block 30, lot 8, block 124, lot 3, block 54, lot 24, block 19, lot 25, block 151, lot 21, block 82, lot 7, block 50, lot 16, block 39, lot 18, block 150, lot 7, block 73, lot 20, block 138, lot 21, block 138, lot 14, block 113, lot 10, block 32, lot 3, block 35, lot 9, block 101, lot 19, block 52, lot 13, block 113, lot 6, block 39, lot 4, block 25, lot 10, block 101, lot 20, block 52, lot 6, block 30.
All of said real estate being in the city of Arkansas City, county of Cowley, State of Kansas.
Said real property will be sold in obedience to said order of sale.
Given under my hand at my office, in the city of Winfield, this 15th day of April, 1873.
                                JAMES PARKER, Sheriff, Cowley County, Kansas.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, May 27, 1873.
Mr. Norton received a letter from Prof. L. B. Kellogg, late Principal of the State Normal School, dated Golden City, Colorado, May 17th inst., containing information that Mrs. Abbie G. Kellogg, his wife, died at that place on the 15th inst., and that he will go to Illinois, and perhaps to Massachusetts with his little children, after which he will return to Arkansas City.

Prof. Kellogg left Arkansas City a couple weeks since, with his family, to spend the summer in the mountains for the benefit of Mrs. Kellogg, who had been in poor health for some time. The sympathies of a large number of our citizens will be enkindled in behalf of the bereaved husband by the above announcement. Mrs. Kellogg was a faithful wife, and greatly attached to her husband, always ready to sacrifice her personal comfort and enjoyment to his interests. We have a vivid recollection of their starting from Emporia two years ago for their new home on the border, and considering the position they filled in society here, we could not but admire the devotion of a woman, who crowding into a rough wagon, filled with household goods and her little ones, would take the lines and drive an imperfectly broken pair of colts, her husband on horseback following, to a new home on the borders of an uncivilized Indian Territory.
To many who have made such journeys to a new country, this circumstance may appear trivial, but in days to come there will be some at least who will find immense comfort in the contempla­tion of those days when a wife and mother, educated, and accus­tomed to social and refined associations, willingly surrendered her own comfort that in the future herself and family might enjoy the rich blessings of an honest earnest sacrifice. Emporia Ledger.
Mr. and Mrs. Kellogg were old residents of this county, and will long be remembered by the old settlers of Arkansas City and Winfield. Mrs. Kellogg was an estimable lady, and the news of her death brings a pang of sadness to the hearts of her many friends in Cowley County.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, June 5, 1873.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 10, 1873.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, August 7, 1873.
J. S. McMillen et al vs. H. B. Norton et al: sale con­firmed.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, August 21, 1873.

Prof. Henry B. Norton will deliver a course of Scientific Lectures on the evening of the 28th, 29th, and 30th inst., in the Arkansas City Schoolhouse, commencing at 7-1/2 o’clock p.m. Subjects: Suns and Planets; the Nebula Hypothesis and the six days of creation; The earth and man. Tickets for the entire course 50 cents. The Lectures will treat of the most recent discoveries concerning the structure of the Universe; the plural­ity of worlds; the spectroscope, and its recent wonderful revela­tions; the antiquity of man; air and ocean currents; and the complete harmony of science and revelation. The entire proceeds will go to aid in the erection of a parsonage for the use of the pastors of the M. E. church of Arkansas City. We earnestly solicit the patronage of the community. C. KING, P.C.
Walnut Valley Times, August 22, 1873.
Prof. Norton, of the State Normal School at Emporia, is in attendance at our Institute. The professor is loved and beloved by the teachers and educators of Butler County.
Prof. Norton will lecture tonight at the Academy Hall on the subject of Genesis and Geology. It will undoubtedly be a good one. Turn out.
                                             PROF. NORTON’S LECTURE.
Walnut Valley Times, August 29, 1873.
On Wednesday evening, Prof. Norton lectured upon “The Great Republic.” The lecturer discussed various evils affecting modern society, including war, the diversity of languages, restraints upon commerce, our imperfect system of weights, measures, and coinage, and the discordant relations between labor and capital. He then spoke of the remedies which may be applied to these evils. The British Parliament is moving in behalf of interna­tional high court, which shall arbitrate between nations, and make an end of war. The Japanese are now likely to adopt an improved form of the English language, with a phonetic alphabet and regularized verbs, which is likely to become universal in the far east and ultimately all over the world. The tendency of the times is towards free trade, cooperation between capital and labor, and to universal adoption of the French Metric System and a uniform coinage all over the world. The lecturer showed that this would practically change the world into one Great Republic and pictured the grand effect of this harmonious union upon human progress.
Upon Friday evening he lectured upon “The Nebular Hypothe­sis,” analyzing the structure of the universe, its method of growth, and the complete harmony between Genesis and geological science.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, September 4, 1873.
The directors of the Agricultural Society will meet at the Fair Grounds, Saturday, Sept. 6th, 1873, at 2 o’clock P. M. They earnestly desire that the Superintendents of all the departments meet with them to acquaint themselves with their duties. The following are the names of the various Superintendents.
Capt. E. Davis; A. Walton; J. H. Churchill; J. P. Short; John R. Smith; E. B. Johnson; W. K. Davis; A. S. Williams; Will S. Voris; S. H. Myton; Samuel Darrah; James Stewart; Jas. H. Land; T. B. Myers; Geo. W. Martin; W. M. Boyer; Max Shoeb; John Swain; S. C. Smith, Mrs. L. H. Howard; Mrs. J. D. Cochran; Mrs. E. Davis; Mrs. J. C. Fuller; Mrs. C. A. Bliss; Mrs. Fitch; Max Fawcett; J. O. Matthewson; H. B. Norton; D. A. Millington; E. B. Kager, C. M. Wood; T. A. Wilkinson.
The Superintendents are desired to study carefully the rules and regulations of the society so they may be able to render assistance to exhibitors.
                  [Excerpts: Covers Prof. Norton, Capt. Norton, and Prof. Kellogg.]

Winfield Courier, April 17, 1874.
                                                    Ordination and Dedication.
The exercises at the liberal church last Sunday were interesting and well attended. Prof. Norton was ordained according to the Congregational order in the forenoon. In the evening, Rev. Mr. Platter conducted the dedica­tion exercises.
Prof. Kellogg gave an interesting history of the origin, nature, and progress of the enterprise, announcing that the church had been built without foreign aid, had but a small debt, and was in a prosperous and hopeful state. Mr. Platter preached a sermon appropriate to the occasion. The church is a neat and tasteful edifice, finely and completely finished, and is in all respects an honor to its founders.
Mrs. G. H. Norton writes from Vicksburg bitter complaints of the weather there; rain and mud all the time. We have about the right latitude and climate. Let us try and make the most of it.
Winfield Courier, April 24, 1874.
                                                 Commissioner’s Proceeding.
                                              COWLEY CLERK’S OFFICE,
                                        Cowley County, Kan., April 16th, 1874.
The following is a list of bills allowed by the Board of County Commissioners at their last regular meeting, showing the amount to whom allowed, and for what purpose.
                                                 H. B. Norton, Examiner: $6.00
Winfield Courier, May 15, 1874.
Prof. Henry B. Norton, of Arkansas City, is just now being talked up by the Emporia Ledger, Topeka Commonwealth, and Arkan­sas City Traveler, for the position of State Superintendent of Public Instruction. It is really encouraging to see the newspa­pers bring out such men as Prof. Norton, for places of trust and honor. We know of none in the state better qualified for the position than he, and the Republican party of Kansas will honor itself and the State by nominating and electing Henry B. Norton.
Winfield Courier, May 15, 1874.
L. B. Kellogg has returned from Washington. He does not think the “Cattle Trail Bill” will become a law much before the close of the present session of Congress. Some modification of the bill will be necessary to insure its success. Some enactment to legalize and regulate the cattle driving from Texas to Kansas is absolutely necessary for the mutual protection of the drovers and Indians.
The little son of Mr. Mott, aged eighteen months, drank from a cup of strong lye, last Monday, and is not expected to live. The mother had just left the house, and when she returned, the child was lying on the floor with its mouth so much swollen as to be unable to make any noise. Assistance was called as soon as possible and it may possibly recover.

Orin Wilkinson, formerly of this place, but late of Arkan­sas, writes that the whole country is under water, and the Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers still rising, and people and stock are being drowned and starving to death. During all this the Governors are fighting for their positions. That would be a lively state to emigrate to, surely.
Prof. Norton’s discourses bring out a class that have heretofore been unknown at church.
A herd of buffalo, seven in number, came in on the townsite of Caldwell, May 4th, became frightened at the school children, and ran away.
The tuition for the common branches of English for non-residents of this school district is $3 and $5 for the higher branches for the whole term.
Winfield Courier, May 29, 1874.
Prof. H. B. Norton will deliver two lectures at the Court­house on Tuesday and Wednesday evenings of next week. The subject on Tuesday evening, June 2nd, will be “Glacial period of the Northern Hemisphere.” On Wednesday, June 3rd, his subject will be “Genesis and Geology.”
The popular interest awakened in regard to scientific subjects has led many of our scientific men to prepare lectures suited to meet this demand. Prof. Norton is one of the leading educators and scholars in the west, and as a popular lecturer meets with favor everywhere. Go and hear him. The proceeds are for the benefit of the Presbyterian church building fund.
Winfield Courier, June 5, 1874.
ADDRESS. Prof. Norton goes up to Lawrence to attend the University Commencement next week. He has been selected as one of the orators on that occasion. He also addresses the literary societies of the Emporia Normal School, June 18th.
Winfield Courier, June 5, 1874.
The lecture of Prof. H. B. Norton last Tuesday and Wednesday evenings, owing to a misunderstanding as to the time, and owing to this, and owing to that (but we believe owing to the fact that many of us do not yet appreciate such talent as Prof. Norton, and are not particularly fond of intellectual treats) anyway, the attendance was not so large as it might have been.
Excerpt...Involves relative of Prof. Norton, I believe.
Winfield Courier, June 12, 1874.
We are indebted to Curns & Manser, real estate agents and proprietors of Abstracts of Titles to all lands in Cowley County, for the following transfers of real estate.
Annie J. Norton and husband to Lyman C. Norton s w qr sec 9 tp 35 s r 3 e $750.
Winfield Courier, Friday, July 17, 1874.
“It will be observed that our $12,000 courthouse is a failure. That was a pretty little job to put on the county. We hope that the responsible parties, and those who voted for them will feel proud of their work.” Arkansas City Traveler.

The above was written by Prof. H. B. Norton, who is left in charge of the Traveler during the absence of the editor. How did you observe that our $12,000 courthouse was a failure, Professor? We promise that Prof. Norton got his information from the following, published by us last week.
“The courthouse is reported as being in an unsafe condition. The self-supporting roof, is not a self-supporter at all, but is pushing the walls over.”
Is there any failure in the simple fact that some of the braces in the roof are insufficient? But the Prof. says, “It was a pretty little job to put upon the county, and hopes that the responsible parties who voted for them will feel proud of their work.” We have always entertained the highest regard for Profes­sor Norton, believing that he was incapable of anything cruel or mean, but if the above is a fair sample of his spirit, if he still loves to be revenged on Winfield, then we are compelled, though with the greatest reluctance, to change our opinion of Professor Norton. The Prof’s squib is of the same piece as that of C. M. Scott, in his letter to the Cadiz (Ohio) Republican, when he says, “Arkansas City is the principal town in Cowley County.” No, Prof., there was no job about the courthouse, so far as the County Board, or those who voted for them were con­cerned.
Winfield Courier, July 24, 1874.
Prof. Norton called us Colonel in the Traveler this week. Well, Colonels, like Professors, are easily manufactured here in Kansas.
Winfield Courier, August 28, 1874.
                                                 Right Front in Line. March!
Pursuant to a call, the citizens of Winfield and vicinity met at the courthouse on Monday evening, the 24th, electing J. J. Williams as chairman, and W. W. Walton Secretary; E. B. Kager stated the object of the meeting to be the organization of a company of State Militia.
Capt. J. B. Nipp, being called upon, made some very good suggestions besides giving the latest news from the frontier. He thought that there was more danger of an invasion by the Indians now than there had ever been. The Osages demanded the return of the ponies and one thousand dollars each for the Indians killed in the recent engagement with the Militia. These terms will not be conceded by the Governor, and an open war on the extreme border this fall and winter is threatened.
A sufficient number having signed the necessary oath, they were sworn in by Capt. Nipp. They then proceeded to the election of officers, resulting as follows.
Capt., E. B. Kager; 1st Lieut., A. T. Shenneman; 2nd Lieut., L. J. Webb; Orderly Sergeant, W. W. Walton.
Recruiting has begun in earnest, and a large company will be formed here, the necessary arms and accouterments will be sent on immediately. Yesterday Capt. Kager received the following from Col. Norton which explains itself.
                                          ARKANSAS CITY, August 26, 1874.
CAPTAIN KAGER: Please report to me the number of effective men in your company that you can count on to go, both mounted and unmounted. This is by order of the Adjutant General. He says: “Have all the companies carefully inspected and accept none but first-class men for service.” Yours, G. H. NORTON, Lieut. Col. Kansas Militia.

