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J. M. Alexander
                                                   [John Marion Alexander]
J. M. Alexander, 55; spouse, A. T., 56.
J. M. Alexander, 57. No spouse listed.
Kansas 1875 Census, Winfield Township, Cowley County, March 1, 1875.
Name                           age sex color          Place/birth Where from
J. M. Alexander            49 m     w            New York        Pennsylvania
Age given indicates that something is wrong!
                                               FROM THE NEWSPAPERS.
The Commonwealth, October 18, 1870.
                                                             THE STATE.
Colonel Alexander, formerly of Leavenworth, is now merchandising at Winfield.
Cowley County Censor, March 18, 1871.
Corner of Broadway and 5th Avenue, South of Walnut Valley House, Winfield, Kansas.
Cowley County Censor, July 1, 1871.
Col. Alexander went to Eureka last Monday to attend a meeting of the Directors of the K. C. B. & S. F. R. R. He re­turned yesterday. The Col. says if the proper steps are taken, Winfield can secure this road at an early day.
Cowley County Censor, July 1, 1871.
1. “President of the United States.” Response by Mr. A. W. Tousey.
Song: American Flag Song.
3. “The Day We Celebrate.” Response by Judge Ross.
Song: “Firmly Stand.”
5. “Cowley County.” Response by the Rev. Mr. Inman.
Music by the Band.
7. “Lo! the Poor Indian.” Response by Col. Alexander.
Song: Shout for the Banner.
8. “The Ladies of Cowley County.” Response by the Rev. E. P. Hickok.
      9. “Our Railroad Enterprises.” Response by Mr. D. A. Millington.
Song: “National Hymn.”
10. “The Rising Generation.” Response by Mr. Lemmon.
Song: “Sweet Spirit hear my prayer.”
Music by the band.
Conclusion. Doxology.
N. B. — All are invited to join in the procession and march to the Grove.

Cowley County Censor, October 21, 1871.
                                   For Senator, 25th District, J. M. ALEXANDER.
COL. J. M. ALEXANDER. Since writing the above we learn that Col. Alexander received the nomination at the Senatorial Conven­tion held at Douglass last Tuesday, for Senator from the 25th District. Col. Alexander is so well known throughout the county, and in fact the district, which is comprised of the counties of Howard, Cowley, Butler, and Sedgwick, that the people need not be told of his ability to represent our interests in the Senate.
Cowley County Censor, October 21, 1871.
D. N. EGBERT, JR., M. C., LATE of the United States servic­es, and graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, kindly offers his services to the public, as a Physician and Surgeon. Calls left for the present at the store of Alexander & Saffold, will be promptly attended to.
Cowley County Censor, October 28, 1871.
WHOLESALE LIQUOR STORE. Messrs. Mullen & Stevens, formerly of Baxter Springs, have opened a wholesale liquor store in Alexander & Saffold’s old stand. This firm have on hand the finest and purest liquors ever brought to this city. Mr. Mullen has gone east after a large supply, and in a short time will be able to supply the Southwest with the best of liquors—at whole­sale.
Walnut Valley Times, May 26, 1871.
Among the principal men of the town are Col. Manning, Col. Alexander of Leavenworth, D. A. Millington, and J. C. Fuller, of Fort Scott, who are all members of the town company.
The town site of Winfield is one of the most beautiful I have ever seen. From an eminence on Col. Alexander’s claim, adjoining the town, the view is perfectly enchanting. Wells and springs abound, one of the latter flowing from a hillside into a deep rocky basin, in volume sufficient if carried into pipes, to supply the town.
Walnut Valley Times, November 10, 1871.
                                                         THE ELECTION.
The returns from various portions of the County are not yet all in, but enough is known to satisfy us that Isaac Mooney, the Anti-Division candidate, is elected to the Legislature by a small majority. Considering that one year ago there were not three hundred votes in the County for division, we think the friends of the movement did well.
We are of the opinion that W. J. Cameron, candidate for State Senator, received a majority of all the votes cast in this County. J. M. Alexander will conclude that honesty is the best policy, in the future.
Walnut Valley Times, November 10, 1871. NOTICE.