Winfield Courier, September 4, 1874.
                                                          INDIAN NEWS.
Last week between Dodge City and Camp Supply, five farmers who lived in that vicinity, and were out hunting buffalo, were killed by Indians.
A. C. Williams, special agent of the Kickapoos, whose agency is about twenty-five miles below Arkansas City, sent in word to Capt. Norton a few days ago for assistance to protect himself and little band of Indians and the agency from the Osages. Mr. Osage had been making some hostile demonstrations. The Captain provided the required aid.
Winfield Courier, September 4, 1874.
Prof. Norton, of Arkansas City, was defeated in the state convention as candidate for the nomination for Superintendent of Public Instruction. This was a great disappointment to his many friends and especially to the southwest, which craved a place on the ticket. The Prof. had a majority of the convention and on the first ballot stood five votes above Gen. Frazer. But owing to the confusion in the tally kept by the clerk resulting from the changes that some of the delegates had made, the result was announced in Fraser’s favor. Norton’s friends, seeing the skulduggery of Fraser’ backers, and the determination of Presi­dent Thatcher to nominate his pet in spite of the Convention, very properly demanded another ballot, which was finally granted, but not until a large number of Prof. Norton’s friends had left the convention. On the final vote Fraser was nominated.
Winfield Courier, September 4, 1874.
                                                     Item from the Traveler.
TO THE PUBLIC. Whereas unfounded rumors greatly exaggerat­ing the present Indian difficulties have within the past few days been put in circulation, this is to give notice that any person caught in the act of originating and circulating falsehoods tending to disturb the peace and quiet of the community will be arrested and handed over to the proper authorities and dealt with according to law. G. H. NORTON, Capt. Militia.
Winfield Courier, September 4, 1874.
                                                             PURE GRIT.
We saw a man between this place and Wichita mowing hay with a scythe, and raking it up with a rake made of poles, with a rope attached, hauled by two oxen. That man will provide for his stock, and will see that his family does not suffer. How many who are able to do much better are attempting to do nothing.
The Militia of Barbour County scalped the Indians whom they killed at Medicine Lodge recently.
The following dispatch was received by Captain Norton on Saturday evening.
                                        TOPEKA, KANSAS, August 28th, 1874.
Capt. G. H. Norton—Arkansas City: Your company is ordered into active service, to commence from this date. Orders will be sent tomorrow. Supplies shipped to Wichita.
                                                   C. A. MORRIS, Adj. Genl.

The fifty ponies captured from the Osages by the Barbour County Militia, are herded at Medicine Lodge daily and brought within the stockade each night for safekeeping. They are held by Captain Ricker’s company subject to the order of Gov. Osborn. The Governor will not deliver them back to the Osages unless they can prove:
1st. That the Indians from whom they were taken were a hunting party without hostile intentions to the citizens of Kansas.
2nd. That the Indians had not learned the order of their Agent to return to their reservation.
3rd. That the Indians did not fire first upon the Militia.
Winfield Courier, October 2, 1874.
                                                    Items from the Traveler.
Prof. Norton will remove his family to Emporia next week.
    [Many items pertaining to Capt. Norton are in Indian Book already. Am Skipping.]
Giving only a portion of a long article about Teachers’ Institute, Winfield...
Winfield Courier, Thursday, October 15, 1874.
                                                 TEACHERS’ INSTITUTE.
                                        WINFIELD, KANSAS, Oct. 5th, 1874.
Institute met per appointment at schoolhouse. 1 o’clock p.m., Prof. Wilkinson in the chair. After singing and appoint­ment of Committees, the rhetorical exercises of the day were entered upon.
1st. Class drill in grammar by Miss N. M. Aldrich.
2nd. Object lesson by Miss Anna Melville.
3rd. Class drill in mental arithmetic by Prof. Robinson.
4th. A short lecture on theory and practice by Prof. Wilkinson, which was both interesting and instructive. He urged upon the teachers the necessity of a complete system of uniformity of government, in which he gave several useful hints about calling and dismissing classes. The treatment of different temperaments met in our common schools—
making his remarks more effective by illustrations from former schools of his own.
Prof. Robinson’s exercise in mental arithmetic was one that could be practiced in all our district and graded schools with great success, and as he told us, it will always prove diverting and instructive, strengthening the mind as no other one method can. And we have no doubt the teachers will introduce it into their schools. . . .
                                                            Oct. 6th, 1874.
After the devotional services the following exercises took place.
Class drill in spelling by E. A. Millard.
Class drill in drawing by Miss Lillian Norton.
Class drill in arithmetic by Prof. Robinson.
Class drill on the organization of country schools by Prof. Kellogg.
Class drill in penmanship by Geo. W. Melville. . . .
Prof. Kellogg’s class drill was excellent. He awoke life and interest among the teachers. He drew methods and idea from the teachers—deciding upon those that he thought best for adoption, and presenting them in clear concise language. His remarks were spicy and entertaining.

Lesson in penmanship by Mr. Melville, good. He urged upon the teachers the necessity of some one system of penmanship, and the adoption of that by the whole school, devoting a portion of each day to a thorough drill causing pupils to improve slowly but surely. He recommended the Spenserian system. His lesson was given from that.
Miss Norton’s method on drawing was a happy combination of instruction and pleasure, as it calls out ideas from each and every pupil, teaching at the same time the beauty of invention and the training of the eye and hand.
Winfield Courier, December 10, 1874.
                                                            Traveler Item.
Prof. Norton, although not a candidate, received 256 votes for Supt. of Public Instruction in Butler County in the November election.
Winfield Courier, January 28, 1875.
The young “bloods,” who had made arrangements to visit Capt. Norton’s of Arkansas City, last week, changed their programme and had an oyster supper at Capt. Lowry’s.
Winfield Courier, March 4, 1875.
Prof. H. B. Norton and several of the students of the Emporia Normal school have the mumps.
Winfield Courier, April 15, 1875.
From the Atchison Champion we learn that Prof. H. B. Norton has accepted a position in the State Normal school of California and will leave Kansas some time in June next. We will be very sorry to lose Prof. Norton from among the educators and good men of our state.
Winfield Courier, June 17, 1875.
Prof. H. B. Norton was presented with a gold watch and chain by the citizens of Emporia, on the eve of his departure for California.
The following lengthy article was furnished by Sam Dicks, University Historian, Emporia State appeared in two issues.
Emporia News, Friday, July 2, 1875, and Friday, July 9, 1875.
                                         FROM KANSAS TO CALIFORNIA.
DEAR NEWS: I have a fancy to while away the tedium of travel by writing a few desultory notes for your pages. I am afraid they will be scattering and fragmentary enough. I begin this chronicle on Friday afternoon, June 11, as our train is whirling up Platte valley.
Our last view of Emporia was a bright and pleasant one. Kansas was enjoying her June holiday and appeared in her brightest colors. Among all the throng at the depot every face seemed good and kind. The train started; the picture, too precious to ever be forgotten, vanished into the background, and soon the stately figure of “Shep” appeared upon the scene, punching tickets as leisurely as if life had no sorrowful partings.
Burlingame—Topeka—Atchison—St. Joseph—were all duly announced by the official voice. Along the line of Missouri, the grasshopper was evidently a burden. Large tracts were thickly thronged; many corn fields were devoured and the air was full of them flying toward the east. I think the worst is over for Kansas. Outside of limited localities, crop prospects are all that could be desired.

The junction at Council Bluffs is a truly wonderful sight. Several railroads centre there, and the amount of business is enormous. Huge emigrant trains, each having seven or eight coaches crowded with passengers, came rolling in from the east. We crossed the Big Muddy on a high bridge, above the tops of the smoke stacks.
The depot at Omaha is the scene of a most bewildering activity. It was painful to reflect that somebody must be responsible for all these freight trains, checks, and mountains of baggage. I felt truly thankful that Providence had caused my feet to journey “along the cool sequestered vale of life,” instead of making a railroad man of me. It makes one’s head ache to think of it.
We left Omaha on Friday at noon. All day and all night we rode up the beautiful, lonely Platte valley—a broad river, strangely on a level with the immense grassy plain. The continent has not a more beautiful landscape, in its way, than this. But the strange feature about it is the absence of human life. The Platte valley, beautiful and fertile as it is, is no such hive of industry and population as that of the Kansas or Arkansas.
This Pullman car is the poetry of travel. We climb the long gradient between Omaha and Cheyenne, ascending more than a mile of vertical height, utterly unconscious that we are climbing. We rest on luxurious sofas and couches, eat, sleep, and gaze, passing in a day over ground which years ago cost a month’s travel over a wearisome road. Let us no longer wonder at the pyramids; Cheops must doff his hat to the peddling Yankees, heroes of Credit Fancier and Credit Mobilier, Oakes Ames, and the rest who carried through this stupendous enterprise.
Away in the heart of Wyoming I resume these notes. We entered the mountains Saturday at noon, about twenty-four hours out from Omaha. The difficulties of construction here were much less than were expected. I had fancied something Alpine or Andean; but we find few deep cuts or grades along dizzy precipices. The long snow-sheds obstruct the view in many places; but since we entered the mountains, we have never been out of sight of the grand snow peaks to the southwest. As I write, we are riding parallel to the Uinta mountains, which rise like a long white cloud on the south. Long’s peak was passed yesterday. All around are rugged hills, canons, and small pools. The summit level of the road was a little west of Cheyenne—over 8,000 feet above the sea. There are dwarfish pine forests and innumerable trout brooks. The buffalo does not range so far to the west, but we saw many antelopes from the car windows. But after passing the Rocky mountain range, we have seen only a barren waste, having no visible verdure but sage and cactus. For seven hundred miles it is a worthless desert of clay and alkali, seamed with granite. There are some mining settlements along the track, and large amounts of coal were to be seen piled up for shipment, the fossil vegetation telling of the great tropical palm forests that once filled this basin.
It is a beautiful Sabbath morning. The air is clear and bracing. We have not suffered from cold, though often riding close to the snow fields. The landscape improves a little as we approach the great Salt Lake. Through the rugged plateau, numerous streams are flowing down to the Green river, destined to enter the ocean through the stupendous gorge of the Colorado. Almost on the level of the waters, is a little hand-breadth of fertile land, irrigated by the stream, and covered with green grass. There are dirty looking adobe huts, chickens, a few domestic animals grazing; Chinamen in blue cotton lounging beside the track; and beyond these, the everlasting monotony of bluff and sage-brush, with the grand white serration of the mountains bounding the view.

Wyoming is the paradise of the strong-minded. It is the only spot in America or the world, where men and women are political equals. I think that Victoria might be satisfied with its morality, and Science with its elevation and angularity, albeit, no possible raiment of “plain colored silk” could hide its algin skeleton. It is to the cursory view a land of desolation; but perchance there is abundant mineral wealth hidden under these ragged hills. Laramie is a cluster of adobes and shanties, perched amid steep bluffs and mainly devoted to the traffic of whisky. The political privileges must indeed be extraordinary to induce ladies of refinement to locate there.
There are several military posts along the road, where Captain Jinks wastes his sweetness on desert air and allows all his martial enthusiasm to run to seed. He looks forlornly enough at the long trains that come and go, full of suggestions of the great world from which he is exiled. Indian scares are of such infrequent occurrence that he has little variation for his years of monotony. It must be a drear life, not conducive to intellectual activity.
People spoke often to me before I started of the wearisomeness of the journey. There is certainly a mistake in this. It is restful to every fibre of my being. The wrinkles grow visibly less as I go on. There are nine children on this car. They have formed a society of mutual entertainment and seem very happy, though sometimes too noisy for the general comfort. “Daisy” poutingly submits to frequent incarcerations in the car seat next the window in punishment, which is very soon forgotten when again at liberty. The passengers are quiet, genteel people, reasonably social; we read, visit, watch the snowy mountains, and the days pass like a dream.
It is Monday morning, and we are crossing Nevada. I made my last jottings nearly twenty-four hours ago. Since then, those of us who thirsted for Alpine heights and Andean gorges have been satisfied to our fill, in the ride down the Weber canon to Salt Lake. This was truly a marvelous journey. The road winds down a narrow gorge between most stupendous precipices, passing through several tunnels, and five times crossing the boiling torrent that flows down the chasm. I dare not state the height in figures, but the snow banks covered the upper half of the cliffs, while in the broader openings at their base, summer crops were growing luxuriantly. The summits were often hidden by the mists that wrapped around them. It was a new and wonderful revelation to me. It was not like Yosemite or the Colorado, I suppose, but it had its own peculiar grandeur. The canon broadens near its mouth and we glide down to Ogden, one of the cities of the Salats. Here we change cars, from the Union to the Central, and find our new quarters to be even more beautiful and palatial than the old.
Ogden is almost in sight of the Great Salt Lake, and a few minutes later we are moving along its shores. On our left, the heavy salt waves are beating against the embankments, and on our right rise vast cliffs, covered with snow. This is a strange, mysterious looking sea, surrounded by salt marshes, and vast breadths of alkaline bareness. The homes of the Saints look badly enough, scattered along the foot slopes. The fields are carefully irrigated by the mountain streams, and all things betoken industry and thrift. The Mormons have many sins to answer for, but idleness is not in the list.

Night came down upon us as we were skirting the salt lake. As I write this, the great snow-fields of the Nevada range lie like a white cloud upon the western horizon. We are crossing a strange land of hills, rocks, and sage-brush, but we can see the Humboldt plain not far ahead. The air is wonderfully bracing and pure, and the distant mountains deceive the eye by their apparent nearness. The White Pine silver mines lie just beyond the Humboldt range, which rises on the southwest, covered with snow.
The ride down the Humboldt valley was a unique experience. We entered it in the morning, and followed it to its sink—some 250 miles. The plain is in some places ten miles wide, in others a mere gorge. It is everywhere walled by the barest, blackest, bleakest mountains on the continent. The soil is a light brown loam, only needing water to make it productive. As we neared the lake, we found a few places where streams had been brought from the mountain, and had turned the desert into fruitful fields and orchards. Excepting these, the only vegetation is sage and “greasewood,” an ugly, dwarfed conifer.
But the lake is strangest of all. It is a stagnant pool, ten by forty miles, of heavy, nauseous alkaline water. Boiling springs pour into it, and a dreary waste stretches around it. Darkness came down as we were traversing its banks. The sky was misty, the mountains black and bare, the water sullen and motionless. It would be hard to imagine anything more uncanny and stygian. It seemed to me like “the black lake Avernus, where vampires drink even the breath.” There is a lonely station on its bank, where a sign announces “pies for sale,” and a melancholy Irishman informed me that there were suckers in the lake, and that all drinkable water was brought on the train from Truckee, some thirty miles. Those pies and suckers helped to dissipate the nightmare surrounding the lake.
At the western foot of the Nevada mountains, I resume these fragmentary notes. It is Tuesday forenoon, June 15th, our fifth day out from Omaha. I woke at 3 o’clock this morning: dawn was faintly breaking, and the solemn glory of snow-capped and pine-clad forests was around us. Our train, drawn by two powerful engines, was toiling up the steep grade of the eastern slope. As we neared the summit, we entered the snow-sheds, which hid the landscape, except at small intervals, for forty miles. Snow-banks lay beside the track; a heavy white frost covered all. In the brightening day we caught a glimpse of Donner Lake, half-wrapt in mist, a thousand feet below us, visible through a gap in the planking of the snow shed. At last we had passed the snow-sheds and seven or eight tunnels, and commenced our rush down the western slopes. Those were bold-hearted engineers who laid out that road. My superlatives are already exhausted; I cannot describe it. It was a sublime swoop, from the snowy summit down through a heavy storm, along the edge of amazing precipices, from which we could ook down upon arms and houses as toy maps; through Titanic piles of granite, draped with pine; through canons and over embankments and bridges that made the flesh creep; above, and through, and under, one layer after another of clouds; past great desolate gorges, and hills washed down by the gold-miners. Mining is destructive work; it leaves only rubbish and ruin behind it. The vegetation changed from great sombre pines to oak and a bewildering variety of flowering plants; and soon we went sweeping through broad, dusty valleys toward the Sacramento. Chinamen everywhere, in an unvarying uniform of blue cotton; oleanders, fuchsias, geraniums, growing in the open air; marvelous berries, peaches and apricots peddled by boys through the cars; platform trains loaded with granite slabs en route for Sacramento; stubble-fields from which the ripened crop has been removed; parched, brown hills covered with a dead looking dwarf grass, like the buffalo-grass of the plains; fugitive glimpses of the vast domes of Nevada behind us; “S.T. 1860. N,” scrawled upon the cliffs everywhere; such are some of the pictures of the foot-slopes.

California railways are very much like those of other states, in that they take the traveler through the back streets, among tenement houses and smoky factories. Nevertheless, Sacramento looks very paradisaical, buried in flowers and trees, with the great white dome of the State House dominant over all. The city is surrounded by beautiful gardens, many of which seem dedicated to trotting horses and lager beer. The throng at the depot is cosmopolitan enough. It is a refreshing landscape, after viewing the mining towns of the Sierra, all slab, suburb and back side. The river, with its muddy water and trim steamboats, is strikingly like the Ohio or Illinois.
A level plain, subdivided by trim board fences, and covered with yellow wheat stubble, stretches south from Sacramento. The wind mills form a peculiar feature of the landscape. They are to be seen by hundreds in all directions, pumping up water from wells, to irrigate the fields. Here is a lesson for Jayhawkers. The agricultural wealth of California has come from intelligent industry. Kansas is a better grass country than California; its soil averages much better; it has more rain and there is no reason why the parching Kansas breezes may not do the same work as is performed by the winds of the Pacific. Brother Granger , if you want to try California agriculture, begin on the Neosho or Walnut, and see whether abundant water will not produce better Californian crops. It surely will.
I must set my watch back two hours. We have journeyed thirty degrees toward the west, but my precious “Elgin” seems all unconscious of the fact. It keeps Normal School time. Its heart is evidently at Emporia. Wake up, my sentinel! You are in a new world! I wonder if my own hands will as easily take up the new thread of life.
Tomorrow is your Commencement. It will be truly that to me—the commencement of new experiences and labors. I know what sultriness pervades Kansas airs now. But here the Pacific wind blows cool and moist across the plain; the day is clouded and rain falls softly at intervals, as we speed down the valley to our new home.
Evidently the weather is out of joint. The early rains were very scanty in amount and the latter rains are coming at an unprecedented period. The wheat crop was shortened by drought, and now some of it is sprouting in the cock. (There isn’t a wheat stack in California, I suppose.) The farmers are not happy.
Through wild gorges, amazing cuts, and another tunnel, we crossed the Diablo Range, and are now flying up to San Jose valley. Last Wednesday I closed my work in Emporia. It is Tuesday afternoon, the sixth day of our journey. The waves of the San Francisco Bay glisten in the west, backed by the cloud covered mountains of the Coast Range. Ahead of us, embowered in foliage, is our new home. Here I must close these rambling notes, adding but one or two items.
The cost of a through ticket from Emporia via Omaha is about $115, first class. The journey, in a Pullman car, is not a wearisome one, but is a holiday vacation to me. It is not severe, even for one in fragile health. My wife experienced an hour of nausea and faintness, while crossing the summit west of Cheyenne, some 8,500 feet above sea level. One other lady was similarly affected. Outside of this the journey was a pleasant one for all.
I will write again when I have learned more about our new home. With warmest regards to many friends. H. B. NORTON.
Winfield Courier, July 29, 1875.

Prof. H. B. Norton in an excellent letter from California comparing Kansas thereto said the following.
To sum the thing up: Kansas has the best soil, and the most arable land; the best summer climate; abundant grass and coal.
California has the best winter climate, and a good supply of timber, but no coal. Kansas is the best agricultural state.
The wealth of California has come from a wise use of capital and labor. The poverty of Kansas has been developed by insane speculation, and a general disregard of the conditions needful to success.
Kansas has better facilities for irrigation than California, but everything in California is raised by irrigation.
Winfield Courier, September 2, 1875.
Kallock had a “call” and higher salary offered; Norton went west with a larger purse in view; Beecher had his wages increased; and now comes a $1,000 offer for our Lemmon. What does it all mean? Surely the causes are not all the same. The truth is, true merit will be appreciated wherever found.
Article about Capt. Gould Hyde Norton...
Winfield Courier, December 30, 1875.
From the Traveler we learn that Captain Norton’s investments in Florida have proven very unsatisfactory, as he bought a large tract of land with a Spanish claim upon it and had to abandon it. He is now in Illinois.
Eventually papers revealed that Lyman C. Norton was a cousin of the Norton brothers...have skipped most data about L. C. Norton.
Arkansas City Traveler, February 2, 1876.
Arkansas City Traveler, February 9, 1876.
We publish on the first page an interesting letter from Prof. Norton to Col. J. C. McMullen.
Arkansas City Traveler, February 9, 1876. Front Page.
                                      SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA, Jan. 19, 1876.
Col. J. C. McMullen:
DEAR OLD FRIEND: I have been waiting for Saturday to come, that I might have leisure to write to you without hurry and pressure. . . .

We are very comfortable and happy here, having pleasanter quarters than for several years, and better prospects also. I have, to my own great surprise, emerged into a field of work that more than satisfies me. My effort in the pulpit and on the lecture stand are received in such a way as makes me wonder. In the line of scientific illustrated lectures, I seem to have no competitor on this coast, and calls come from all sides, of which I can answer very few indeed. I am very well, busy, and happy; and thankful for the good Providence which has led me from the Cimarron to this beautiful city. I feel “in my sphere” here rather than there.
This is a city of churches. We are members of the Congrega­tional Church, presided over by a thoroughly cultured Bostonian. My wife is happier and more hopeful than for years—
seeming, however, somewhat dissatisfied with the sparse population of California. Our little people are very well indeed, and are progressing in their studies. My boy now plays all easy music at sight, and seems to be gradually outgrowing Kansas malaria.
The landscape outside looks queer enough: The mountains are piled deeply with snow, but the orange trees are full of ripe fruit on the foot slopes, and the valley is as Eden-like as grass and flowers can make it.
From our window we look out upon such a panorama—more than a hundred miles of snowy mountains, both verges being covered, and rising abruptly to the east and west, more than 4,000 feet; while in the adjoining yards superb callas and perpetual bud and blossom. We have much rain, but only upon one day has a snow­flake come down to the valley, and then the snow melted as it fell.
Fuel is the one costly item on this coast: good coal, $16 to $20 per ton, and wood $10 to $12. However, we live on manna: Water and gas come in pipes; milk, during the night, miraculously appears in a can placed on a veranda; dirty clothing is carried off by a Celestial being in wooden shoes and a long pigtail, and returns in a fluted and enameled condition fit for the New Jerusalem; bread, the daily paper, meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, wine—all are delivered at our door by similar angels, more or less in disguise; though I must admit that our Providence pres­ents weekly or monthly bills, as that of the Hebrews did not. . . .
                                                           H. B. NORTON.
Correction made re status of Capt. G. H. Norton in Florida...
Arkansas City Traveler, February 9, 1876.
We learn that Capt. Norton did not lose anything in Flori­da, as he had not purchased the land spoken of. We say as much in behalf of our friend, Captain Norton.
Arkansas City Traveler, February 9, 1876.
                                                       Methodist Episcopal.
                                                       J. J. Wingar, Pastor.
                                  Meets every Sabbath once a day, at Norton’s Hall.
The following are excerpts taken from one of the most important issues in Winfield. Two newspapers carried items concerning “Cowley County” during the Centennial year. You might want to study both in greater detail...
                                               THE WINFIELD COURIER.
                            [Covering Period January 6, 1876 - December 28, 1876.]
                                                     CENTENNIAL ISSUE.
                         WINFIELD COURIER, THURSDAY, JANUARY 6, 1876.
                                                            VOL. 4, NO. 1.
                          PRODUCED EVERY THURSDAY BY E. C. MANNING.

                                          HISTORY OF COWLEY COUNTY.
Winfield Courier, January 6, 1876.
About the last day of December, 1869, Judge W. R. Brown, H. B. Norton, T. A. Wilkinson, H. D. Kellogg, John Brown, Moore, and G. H. Norton drove into camp near Wood’s residence as members and representatives of the Walnut City town company.
A few leading citizens of Emporia, among the number, C. V. Eskridge, P. B. Plumb, J. Stotler, L. B. Kellogg, H. B. Norton, and Judge Brown and H. L. Hunt, of Cottonwood Falls, had orga­nized a town company and sent the party mentioned down into the Walnut Valley to locate a town at the junction of the Walnut River with the Arkansas River. The map of Kansas at that time showed that the junction was about the center of Cowley County. After some conference with the settlers, the newcomers took five claims adjoining Manning’s claim, east, southeast, and south, with the intention of making this the location of the proposed town. In a day or two upon an examination of the country below, the party decided to locate their town at the present town site of Arkansas City.
On January 1st, 1870, T. A. Wilkinson, John Brown, G. H. Norton, and John Strain staked out and claimed the four claims upon which Arkansas City now stands, as the location of the new town. H. B. Norton took a claim adjoining the town site on the north, H. D. Kellogg took a claim south of the town site. When this party arrived at the mouth of the Walnut, they found the bottom and timber claims taken by H. Endicott and his son, Pad, and G. Harmon, Ed. Chapin, Pat Summers [Somers], Mr. Carr, Mr. Hughes, and one or two others.
The Walnut City town company consisted of fifteen members, and the four claim holders mentioned were of the number, and were to hold the claims and enter them for the company. On their way down the valley the party discovered a Walnut City in Butler County, and concluded to change the name of their company to Delphi. On their return to Emporia the name was again changed to Creswell, and by this name the town was known for some months. On applying for a post office, the Post Office department in­formed Senator Ross, who made the application, that there was a Creswell in Labette County, Kansas, and that no two offices of the same name would be located in the State, and at Ross’ sugges­tion, it was called Arkansas City. When the commission came to G. H. Norton, who was the postmaster named, the town was named Arkansas City. This was in April 1870.
On the 9th day of January, 1870, a party of fifteen men under the lead of Thomas Coats took claims along the Grouse Valley. Their names were John Coats, Wm. Coats, Joseph Reynolds, Gilbert Branson, Henry Branson, Newton Phenis, I. H. Phenis, H. Hayworth, L. B. Bullington, J. T. Raybell, D. T. Walters, S. S. Severson, John Nicholls, and C. J. Phenis.

The Winfield enterprise took form in January of 1870, as did that of Arkansas City. From the start the parties interested in the two prospective towns were shaping events to secure the county seat of Cowley County whenever it should be organized. In February of 1870 a bill was introduced in the Senate of Kansas entitled, “An act to organize the county of Cowley,” and making Creswell the county seat. As soon as the news arrived at Winfield, James H. Land, A. A. Jackson, and C. M. Wood traversed the county in three days and took the census of over six hundred population, and reported at Douglass, in Butler County (the nearest place where an officer could be found to administer an oath), on the 23d of February. At that time the necessary papers were made out and E. C. Manning took them to Topeka and presented them to the Governor, who, thereupon issued the order organizing Cowley County and designat­ing Winfield as the temporary county seat. The bill organizing the county got through the Senate but failed in the House.
As specimens of “literature” of that day we produce the following circulars which were issued a short time previous to the first election held in the county, to-wit:  May 2nd, 1870.
To the voters of Cowley County:
The Creswell Town Company ask leave to present to you the claims of Creswell as a location for the county seat.
This town is situated on the Arkansas River, twelve miles above its intersection by the State line; said intersection being two and three-fourth miles below the mouth of the Grouse. The Walnut enters the Arkansas at Creswell, and the valleys of other streams on the south side of the Arkansas converge at this point, making it the natural centre of business and population for Cowley County.
Creswell is named as a point upon four chartered lines of railroad, viz: The Walnut Valley Branch of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe road; the Preston, Salina & Denver road; the Emporia & Holden road; and the Arkansas Valley, or Fort Smith & Hays City road. It is also confidently expected that this will be the point of crossing for the Fort Scott & Santa Fe road. The Legislature at its recent session, ordered the immediate survey of a State road, by the most direct route, from Emporia to Creswell.
The company have determined to spare no expense or effort to make Creswell the metropolis of the Arkansas Valley. The follow­ing are among the enterprises already inaugurated:
Sleeth & Co., of Eldorado, have contracted to put up their steam saw-mill and a shingle-machine in operation at Creswell by the 15th of May.
Daniel Beedy, now a resident at Emporia, has contracted to build a grist-mill, saw-mill, and planing-mill upon the Creswell water-power; to commence by July 1st, 1870.
G. H. Norton & Co. have opened a general stock of groceries, dry goods, boots and shoes, which they pledge themselves to sell at Eldorado prices.
Betts & Fraser, of Eldorado, will at once open a stock of groceries, provisions, and campers’ supplies.
C. R. Sipes, of Emporia, has purchased an interest in the town, and is preparing to open at Creswell the largest stock of hardware, tinware, and agricultural implements ever offered south or west of Emporia.
A stock of drugs and medicines has been ordered by responsi­ble parties, and a well provided drug-store will be speedily established.
We are also happy to announce that the best job and newspa­per office south of the Neosho will commence the publication of a newspaper at Creswell within the next ninety days.
Max Fawcett, recently of the Neosho Valley (Emporia) Nurs­ery, has transferred his entire interest to Creswell, and is arranging to establish there the largest fruit and nursery concern in Kansas.

L. F. Goodrich, of Emporia, is now at work erecting a feed and livery stable.
A ferry has been chartered, and will be running upon the Arkansas by July 1st.
We, the Town Company of Creswell, furthermore pledge our­selves to erect a first-class stone or frame building not less than thirty feet square and two stories high, suitably arranged for a court-room and county offices; and to deed the same, with one entire block of not less than fourteen lots, centrally located, to the county, to be its property so long as the county-seat remains at Creswell; the building to be completed within six months after Creswell is chosen permanent county seat.
The question of taxation is one of great importance to the people of a young and undeveloped country. It is only at the cost of heavy taxes that the county will be able to erect a courthouse and other county buildings. This expense the Creswell town company propose to wholly assume.
The immediate vicinity of the Arkansas River is the natural location for the cities and towns which are to one day adorn this great valley. The natural centers of population and business will be there. Let us choose wisely, and make a choice which will not speedily be reversed.
We commend these facts and offers to the thoughtful consid­eration of the voters of Cowley County.
                   H. B. NORTON, Associate Principal State Normal School, President.
                                C. V. ESKRIDGE, Lieut. Governor, Vice President.
                               W. R. BROWN, Judge 9th Judicial District, Secretary.
                          L. B. KELLOGG, Principal State Normal School, Treasurer.
                                                      J. STOTLER, Director.
                                                COL. P. B. PLUMB, Director.
                                             CAPT. G. H. NORTON, Director.
                                                       H. L. HUNT, Director.
                                             H. D. KELLOGG, M. D., Director.
                                                   J. S. DANFORD, Director.
About one week after the foregoing was in circulation, the following humorously paraphrastical circular appeared.
                            [Note: The following came from Mr. E. C. Manning.]
                                                     AR-KEN-SAW SITTY.
                                                     (Supplemental Address.)
Tu the Voters of Kowley Kounta:
The Ar-ken-saw sitty town kumpeny ask leve tu present tu yu the klaims uv Ar-ken-saw sitty as a lokashun fur the kounty seet.
[Explanashun.—Ar-ken-saw sitty wuz fust named Walnut sitty, then it wuz named Delfi, then it was changed to Kreswell out uv respect tu our patriotic P. M. General, and he hez changed the named tu Ar-ken-saw sitty out uv respect tu the inhabitants uv the town, most uv whom lives in Imporia. In konsekence uv this last happy change voters will be perticular tu put “Ar-ken-saw sitty” on their ballots instead uv Kreswell when tha vote fur kounty seet.]

This town is situated very fortunately on Arkensaw river, klose to the State line, and is entirely surrounded by water, interspersed with vast forests uv timber already sawed, and one vast expanse uv unbroken prairie bottom in cultivashun extends on every hand reddy tu be jumped bi actual settlers, making it the natural senter uv bizness and populashun uv Kowley kounty. Among its many uther natural advantages that mite be menshuned is stones, coal, salt, and inluenshal men who reside in Imporia.
Ar-ken-saw sitty is named as a pint on 31 different rail­roads, amung the number there bein the followin, namely, to-wit, viz:  Walnut Valley Branch uv the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad, the Preston, Salina & Denver Railroad, the Emporia & Holden Railroad, the Arkensaw Valley or Fort Smith & Hays City Railroad, the Northern Pacific Railroad, the Southern Pacific Railroad, the Atlantic & Great Western Railroad, the Illinois Central Railroad, the Emporia & Sandwich Islands Railroad, the St. Louis & El Paso Railroad, the Alaska & Panama Railroad, the New Orleans & Portland (Oregon) Railroad. It is also konfidently expected that most uv these roads will run into the ground at this place, and konsekently Congress has been peti­tioned to declare this a “port of entry.”
The kumpany hev determined tu spare no expence to make Ar-ken-saw sitty the great meat-ropolis ov the Arkensaw Valla. The following are among the enterprizes in-au-ger-ated, (that is bored for):
Slamem & Co. hev kontracted tu put their steam watermill and hair shingling machine in operashun at Ar-ken-saw sitty at 15 minutes past 4 o’clock the 14th day ov Ma.
D. Boon hez kontracked to run a pare uv stones for all kinds of grinding and planing at the Ar-ken-saw wind power; work tu kummence at sunrise Ma 2d. Wind furnished bi the town kumpany.
G. H. Nash & Co. hev opened a box uv unparalleled sope fur the speshal benefit uv Ar-ken-saw travelers, and pledge them­selves to sell at Imporia prices and throw in the sand for skourin.
Busted & Flat, of England, will at once open a box uv sardinra and kampers supplies.
C. R. Sucked-in, uv Imporia, hez bot a soft thing here and will open it with ceremony, amid sounding brass and tinkling symbal, at precisely sunrise, July 4th.
A stock of blue mass and quinine has bin ordered bi respon­sible parties to hold the ager level that dwells in the marshes uv this region.
We are also happy to announce that the best job newspaper offis south uv nowhere will kummence its weakly issues in a da or two or three.
M. Forest is goin tu tare up the ground with his nursery concern at 11 o’clock P. M.
L. F. Gosin is now at work goin tu erect a feed and livery stable fur man and beest.
A ferry bote hez bin caught and will be runnin on Salt river karryin passengers from Ar-ken-saw sitty to Imporia. It starts at 7 A. M., May 3d.
The above may all be re-gharded as sure, sartin, and re-lie-able, so help us G__o in lemons and get squeezed.

We, the town kumpany, with one hand on the Bible and the uther drawin in suckers, pledge ourselves to erect a twelve story bilding, 500 feet square, with a room elaborately furnished therein for every voter in Kowley Kounty where board and washing shall be free; and tu kontane 21 uther large rooms for court hous and kounty offises, containing all the appertenances and appoint­ments that sience, culture, taste, refinement and wealth kan invent, and tu deed the same, with 1,000 acres of land, tu the kounty so long as Ar-ken-saw sitty is the kounty seat. This bilding will be kompleted in twenty minutes after the vote is taken on the kounty seet question.
The question uv taxashun is one uv grate importance tu the people ov a young and undeveloped kounty, and we propose to decrease it bi a division of the kounty.
It is only at a light expence that we erect the above described building, and is nothing tu what we kan do.
The immediate vicinity uv the Ar-ken-saw river is the natural locashun for kounty seets. Think uf this before you vote. This place bein the head uv navigashun uv the Ark-ken-saw river there is no objecttshun tu its being damd; in truth it has bin damd bi several now who have krossed it; this makes it the gratest wind and water site yet discovered in the explored regious uv the earth.
The voters ov Kowley should not trifle about this matter. Choose now, for tomorrow we may be upended and hev to move back to Imporia.
Q. R. DOESTICKS, A. M., F. R. S., President.
P. Z. GUDLEM, B. M. O. I. C., Vice President.
R. L. BEATEM, O. I. L. Y., Secretary.
G. O. LEMON, A. S. E. E. D., Treasurer.
Cowley County was organized Feb. 28, 1870, by the order of Gov. Harvey on petition, and Winfield was designated as the temporary county seat. W. W. Andrews, of Winfield, G. H. Norton, of Creswell, S. F. Graham, of Dexter, were appointed County Commissioners, Feb. 28, 1870, and E. P. Hickok was appointed County Clerk at the same time by the same authority.
The first meeting of the County Board was held March 23, 1870, at the house of W. W. Andrews, at which time W. W. Andrews was chosen chairman.
The following is the first action taken at that meeting, and is the first official record in Cowley County.
“County Commissioners, pursuant to a previous call, met at Winfield on the 23rd day of March, A. D. 1870, at Mr. Andrews’.
Present—Andrews and Norton. County Clerk proceeded to divide the county into three townships, numbered 1, 2, and 3.
No. 1 to include all that part of Cowley County laying north of a line running through the county east and west, touching the mouth of Little Dutch Creek, all north of Little Dutch to be included in said township.
No. 2 to include all south of the mouth of Little Dutch, extending south to include E. P. Hickok’s claim, and to within ten miles of the mouth of Grouse Creek.
No. 3 to include all south of E. P. Hickok’s claim on Walnut and the lower ten miles of the Grouse and the Arkansas to the State line.
Election in township No. 1 to be held at the house of Edward Phillips, at the mouth of Rock creek. No. 2 at Winfield. No. 3 at Creswell.”

This Board of Commissioners ordered an election to be held May 2nd, 1870; at which time the permanent location of the county seat was voted upon, and a full set of county officers were also elected. At that election there were two places voted upon for county seat, to-wit: Winfield and Arkansas City. The former received 108 votes and the latter 55 votes, and the following officers were elected.
Commissioners: T. A. Blanchard, Winfield; Morgan Willett, Rock Creek; G. H. Norton, Creswell; H. C. Loomis, Winfield, County Clerk; John Devore, Creswell, Treasurer; E. P. Hickok, Winfield, District Clerk; T. B. Ross, Winfield, Probate Judge; W. E. Cook, Cres-well, Recorder; W. G. Graham, Winfield, Coroner; F. A. Hunt, Rock Creek, Sheriff; F. S. Graham, Grouse Creek, Surveyor.
There was but one ticket in the field, and 163 was the total number of votes polled. These officers qualified and took possession of the respective offices May 21st, 1870.
T. H. Johnson was appointed County Attorney Sept. 5th, 1870, by W. R. Brown, at that time Judge of this, the 9th Judicial District, of which Cowley was a part.
July 6th, 1870, W. Q. Mansfield was appointed Deputy County Clerk; John Devore appointed J. P. Short Deputy Treasurer, and at the fall election Geo. B. Green was elected County Treasurer, but failed to give bond and qualify; consequently, John Devore held the office until July 2nd, 1872.
Having fully stated the primary organization of the county, the succeeding officers will be given in the order of their terms of office.
ELECTED.                        EXPIRED.
T. A. BLANCHARD         Nov. 8, 1870.                    Jan. 8, 1872.
G. H. NORTON                Nov. 8, 1870.                    Jan. 8, 1872.
E. SIMPSON                    Nov. 8, 1870.                    Jan. 8, 1872.
FRANK COX                   Nov. 7, 1871.                    Jan. 11, 1874.
O. C. SMITH                    Nov. 7, 1871.                    Jan. 11, 1874.
J. D. MAURER                  Nov. 7, 1871.                    Jan. 11, 1874.
R. F. BURDEN                  Nov. 4, 1873.                    Jan. 10, 1876.
M. S. ROSEBERRY          Nov. 4, 1873.                    Jan. 10, 1876.
JOHN MANLEY              Nov. 4, 1873.                    Jan. 10, 1876.
R. F. BURDEN                  Nov. 2, 1875.
WM. WHITE                     Nov. 2, 1875.
W. M. SLEETH                 Nov. 2, 1875.
There was much more about “Norton” newspaper!
You will note that Manning versus Norton comes out in more than one way!
The other newspaper which covered early era...
                                          COWLEY COUNTY DEMOCRAT.
                             [From February 24, 1876, through August 17, 1876.]
                                    Published by Amos Walton and C. M. McIntire.
[Cowley County Democrat was the name given to former “Plow and Anvil.”]
                        [MICROFILM STARTS WITH VOLUME 2, NUMBER 13.]
Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, March 30, 1876.

The parties boring for coal at Salt City claim to be close to the mineral. They now have everything in shape to push right along and according to Prof. Norton’s prediction, have but a few feet to go. They are down 380 feet.
This newspaper goes into about the same detail about arrival of Emporia group in 1870...READ NEWSPAPER!
Arkansas City Traveler, April 26, 1876.
We publish a communication from Prof. Norton, of California.
Arkansas City Traveler, April 26, 1876.
Dear Traveler:
We were up before the dawn yesterday, to spend a day in the mountains among the trout. There were four of us, including two businessmen of San Francisco. We had driven fifteen miles before 8 o’clock, and found ourselves at the opening of a mountain gorge, out of which flowed a foaming torrent. Here we left our team, and started on foot up the pass.
It was a wild landscape: Our path was along the stream, under the granite cliffs which rose abruptly one and two thousand feet above. In every available spot the great pines and redwoods were growing. The largest standing trees were inaccessible, and I was unable to get exact measurements; but I stood by new stumps more than ten feet in diameter, and was assured that many of the trees in sight upon the slopes were over two hundred feet high. However, such are not “big trees” according to California stan­dards. There was a wonderful variety of ferns and flowering plants, and, all in all, it was a landscape hard to describe by one accustomed only to the plains of Kansas. The great clouds were pouring over the mountains from the Pacific, wrapping and hiding the tops of the cliffs. At their foot flowed such a stream as I have sometimes dreamed of, but hardly expected ever to see: a clear, cold, crystal torrent, whirling around great boulders, pouring in waterfalls over granite ledges, sometimes forming deep pools where great salmon were lying.
We clambered some miles up the pass, in orthodox sportsman’s rig, the most important feature of which was the leg long rubber boot for wading. We at last stepped into the water, and began our work, fishing as we waded down stream. I had soon stepped into the deep water, and was carrying several gallons of the icy fluid in my huge boots. The fish lay in the swift, shallow waters; not a bite could we get in the deep pools. The salmon gave no heed to our bait, and the trout were all on the “rif­fles.” The rain soon came down heavily, but couldn’t make us any wetter; so we fished on philosophically. It was hard, chilly, exciting work, but we had soon bagged over a hundred trout: each one a live jewel. Above and below us, men were killing fifteen pound salmon with spears, but we stuck to our little trout, and were content.
Lunch, dry clothing, and the drive home followed in due course. I am sorry to add to this a bad cold and stiff joints for a few days; nevertheless, it was a novel and pleasing experi­ence, which I feel like repeating before long.
Deer are still numerous in the Coast Range, and our sports­men are occasionally hunted by grizzlies. The amount of redwood and pine in these inaccessible mountains is enormous, but there is little or no grass, and the soil is rocky and sterile.
All goes well with me, and mine. My life is very busy, but health and prospects are good. With kind remembrance, H. B. NORTON.
SAN JOSE, CAL., April 8, 1876.
Arkansas City Traveler, May 24, 1876.

JUDGE CHRISTIAN has rented the “Norton Store” building opposite the Central Avenue Hotel, and will remove his office thereto this week. He has improved the property considerably by putting in south doors and windows.
Arkansas City Traveler, August 2, 1876.
Last Wednesday evening the mail brought us a copy of the San Jose (Cal.) Daily Mercury. As the paper is a stranger at this office, we commenced looking for marked paragraphs for an expla­nation of this visit, when the following burst upon our vision in all its glory:
BORN: In this city, July 5, 1876, to Mr. and Mrs. H. B. Norton, a son.
Arkansas City Traveler, September 27, 1876.
                                          WINFIELD, KANSAS, Sept. 9, 1876.
C. M. Scott, Esq.: DEAR SIR: In reply to your question as to Manning bolting the Republican ticket in 1870, I have this to say. The party was organized by the appointment of a Republican Central Convention of one from each voting precinct in the County. This was done in Convention at Dexter. At the same time a delegate was elected to represent this County in the State Convention and he was admit­ted. Col. Manning, although there and claiming to represent the county, was rejected. That Central Committee called a Republican County Convention to be held at Winfield, I don’t remember the date. At the appointed time the Convention met in the building, then unfinished, in which Green’s Drug Store is situated, and organized by the election of John Irwin as Chairman and myself as Secretary.
All the precincts were represented but Winfield, and we nominated a straight Republican ticket. Afterwards a People’s Convention was called at Winfield and E. C. Manning nominated for Representative; Judge T. B. Ross, of Winfield, for Probate Judge; A. A. Jackson, of Winfield, for County Clerk; John M. Pattison, of Rock, for Sheriff; William Cook, of Winfield, for Register of Deeds. The other members on the ticket escape my memory. My recollection is the ticket was composed of three Republicans and three Democrats. This ticket was the only ticket nominated that fall against the Republicans.
Manning was defeated at the polls, but the easy conscience of the County Board resulted in the throwing out of the votes returned from six precincts, resulting in Mr. Manning being declared elected.
I commenced a contest against him, and the notice was served on T. H. Johnson at Manning’s residence, he (Manning) having absented himself to avoid such service.
When the Legislature met, the contestor, H. B. Norton (who was the choice of a majority of the voters of the county as aforesaid at that election), was very sick, and confined to his bed until towards the close of the session: hence the contest was abandoned. Respectfully,
                                                         W. P. HACKNEY.
Arkansas City Traveler, February 21, 1877.
The Emporia Ledger will have an interesting communication from Prof. Norton next week.
Arkansas City Traveler, April 11, 1877.
                                                      Kansas State Militia.

From the Military Signal published at Columbus, Ohio, we clip the following, which at this date is rather amusing:
Governor Anthony, Commander in Chief, Topeka.
H. T. Beman, Adjt. Gen., Topeka.
Maj. Gen. Sam’l Walker, Commanding Division, Lawrence.
Brig. Gen. F. H. Denning, Commanding 1st Brigade, Wathena.
Brig. Gen. T. T. Taylor, Commanding 2nd Brigade, Hutchinson.
Brig. Gen. Percy Daniels, Commanding 3rd Brigade, Girard.
Brig. Gen. H. C. Snyder, Commanding 4th Brigade, Glasco.
Col. G. H. Norton, Arkansas City.
Capt. A. D. Keith, Arkansas City.
Capt. J. R. Musgrove, South Haven.
Capt. R. Hoffmaster, Arkansas City.
Capt. E. R. Evans, Winfield.
Lieut. Geo. Wagstaff, Guelph.
Capt. E. B. Kager, Winfield.
Capt. T. J. Riley, Wellington.
Capt. W. S. Coburn, Arkansas City.
Capt. R. W. McNown, Maple City.
Capt. E. M. Hewins, Cedarvale.
Capt. C. W. Rambo, Elk Falls.
Capt. J. W. Vannoy, Elgin.
Lieut. Jno. Moseley, Medicine Lodge.
Lieut. H. E. Vantrees, Sun City.
Capt. L. C. Smith, Stockton.
Capt. Chas. Schaefer, Sedgwick.
Capt. Chas. Collins, Hutchinson.
Lieut. Jas. M. Worster, Langdon.
Capt. S. M. Tucker, Wichita.
Winfield Courier, May 10, 1877. Editorial Page.
                                                            Stay in Kansas.
In a letter to the Emporia News, Prof. Norton, formerly of that city, but now located in San Jose, California, advises parties who contemplate a removal to that State to stay in Kansas.
The Professor states that a severe drouth prevails all over Southern California, that the crops promise a total failure, and that cattle are driven into the sea and drowned to save them from inevitable starvation, and to relieve the people from the stench of their decaying carcasses. Poor people are suffering for the means to live comfortably, and thousands of laboring men are destitute of work.
Arkansas City Traveler, May 30, 1877.
MRS. GRAY, AT CAPTAIN NORTON’S FORMER RESIDENCE, has a number of beautiful flowers in full bloom.
Arkansas City Traveler, July 25, 1877.   

MR. L. S. COOK, the first white man who ever drove a stake on the townsite of Arkansas City, called on us yesterday, with J. P. Short, another old settler. It was on the 4th day of November, 1869, when Chetopah was camped on the Walnut, and the Indians had full sway. They took their wagon to pieces in order to get over the bluff near Tom Callahan’s. There were no whites in this part of the county then. Soon after Prof. Norton and others came, jumped the claims, that had then been abandoned, and started the town.
Arkansas City Traveler, August 29, 1877.
Prof. Norton, in writing to the Emporia News, says that on the narrow gauge railway from San Jose to Monterey, in Califor­nia, he met Mr. Austin, formerly a neighbor in Arkansas City, acting as conductor of the road.
Arkansas City Traveler, November 7, 1877.
Parties desiring blackberry roots can have them for the digging at the Capt. Norton place.
Arkansas City Traveler, May 1, 1878.
$9 per acre. My farm on the north side of Arkansas City is for sale at the above price—143-1/4 acres. H. B. NORTON.
Arkansas City Traveler, May 8, 1878.
The stock men of the northern part of the Territory held a meeting at Norton’s old ranch, Saturday, April 27th, to talk over matters of general interest to themselves.
New information relative to Capt. G. H. Norton...
Arkansas City Traveler, June 18, 1879.
Capt. Norton, who formerly resided at this place, writes from Florida that he has oranges on trees planted by his own hand.
Arkansas City Traveler, July 23, 1879.
Thanks to Hon. A. D. Keith for a late number of the San Francisco Daily Bulletin. The paper contains a very interesting report of a debate by Prof. H. B. Norton on the subject of the social evil of Mongolian competition with white labor.
Arkansas City Traveler, August 27, 1879. Front Page.
                                         FROM THE INDIAN TERRITORY.
                                   STOCK ITEMS, HORSE STEALING, ETC.
It has been about one month since you heard from me, so I write again. You have heard by this time of the murder of the unknown man near Caldwell, at the crossing of the “Shawas-caspah,” on the road to Wellington. He was shot behind the ear with a small pistol, and then placed in a blanket and rolled in the brush. A freighter, happening to break his wagon tongue, went into the thicket to cut a pole, and discovered the body. No clue to the murderer has yet been found.
Caldwell still keeps improving. It is now incorporated as a city of the third-class, with efficient police force to quell the racket of the cowboy. They had their first show last week, being of a minstrel variety, with Van Kelso, formerly cook of the Central Avenue Hotel at Arkansas City, as one of the chief actors. About fifty Arapahos with wagons from Cheyenne Agency passed through town, on their way to Wichita after freight.

We had occasion to go into the Territory, and after a day and a half’s journey from Caldwell, brought up at Drum’s cattle ranche, at the mouth of Medicine Lodge Creek, where Prof. Norton used to trade with the Indians many years ago. It had been very dry, but since the rain the grass has sprung up like magic, and this section now is one of the finest grazing regions we have seen in all our travels; the grass is the alkali or buffalo, and very nutritious. Mr. Drum has 2,400 head that he holds with two herders. The wages of herders is $25 per month and board. Most cattle men have abandoned night herding, claiming the stock does better, and it is not necessary except in cases of storms. Major Drum’s brand is U on the left shoulder. From Medicine Lodge we went to Clay Creek, where we found Mr. Bates, with 900 head of cows and calves, all looking well. He had been compelled to move camp for water, and the rain helped him, so that he can now make a choice of good ground. Mr. Bates is a merchant at Wellington, and leaves the entire care of the cattle to his two men. His brand is a triangle with T attached, placed on the right side of the animal.
From Bates’ we went to Johnson’s on Eagle Chief Creek. The range here had almost been destroyed for want of rain, and had it been much later would have compelled cattle men to keep out of that section entirely. Mr. Johnson has 1,900 head of stock cattle, and 1,600 more coming up the trail. The Kiowas and Comanches raided his herd as he was coming out of Texas last spring and stole 250 head of large cattle. He will endeavor to have the Agent make them pay for it. He has but three herders with the 1,600 head of cattle, and they seem to get along very well. His brand is 5 with a bar across the top, branded on the hip.
Mr. J. W. Short, on one of the western branches of Turkey Creek, just above where the Ellsworth trail crosses, has forty head of three and four year old cattle, which he offers for $14 per head, and 54 yearlings at $8 each. His two year olds he offers for $12. Here is a bargain for someone wanting to engage in stock. The cattle are half Texan and in good order.
Two men attempted to run off forty head of ponies last week, but were pursued by officers and several shots exchanged. The thieves got in the brush on Salt Fork and made their escape without the ponies.
The blacksmith soldier who deserted from Fort Reno, and took a horse with him, was caught at Wellington. He will probably go to the Leavenworth military prison for five years.
The Dodge City Times was mistaken about the Pawnees killing buffalo on Medicine Lodge Creek. There have been none in that region for more than a year. Deer, antelope, turkeys, and wolves are plentiful, with occasionally a stray elk or bear.
In attempting to cross the North Fork of the Canadian River on the 17th inst., while it was full from bank to bank, our horse mired down in the quicksand and left us to make our way to the shore with gun, saddle bags, etc., on our own back. We landed on the military reserve of Fort Cantonment, the new post, and were accosted by the provost guard, to whom we gave little satisfaction, not being in a humor to talk. He informed us that every person had to have a pass to travel through the Territory. We gently hinted that we preferred to talk with the commanding officer, and were escorted to him. Col. Dodge, being absent, we were not recognized by the new official, but was helped out of the dilemma by the appearance of the Post Scout, Amos Chapman, without producing our papers. Covered with mud and soaking with water, with a small arsenal attached to our person, we well might have been taken for almost any kind of a criminal.

The permanent buildings of the new Post are being erected of stone, on a small mound just north of the temporary post, in a more pleasant and healthy location. There are six companies here of the 23rd Infantry, formerly stationed at Fort Leavenworth. During the absence of Col. Dodge, Capt. George M. Randall, of Co. I, has command. The companies are A, C, D, G, I, and K. The balance of the regiment is at Camp Supply.
Mr. Keating, of Leavenworth, is Post Trader, and has a fine store and stock of goods. They have a saw mill, brick yard, one saloon, one blacksmith, and all the necessary tradesmen here. The health of the soldiers has not been very good, and several deaths have occurred during their short stay. About 23 have deserted this spring, and a number caught and brought back who attempted it. Mr. Bigford of Leavenworth has the hay and wood contract, and is paying laborers $25 per month and board. His contract to furnish wood at the Post is $1.00  per cord, and hay at $7 per ton. Corn retails at one dollar per bushel, and is hard to get. The sutlers say they would buy a quantity if it should be brought in. Board at the citizens’ mess house is $5 per week. At the laborers’, $2. There is not much amusement here, during the warm weather. In fact the 23rd is not so apt in making amusements as some other regiments. Yours, C. M.
Arkansas City Traveler, September 10, 1879.
Parties desiring a good cooking stove or heater, cheap, can be accommodated by calling on Mrs. Gray, at the old Capt. Norton place. She has three stoves in first-rate order, and other household articles, which she wishes to sell before returning to the East.
Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, December 17, 1879.
                                                 FOUND: AN OLD NOTICE.
                                                       DATE:  ______ 187_
Maj. Isaac P. Gibson, please pay Norton Brothers cash to the amount of Five Dollars, out of my annuity.
                                                            _______ Name.
____________ Witness.
                                                            _______ Band.
We found the above between the fly leaves of an old volume in the TRAVELER office the other day, and will recall to the old settler the antiquated method of skinning the red man without a knife.
Arkansas City Traveler, January 14, 1880.
The A., T. & S. F. railroad company commenced running trains to Arkansas City regularly yesterday. This recalls the time when, a few years since, a delegation of pioneers, prominent among whom were Profs. Kellogg and Norton, started from this place to locate a “future great city” somewhere in the Southwest. Arkansas City is the outgrowth of this enterprise, and we are pleased to believe it is destined to be a leading city of South­ern Kansas. Emporia News. [Date not given by Emporia paper.]
Finally I found it! News about Capt. G. H. Norton...
Winfield Courier, April 20, 1882. Front Page.
                                                      FLORIDA LETTER.
                                              LAKE EUSTIS, MARCH, 1882.

EDS. COURIER: I met in the Florida hill lands an old acquaintance that I had not seen for years. I used to be well acquainted with him when a boy in the State of New York, and in those days of rural ignorance he had a bad character. When not amusing himself with driving oxen in a circle (it was always “haw” with him), he would steal the newly planted corn from the field, until he came to be regarded by the husband-man as a veritable thief. I was really pleased to see him, and felt glad that public sentiment concerning his reputation had changed in his behalf, and that he is now looked upon as the farmers’ friend and benefactor, in ridding the earth and air of destroying insects and worms. He looked as fine and sleek as fifty years ago; his voice only seemed to have changed. Instead of bidding his imaginary steers in the long, broad Yorkshire idiom to “haw,” he gave the vowel a short, flat sound, styled the Italian. Whether he thought this style of expression more fashionable or had learned it from some old short-winded plowman, I am unable to say, but do say heartily, long live Mr. Crow.
Another agreeable surprise met me in this lovely lakelet hill land of Florida. In the triangle, two sides of which are composed of the loveliest of lakes, Eustis and Dora, and for a few miles outside of the imaginary line constituting the hypotenuse, is an area of gentle hills and gradual slopes reaching down to clear soft-water lakes, and dotted all over with groves of the orange, lemon, lime, guava, le conte pear, peach, plum, mulberry, shaddock, citron, fig, patches of banana, pineapple, grape, and small fruits; and stately undulating forests of the tall yellow pine, with the elegant palmetto gracing the shore fronts; and this Elysian land is peopled by an educated literary and refined class of pioneers, from the northern states principally, but chiefly from the state of New York. The reader will not forget that the scene I have described is in Orange County. An officer from the land office at Gainesville informed me that while the counties of Sumter, Hillsboro, and Polk were settling up with a mixed immigration from both North and South, Orange County was receiving her population almost exclusively from the Northern states. And only see what a lake country it is! In this triangle and vicinity, bounded on the sides by the large lakes Eustis and Dora, and comprising an area of ten miles square, are lakes Saunders, Joanna, Gertrude, Trout, Eldorado, May, Swatara, Blue, Willie, Dot, Gracie, Morin, Alfred, Irma, Crooked Lake, Loch Seven, Katie, Woodward, Etowa, Juniata, Beauclaire, Olla, and Crown Lake. I may have omitted some. The land is measured only to the lakes, not to include them, and each home, however small, is generally accommodated with a “Lake Front.” How exceedingly pleasant this arrangement can be made. For instance, the charming little lake of Eldorado is bordered by the homes of several estimable families from Brooklyn, New York; among whom are A. J. Sembler, H. H. Key, H. W. Hore, and J. R. Blont, all first-class, princely gentlemen, having beautiful villa sites with flower lawns extending to the clear, deep waters of the lake well stored with excellent fish, and an alligator or two, or perhaps three, and each with a neat bath-house, and boat-house to shelter the elegant little skiff that takes the family on their evening pleasure ride. Can the imagination paint a more perfect paradise on earth than such a beauty-spot which it will surely become in a single decade?

In this favored locality I found Col. G. H. Norton and family, formerly residents of Arkansas City, Kansas. I know his old friends in Kansas will be glad to learn that the Colonel, by his industry, integrity, and good judgment, has accumulated a nice competence, and stands at the acme in the esteem and good will of all in his community. I found them delightfully located in the midst of a hill grove of tropical fruits, extending on one side to the waters of Crooked Lake, and on the other to Lake Gracie. I shall never cease to remember with keen pleasure my visits to their comfortable home, and the kind and generous hospitality extended by Mrs. Norton, whose amiable accomplishments and genial nature has endeared her to all her acquaintances and to the society in which she is a valuable ornament.
Fifteen years ago, an educated, talented young gentleman, a practical surveyor and civil engineer, left the State of New York to visit and study up the capabilities and resources of Florida. With no railroads, and the rivers poorly navigated, he procured him a mule and cart, and with his blankets and mess-box, he threaded the whole state, examining the lands and spotting the eligible locations. His foresight and judgment have been fully sustained, in his selection of Orange County, and this lake region, for his home. He returned to New York and became the editor of the Florida New Yorker, which has resulted in such an unprecedented “boom” for that State. This gentleman, Col. J. A. McDonald, having accomplished his mission, returned to Lake Eustis, where he now resides, owning large possessions, locating large numbers of immigrants, and ready at any moment to give more information to the stranger about Florida in one hour than he could obtain by books and travel in a year. Here is published the Semi-Tropical, by Benj. H. Vogt, formerly of New Jersey. It is a bright, newsy sheet, for $1.50 per year, and is devoted to the local interests of its section. In this vicinity resides, on an old plantation containing a fine bearing orange grove, Hon. J. M. Byran, a true Southern gentleman, and an honored citizens, serving a constituency in the Legislature, the most accomplished, intellectually, in the State. Here also, on the shores of the lovely Lake Joanna, resides with his family on his plantation stocked with tropical productions, Col. Alex. St. Clair Abrams, a true, generous, noble-hearted gentleman of Southern birth, a distinguished lawyer, and now District Attorney in the judicial district in which he resides; his practice is said to be worth $30,000 a year, and his abilities, indomitable energy, and perseverance have made him one of the most notable and, perhaps, the best known of anyone in the State. .  . [Note: Mentions names of people from New York, Philadelphia, etc., that he considers being well known, who have settled in Florida. MAW]
Arkansas City Traveler, June 14, 1882.
Col. Alexander, R. H. True, G. A. Rhodes, Ed. Likowski, and W. J. Keffer are among the Cowley County people with Capt. Norton in Florida, raising oranges.
Arkansas City Traveler, August 22, 1883.
The old Capt. Norton place, for the past nine years the property of Mrs. A. Gray, was sold Monday to B. F. Childs, of Kansas City. Mrs. Gray will build in some other part of the city.
Arkansas City Traveler, February 13, 1884.
The Hasie brothers, late of Denver, arrived in the city last week, and will soon commence the erection of their business and residence houses. As is pretty generally known, these gentlemen purpose establishing a wholesale grocery house in Arkansas City, for which they have secured the lots south of Cunningham’s new building, and will erect thereon a hand-some fifty foot front building. They have also purchased the north half of the old Norton property of Mr. Childs, for residence purposes. The Messrs. Hasie are thorough business gentlemen, and we trust they will meet with an encouragement commensurate with their enterprise.

Arkansas City Traveler, February 20, 1884.
There is no prettier part of the town site than the 20 acres recently platted into lots by F. J. Hess, and lying just south of the Norton property and extending west from Summit to Eleventh street. It will constitute one of the best residence portions of our city in the near future, and parties desiring locations for homes will do well to give this their attention. One great advantage to this locality is the ease with which good soft water is obtained, it rarely being necessary to go deeper than 18 to 25 feet.
News about Capt. Norton...
Arkansas City Republican, May 10, 1884.
Will Griffith returned a few days ago, from Florida, the land of flowers. He is well impressed with that country and brought some fine specimens of oranges home with him. Good Samaritan like, he filled our pockets, in order, we suppose, to chase away the Hungary expression which played over our countenance when he exhibited his beauties. He met the Nortons’, former residents of our city, while there. Mrs. Norton sent to Mrs. Griffith—not Will’s wife but his mother—some excellent guava jelly. By the courtesy of this excellent lady, we manipulated the spoon and the contents of the jelly glass and found the flavor superior. Mr. Griffith also procured some fine views of the old Spanish fort at St. Augustine and other places of great interest to a lover of American scenery.
Winfield Courier, December 18, 1884.
It is said that Captain G. H. Norton, Arkansas City’s first postmaster, is now one of the richest men in the orange growing districts of Florida.
Winfield Courier, December 18, 1884.
The A. C. Democrat gets the following historical information from the first biennial report of the state board of agriculture. It will be read with interest by all identified with Cowley’s pioneer days.
                                                            First settlements:
Creswell Township, fall of 1869, by Henry Endicott Sr., and Larkin Moyers.
Dexter Township, January 6, 1870, by James Cloud and family.
Silverdale Township, December 1869, by George B. Green and Russell Damewood.
Tisdale Township, fall of 1870, John Phillips.
First Churches:
Arkansas City, 1873, Liberal Church.
Winfield City, 1871, Methodist.
First schoolhouses:
Creswell Township, Arkansas City, 1871, by district No. 2.
Dexter Township, 1872, district No. 5.
Silverdale Township, 1872, district No. 28.
Tisdale Township, 1872, district No. 42.
Winfield Township, 1872, district No. 1.
First business established:
Creswell Township, general country store, by Norton Bros.
Dexter Township, general country store, Tyler & Evans.

Silverdale Township, general country store, S. C. Winton.
Tisdale Township, J. A. McGuire.
First marriage:
Creswell Township, John Brown and Eva Woolsey, October 30, 1879.
Silverdale Township, Elie C. Cranston and Esther Bennet, November 7, 1870.
Tisdale Township, Berry Chance and Tirlie [?Tillie?] Moore, July 30, 1872.
Winfield Township, A. A. Jackson and G. A. Kelsey, September 4, 1870.
First births:
Creswell Township, Creswell Grote.
Dexter Township, S. F. Graham.
Silverdale Township, George Fetterman.
Tisdale Township, Willie C. Bryant.
First post office:
Creswell Township, Arkansas City, G. H. Norton, postmaster.
Dexter Township, Dexter, September, 1870, T. H. Todd, postmaster.
Silverdale Township, 1872, John Kennedy, postmaster.
Tisdale Township, Tisdale, 1871, John A. McGuire, postmaster.
Cowley County was organized in 1870.
Arkansas City Traveler, January 14, 1885.
                                            THE CANAL CITY AS SHE WAS.
                       A Marvel of Growth, Energy, Enterprise, and Stick-to-itive-ness.
In the year 1870 a band of men formed the idea of starting a town where Arkansas City now is. To think was to act! Surveying was commenced in March and the plat recorded in April, a town company was organized and everything on a boom, all in the period of three months. Why this site was chosen, being as it was 125 miles from one place in one direction and 500 in the other, might seem a mystery to many who have never been here. To the founders of this city, it was not, however. The selection of the site was made on the exercise of their best judgment, assisted by solid horse sense. A comparison of this whole country, any part of which they could have chosen, satisfied them the site they selected was the best for health, for beauty of location, for safety, and for growth. Experience has justified their decision.
Capt. Norton, one of the town company, built the first house and established the first store on the block now occupied by the elegant residences of Messrs. Child’s, Kroenert, and Hasie. He had everything a man or woman could desire, from a dress button to a side of hog; the city was laid out to be built as it was built. Summit street was intended to be the business street, as it is.

The first building put up on Summit street was erected for C. R. Sipes. It was 16 x 20, and on the site he now occupies. He put in a stock of hardware, stoves, tinware, iron, and agricultural implements. The store boasted of a proprietor, a salesman, a tinner, and man of all work. Charles was all of them. He put in a stock worth about $1,500, hauled from Emporia, 125 miles, and paid $1.50 per hundred pounds, or about 20 percent, for getting them here. He next traded a pony for enough lumber to make an addition of 20 feet more, making his store room 16 x 40 ft., a truly mammoth structure. This was in the fall of 1870. He now began to manufacture his own tinware instead of buying it. In the spring he put on another addition of 16 feet, and the citizens “pointed with pride” to its metropolitan proportions. Charles sold the first year he was in business about $3,000 worth of goods.
The second store that was started was in the old log shanty just north of Bonsall’s photograph gallery, and which was torn down last summer. Lafe Goodrich, now farming in  Ninnescah, was the proprietor of this, an extensive grocery store. At the end of 1870 there were about 250 people here. At the end of 1871, about 300, near which number it stayed for several years. The first doctor who located permanently was Dr. Hughes, and the first minister was Rev. B. C. Swarts.
For two years our people were compelled to haul their supplies of whatsoever kind from Emporia, 125 miles distant. Then for a little over a year from Florence, 85 miles away. And after that, until the railroad reached us, from Wichita, thus contributing her share toward the growth of each of these places.
                                                         AS SHE NOW IS.
What magical change has taken place? What Aladdmic transformation is this? We discover in place of the little village, a city of nearly four thousand. In place of the “mammoth” frame building 16 x 56, some fair building 125 x 32, three stories and basement. Instead of $1,500 stock, $15,000 stocks. For two business houses, 200. Large schoolhouses, fine residences, good walks, commodious business houses, large flour mills, Opera House, four hotels, and the most energetic lively and accomplished citizens on God’s universe.
Arkansas City as she was and the Canal City as she is! Transmogrification indeed!
Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 4, 1885.
                                                     Prof. H. B. Norton Dead.
DIED. Prof. H. B. Norton died June 22, at his Skyland home near San Jose, California. Prof. Norton was one of the founders of Arkansas City, and for a long time was president of the town company. In the winter of 1869-1870 he, in company with fifteen others, came here and laid out the town of Arkansas City. At one time Prof. Norton was the editorial writer on the Traveler.
In speaking of his death, the Emporia Republican says: “It is with profound sorrow that we are called upon to announce the death of Prof. H. B. Norton. This sad event took place at his Skyland home, in the Santa Cruz mountains, near San Jose, California, June 22nd, 1885, at 6 o’clock a.m. Professor Norton was a resident of this city for many years, during which time he was associate principal of the Kansas State Normal school with Judge Kellogg, as principal. He was also associated with Judge Kellogg as editor of the Kansas Educational Journal, then published in this city. Prof. Norton was one of the founders of Arkansas City and for two or three years was a resident of that place. Subsequently he resumed his position in the State Normal school, which position he held until a disagreement in the faculty caused him to accept a position in the State Normal school of California, whither he removed with his family in 1875. His memory will be held in grateful remembrance by all who knew him. He was an encyclopedia of knowledge and one of the most benevolent and kind-hearted men that ever lived.
The following are the particulars of his death.
The following are the particulars of his death.

“On Thursday of last week, Prof. Norton, together with Prof. C. H. Allen, principal of the Normal school, was surveying in the mountains and appeared to be quite well. That evening he was taken ill with pleurisy, and on Friday, while not deeming himself very sick, kept to his bed. At about 11 o’clock on Friday night, Prof. Norton was seized with congestion of the brain, and from that time until his death remained in an unconscious condition. It was not until congestion set in that any serious alarm was occasioned, and on Saturday morning Dr. H. C. Morey of Gilroy, an intimate friend of the professor, was telegraphed for. Meanwhile the sick man was being attended by Dr. Chas. Washburn. Dr. Morey, on arriving and making an examination, saw that the case was almost beyond hope. The patient’s constitution was almost worn out through straining and continuous labor, and a rally was almost out of the question. The remains of the deceased were interred at Skyland.”
Prof. Norton is a cousin of L. C. Norton of Arkansas City.
The Republican was notorious for getting names wrong...Henry H., Ugh!
Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, September 26, 1885.
A circular has been issued by the principal of the California Normal School, Charles H. Allen, announcing that a memorial pamphlet will be published containing a portrait of the late Henry H. [B.] Norton and sketches of the memorial services held in San Jose, Emporia, and elsewhere. The pamphlet will contain about 100 pages, and will be sold, bound in paper cover with engraving, for 50 cents; bound in morocco with photograph and autograph, $5.50. The money received above the actual expenses of publishing the book will be used in establishing a fund for the education of Prof. Norton’s children.
Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, December 30, 1885.
                                         PROFESSOR HENRY B. NORTON.
                                  The Life and Services of a Pioneer Evangelist.
We have received an interesting little volume, entitled “Memorials of Henry Brace Norton,” who was well known to the earlier inhabitants of Arkansas City, as the editor of this journal. His life and labors in this city are thus described in the biography, which forms part of the Memorials.
“A colony town was projected on the southern border of Kansas, in Cowley County, next to the Indian Territory. The settlers were mainly from Emporia, and they urged Mr. Norton to go with them, to which he was led the more readily by the fact that his brother was one of the colonists and was beginning mercantile business with the settlers. Here, on the banks of the Arkansas River, from which the new town was finally called Arkansas City, Mr. Norton put his hand to every new effort. He and his soldier brother built the first house of logs and the first store. They surveyed roads, they planned the townsite, they started the first newspaper, with the printing press in an open shed.

“The Indians, who had suffered so much from the rascality of the Indian traders, and whom the government was trying to protect, liked to deal with Mr. Norton and his brother. As the friend of those early days, Judge Kellogg, writes: “Osage, Kaw, Cheyenne, and Arapahos were equally at home in Prof. Norton’s store and Indian ranch in the territory, and the chiefs from the neighboring tribes were not infrequent visitors at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Norton, sharing the hospitalities of Mrs. Norton’s table, and, wrapped in their blankets, spending the nights in the door-yard near the house, while Mr. and Mrs. Norton with their children slept in security, thus guarded.” After a little he began to make journeys among them, while his brother maintained the store at headquarters. Then began a series of wanderings over the plains, among the wild tribes, which was the most remarkable of Mr. Norton’s many strange experiences. Many of you have heard him refer to it. Once or twice he made it the subject of a fascinating lecture, and his friends were never tired of drawing out these reminiscences. It is a thousand pities he did not write them out so that they might have been preserved. Farther and farther he struck out into the Indian Territory, till, finally, one winter he spent alone among the Apaches, one hundred miles or more from any other white man.”
He removed to California in 1875, his family then consisting of a son and two daughters, and engaged in normal school work in San Jose. His educational labors, which seem to have extended over a good portion of the state, and work in the Congregational pulpit employed his time and taxed his energies during the remaining ten years of his life.
The style of the narrative is “too unutterably too” to suit the ordinary reader, but we gather from it that the consecration of the subject of the memoir to his evangelical and secular work made him a power for good in the communities among whom he wrought, and left his memory, as a sweet incense in the minds of his fellow laborers.
Prof. Norton’s useful labors were cut short by sickness at Gilroy, and after a week’s suffering he breathed his last. He died June 22nd last, aged 49 years. The Memorial, beside the biography above mentioned, contains a graphic account of the funeral and the addresses delivered on that occasion; extracts from his letters and pulpit discourses; and several creditable specimens of his verses. The press of California speaks in the highest terms of the character and attainments of the deceased, the following from the Alta being a fair specimen of the eulogies so unsparingly bestowed.
“The death of Professor Henry B. Norton of the Normal School removes a man of brilliant mind and high attainments. No one superior to him has yet been connected with educational work in this state. To his pupils he was known as something more than a man of original ideas and eloquent speech; he was a personal friend, and commanded the love and enthusiastic admiration of students as few teachers ever do.”
The little volume is published in the interest of this excellent man’s four children, to aid in their education, as they are left with slender means. It contains 110 handsomely printed pages, with a short portrait of the professor. The price, in paper covers, is 75 cents; bound in french morocco, $2.50. Orders for the same may be sent to Rev. C. W. Hill, care of Prof. Charles H. Allen, San Jose, California.
The special census of February 10,1870 lists only G. H. Norton.
                                       Arkansas City, Cowley County, Kansas.
The streets in Arkansas City were laid out north and south and east and west. The main street traversed the summit of the mound upon which the town was located.

The first structure built on the townsite was a log cabin, erected in the 100 block on North B Street. This house was later moved to the northeast corner of B Street and Central Avenue. It was first occupied on April 7, 1870, by Capt. Gould Hyde Norton as a residence and store. G. H. Norton & Co. opened a general stock of groceries, dry goods, boots and shoes in this cabin. It also became the first post office. Captain Gould Hyde Norton was appointed as the first postmaster of Arkansas City on May 16, 1870.
[Note: Many years later the cabin was moved to Paris Park. It was demolished by the flood of 1923. The stone chimney survived. It was torn down in the 1960s.]
A small residence was built before that time, by the Endicott Brothers, near the site of the present Dixie-Portland Flour mill.
The first school was in the home of H. B. Norton. The citizens of Arkansas City met Saturday evening, August 20, 1870, for the consideration of business connected with the erection of a public school building.
The next year citizens subscribed $400 to buy lumber and build a school at 205 South Summit Street. The lumber was bought from W. Sleeth who cut it at his new saw-mill. The build­ing was erected of this green wood and school was started. As the school year progressed, the green wood started warping and large cracks appeared between the boards. The wind and cold was very disturb­ing to the parents and students. A movement was started to build the first permanent school. When done in 1874 the students started attending the First Ward School at the 300 block of North B Street. The wooden school building was then rented as a ware­house/store for a few years before it was torn down.
Arkansas City Town Company.
On July 15, 1871, the Arkansas City Town Company Corporation was formed by Daniel Beedy, L. B. Kellogg, M. R. Leonard, H. O. Meigs, A. A. Newman, G. H. Norton, H. B. Norton, C. R. Sipes, and W. M. Sleeth. It was capitalized for 300 shares at Fifty dollars each or a total of $15,000. The life of the corporation was to be ten years.
In 1872 Arkansas City was declared incorporated as a third class city. The petition for incorporation had been signed by a majority of the town’s electors. The town contained more than 250 and less than 2,000 persons.
The city limits enclosed one square mile, starting at what is now the corner of Birch Avenue and F Street, and extend­ing south to Madison Avenue, west to Eighth Street, north to Birch Avenue, and east to F Street.

E. C. Manning had this to say about Prof. Norton in his autobiography, page 66. “Prof. H. B. Norton was the leading spirit of Arkansas City. He had been a teacher in the State Normal school at Emporia, and added to his literary attainments, were untiring energy, a pleasing address, and an altruistic spirit. Of course the new settlers of the county soon lined up in the rivalry between the two towns. At the fall election of 1870 Professor Norton was the Arkansas City candidate and E. C. Manning was the Winfield candidate for representa­tive. The latter was elected, but the former created a good deal of unsa­vory sentiment against the latter by publishing in the Topeka and Emporia papers allegations of fraud in the election and institut­ing contest proceedings which were finally dropped.”   


I just simply have not had time to explore “Kellogg.” Perhaps you have already gathered more than I will ever be able to obtain. Kay had some information on him in Book I.

From Papers 2, which I started recently...continuation of Courier starting with 1885.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 22, 1885.
                                                        SENATE, JAN. 16.
Senator Kellogg offered a resolution to appoint a special committee of five on the political rights of women. Laid over under the rules.
                                               STANDING COMMITTEES.
4. Federal Regulations: Humphrey, Congdon, Green, Kellogg, Edmonds.
9. Corporations: Bawden, Congdon, Humphrey, Jennings, Kellogg.
26. Education: Young, Kellogg, Lingenfelter, Donnell, Whitford.
27. State Library: Kellogg, Buchan, Hick, Blue, Marshall.
32. Cities of the First Class: Harwi, Lowe, Sheldon, Bawden, Green, Kellogg, Baker.
38. Mileage and Per Diem: Allen, Case, Kellogg, Hewins, Congdon.
                                                    BILLS INTRODUCED.
No. 61, by Kellogg, making appropriations for the Normal School.
Several committees were allowed clerks.
Kellogg introduced a resolution making it the duty of the Governor to fix a day for the hanging of murderers sentenced to death by this court. Laid over.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 29, 1885.
                                                    BILLS INTRODUCED.
No. 76, Kellogg, to relieve supreme court.
No. 77, Kellogg, to endow Normal School.
Concurrent resolution 13 to reduce the freight on grain which had passed, was called up on a motion to reconsider.
The following is the resolution:
WHEREAS, The grain industry is the great source of wealth and prosperity to the State of Kansas and as such should not be burdened with excessive freight rates, therefore be it
Resolved, By the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring therein), that the attention of the committee on railroads is called to the present grain freight charges over the several roads of this State, with a view that they be restricted to a fair and equitable maximum by the Legislature of the State of Kansas.

The motion to reconsider was lost. Those voting in the affirmative were Senators Barker, Blue, Buchan, Case, Green, Hewins, Hick, Humphrey, Marshall, Shear, and Sheldon.
Those voting in the negative were Senators Allen, Bawden, Congdon, Crane, Donnell, Edmonds, Granger, Harwi, Jennings, M. C. Kelley, H. B. Kelley, Louis Kelley, Kellogg, Kimball, Kohler, Lloyd, Lingenfelter, Lowe, Pickler, Ritter, Rush, Smith, Wasson, White, Whitford, Young.
Absent: Senators Harkness, Miller, and Redden.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 29, 1885.
                                                   SENATE, JANUARY 22.
Quite a discussion occurred on a proposition to make Harold Mansfield assistant sergeant-at-arms, but it was finally adopted.
Senator Jennings’ resolution with regard to Oklahoma was indefinitely postponed and the House resolution taken up and passed. It reads as follows.
WHEREAS, The Government of the United States, by treaty with the Seminole Indians in 1866, and in the same year the treaty with the Creek Indians, purchased absolutely all of the lands belonging to said tribes lying west of the Indian meridian, which is about the ninety-sixth meridian, and
WHEREAS, Hundreds of our hardy and homeless pioneers are already occupying said Government lands, and thousands more with their families are preparing to go thereto in the near future; and
WHEREAS, We believe it to be the right of every homeless American citizen to secure the same on the public domain; therefore be it
Resolved, (by the Senate, the House concurring therein), That our Senators in Congress be instructed, and our Representatives requested, to use all honorable means to procure the passage of the bill, opening for settlement, under the homestead laws, all of the Indian Territory unoccupied by Indian tribes. And
Resolved further, That correct copies of this resolution be enrolled, signed by the President of the Senate, and sent to each of our Senators and Representatives in Congress, and that a copy be sent to the President of the United States and the Secretary of the Interior; also to the President of the United States Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representa­tives, and that they be requested to lay the same before their respective bodies.
A lengthy discussion was had upon the Senate concurrent resolution instructing the various committees on charitable institutions to visit them, participated in by Senators Green, Blue, Buchan, Kellogg, Jennings, Barker, Allen, John Kelly, and others. All agreed that it was well to visit the institutions, but it was defeated on the ground that the committees already had the power and it was unnecessary to instruct.
The resolution of Senator Kellogg to appoint a special committee of five on the rights of women being under consideration.
Senator Buchan moved to amend by inserting, “and all other troublesome humans.”
Senator John Kelly moved to lay the whole subject on the table.
On this motion Senator Kellogg demanded the yeas and nays, which resulted as follows.
Ayes: Allen, Barker, Blue, Buchan, Case, Greene, Harkness, Harwi, Hick, Humphrey, M. C. Kelly, John Kelly, Lingenfelter, Lowe, Marshall, Miller, Redden, Shean, Sheldon, Smith, Wasson—ayes, 21.

Noes: Bawden, Congdon, Crane, Donnell, Jennings, M. B. Kelly, Kellogg, Kimball, Mohler, Pickler, Ritter, Rush, White, Whitford, Young—noes, 15.
A long discussion followed several attempts of Senator Kellogg to procure the reference of certain woman’s rights petitions to special committees, which failed.
                                                           THE ROSTER.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 29, 1885.
The following is the complete roster of the members of the legislature.
District No. 1.        Sol Miller, Troy.
District No. 2.        A. J. Harwi, Atchison.
District No. 3.        Matt. Edmonds, McLouth [?].
District No. 3.        P. G. Lowe, Leavenworth.
District No. 4.        W. J. Buchan, Wyandotte.
District No. 5.        R. W. Blue, Pleasanton.
District No. 5.        W. M. Shean, Gardner.
District No. 6.        W. J. Bawden, Fort Scott.
District No. 7.        M. C. Kelly, Mulberry Grove.
District No. 8.        John N. Ritter, Columbus.
District No. 9.        C. H. Kimball, Parsons.
District No. 10.      L. U. Humphrey, Independence.
District No. 11.      R. N. Allen, Chanute.
District No. 12.      J. H. Whitford, Garnett.
District No. 13.      L. Wasson, Ottawa.
District No. 14.      T. L. Marshall, Osage City.
District No. 15.      O. J. Barker, Lawrence. [?Could be Q. J. Barker]
District No. 16.      Chas. E. Sheldon, Topeka.
District No. 17.      R. S. Hick, Louisville.
District No. 18.      W. W. Smith, Waterville.
District No. 19.      George S. Green, Manhattan.
District No. 20.      L. B. Kellogg, Emporia.
District No. 21.      L. M. Hewins, Cedarville.
District No. 22.      Frank S. Jennings, Winfield.
District No. 23.      A. L. Redden, Eldorado.
District No. 24.      R. M. Crane, Marion.
District No. 25.      Conrad Kohler, Enterprise.
District No. 26.      F. P. Harkness, Clay Center.
District No. 27.      George H. Case, Mankato.
District No. 28.      K. M. Pickler, Smith Centre.
District No. 29.      L. D. Young, Beloit.
District No. 30.      Ira E. Lloyd, Ellsworth.
District No. 31.      H. B. Kelley, McPherson.
District No. 32.      W. M. Congdon, Sedgwick.
District No. 33.      John Kelley, Goddard.

District No. 34.      W. J. Lingenfelter, Caldwell.
District No. 35.      I. W. Rush, Larned.
District No. 36.      J. W. White, Lyons.
District No. 37.      E. J. Donnell, Stockton.
District No. 38.      H. S. Granger, Phillipsburg.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.
Kellogg’s bill to endow the State Normal School with twelve sections of salt springs was lengthily discussed in committee of the whole, as was also to amend the code of civil procedure.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.
Senator Barker, from a majority of the Committee on Temperance, reported back Senator Allen’s bill to establish a metropolitan police force in cities of the first class, with the recommendation that it pass, also that it be placed at the head of the calendar.
Senator Lowe and Sheldon made a minority report.
On the motion to adopt the majority report and place the bill at the head of the calendar, Senator Sheldon demanded the ayes and nays, which resulted: Ayes, 16; Nays, 12.
Ayes: Messrs. Allen, Baker, Blue, Buchan, Case, Congdon, Donnell, Edmonds, Granger, Green, Harkness, Hick, Humphrey, Jennings, H. B. Kelly, John Kelly, Kellogg, Kohler, Pickler, Redden, Ritter, Shean, Smith, Wasson, White, Whitford—26.
Nays: Messrs. Bawden, Crane, Harwi, Hewins, M. Kelly, B. Kimball, Lingenfelter, Lowe, Marshall, Miller, Sheldon, Young—12.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.
On motion of Senator Kellogg, Senate went into Committee of the Whole on special orders, Senate bill No. 77, an act to further endow the State Normal School. Passage recommended.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.
Senator Kellogg’s bill to further endow the Emporia Normal school was defeated on third reading; as was also the bill to further endow the State University.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.
Several reports were made by standing committees.
Senator Kellogg moved the reconsideration of the vote by which the 12 sections of land endowment of the Normal school were defeated. Laid over.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.
Substitute for Senate bill No. 8, and to amend sections 51 and 74 of chapter 37, laws of 1881, and to repeal sections 5, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, and 74, relating to jurisdiction of Police Judge, being under consideration, Senator Blue moved to amend by striking out that part which requires an appellant on a misdemeanor to give bond for fine and costs. After a pretty general discussion by Senators Harwi, Ritter, Kellogg, Harkness, Kimball, Bawden, and others, the motion was lost: yeas 15, nays 21. The bill passed: ayes 27, noes 4.
                                                  SENATE, FEBRUARY 25.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 5, 1885.

The day was mostly spent in discussion of H. B. 367 amendatory and supplemental to the prohibitory law. Senators Lloyd, H. B. Kelly, White, Blue, Hick, Pickler, Bawden, Buchan, Kellogg, Jennings, and others took part. Many proposed amendments were voted down and one carried, that proposed by Mr. Jennings making the penalty for the first offense not less than $100, and ten days imprisonment and for subsequent offenses, not less than $200 and thirty days imprisonment, and in no case over $500 and ninety days imprisonment. Several amendments to make the language more grammatical carried.
                                                      SENATE, MARCH 3.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 12, 1885.
On motion of Senator Buchan a committee of five members of the Senate, and the President, Secretary, and Sergeant-at-Arms, were appointed to attend the funeral of Hon. James S. Merritt, at Wamego.
The following Senators were appointed: Buchan, Hicks, Kellogg, Kelly of McPherson, and Smith.
Senator Miller called up the report formerly made of the committee of the whole on the question of a constitutional convention. The President directed the Secretary to read the journal. This being done, it was found that the committee had reported in favor of the indefinite postponement of the question, and that, pending a motion of Senator Redden to disagree to the report of the committee, the whole matter had been laid over by consent to await the action of a full Senate. Senator Miller then moved to take the question up, and the Chair stated the question to be on the motion of Senator Redden to disagree to the report, and the yeas and nays being demanded resulted as follows.
Yeas: Buchan, Edmonds, Harkness, Harwi, Hewins, Kelly, M. C., Kelly, Jno., Kimball, Lloyd, Lingenfelter, Lowe, Miller, Redden, Rush, Sheldon, White, and Young.
Nays: Allen, Barker, Bawden, Blue, Case, Congdon, Crane, Donnell, Granger, Green, Hick, Jennings, Kelley, H. B., Kellogg, Kohler, Marshall, Pickler, Ritter, Shean, Smith, Wasson, and Whitford.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 12, 1885.
Mr. Barnes then called up Senator Kellogg’s bill relating to county boards of examiners, and it was read a third time and passed.


Cowley County Historical Society Museum