Notice is hereby given that by order of the Directors of the Walnut Valley Railroad Company, books will be opened for the purpose of subscribing to the Capital Stock of the Walnut Valley Railroad Company, at the following named places on the 11th day of December, 1871, to-wit:
Post-office, Chelsea;
L. B. Snow’s office, Eldorado;
Post-office, Augusta;
Douglass House, Douglass;
Alexander & Saffold’s office, Winfield;
Keith & Eddy’s Drug Store, Arkansas City.
Dated Augusta, November 4th, 1871.
                                     ANDREW AKIN, President, W. V. R. R. Co.
C. N. JAMES, Secretary.
Walnut Valley Times, November 17, 1871.
                                                              SOLD OUT.
Under the above heading, the Cowley County Censor has a long article accusing the people of Arkansas City of being in league with Eldorado to elect Cameron to the Senate, we make some extracts.
“One of the many evidences of double dealing with the people of Arkansas City and its home candidate practiced is the manner in which J. M. Alexander, of this place, was treated. The Colonel was the regular nominee of the Republican party for State Senator. His name was printed upon all the regular Republican tickets, but the “People’s” tickets, which were printed in Arkansas City, did not contain the Colonel’s name.
                                                             * * * * * * * *
“Colonel Alexander, in his speech at Winfield, explained the duplicity of Arkansas City, and charged them with being in league with Eldorado to elect Cameron, who was running for Senator from this district, as the division candidate. The result has proved that Arkansas City was working “on the sly,” for Cameron. A letter was seen in Arkansas City by one of our citizens the same day that Mr. McIntyre [McIntire] was here, in which the whole programme of electing Cameron to the State Senate was set forth. The vote of Arkansas City, on Tuesday last, shows how innocent or ignorant Mr. McIntyre must have been. It shows how deep they have buried the hatchet of discord. It shows how much they are opposed to a division of this County. It shows how well they have sold those citizens of Winfield and the County, who cooperated with them in good faith. It shows how well Colonel Alexander divined their motives, and how well deserved was the scoring he gave them at the meeting here the night before the election. Cameron, the candidate who is in favor of a division of our County, received one hundred and sixty-six votes in Arkansas City, while Colonel Alexander, who is opposed to such division, received four votes. The Colonel has, in the past, been the friend of that little burg; perhaps he will not be in the future.”
Editor Murdock responded:
We profess to know something about the movement to elect Cameron to the State Senate, and will try and enlighten the Censor on the subject.
According to the decision of the Attorney General, and prominent lawyers of the State, the new apportionment for Kansas will not go into effect until next year. Three or four politi­cians in this new Senatorial District came to the conclusion, a few weeks before the election, that a senator might get his seat this winter, if elected from this District.

A call was pub­lished, signed by Hutchinson of Wichita, McDermott, of Cowley County, and Lauck of Butler County, calling a Senatorial Conven­tion at Douglass, to nominate a State Senator for this District. We referred to the call at the time, and stated that the new apportionment did not go into effect until next year, and of course we were not entitled to a new Senator. We also stated that the gentlemen above named had no right whatever to call a convention to nominate a State Senator. We never learned who went to Douglass to the Convention, but know positively that the Republicans of this County were not repre­sented at the conven­tion.
After the announcement that Col. (?) Alexander, of Winfield, was nominated for Senator, for this District, we at once deter­mined not to support him. We know nothing of Alexander only from hearsay. He may be a Republican—he may be a good man, and in every way worthy of being nominated for State Senator, but we will not support men for office under such circumstances.
Had he been properly nominated, by the Republicans of the District, we would have supported him.
But a few days before the election we of Eldorado Township concluded to vote for our fellow townsman, Judge W. J. Cameron. Letters were written to Arkansas City, Wichita, and to Sumner County, stating that the Republicans of Butler County were not in favor of Alexander, and would not support him. It was also stated that we would vote for Cameron. Judge Cameron was not announced, as a candidate, but at the same time, he scooped Alexander in this County. We are glad to know that Arkansas City, and other towns in the District, did not support Alexander. We do not know who is elected, but we do know that Butler County squarely repudiated Alexander. We hope the editor of the Censor will not abuse Republicans of Cowley County for refusing to vote for a man who was improperly brought before the people. We hope that no Republican paper in this District will support any measure that smacks of fraud, or corruption.
Walnut Valley Times, November 24, 1871.
                                      COL. ALEXANDER’S NOMINATION.
The Censor takes Arkansas City to task for voting against J. M. Alexander for Senator. “The Col. was the regular nominee of the republican party for State Senator,” says the Censor. We know something about this regular nomination. Four Winfield men, on their way to Augusta stopped for dinner at Douglass, where they met and talked with three citizens of that place about political matters, including that of a nomination for State Senator.
These four Winfield men suggested that Alexander would be a good man for the place. The three Douglass men thought Mr. Taylor of Douglass would be a good man for the position. After dinner the four set out for Augusta.
That week the Augusta paper came out with a report of a Senatorial Convention held at Douglass, at which the gallant Col. Alexander was enthusiastically nominated by the Republicans of Sedgwick, Butler, Howard, and Cowley counties! Arkansas Traveler.
Walnut Valley Times, December 15, 1871.

Col. Alexander, of Winfield, resigns as a member of the Walnut Valley Railroad Company, because the Charter of the Road says it shall terminate at Arkansas City, and not at the south line of the State. We have not learned who will be selected to fill his place.
Walnut Valley Times, January 19, 1872.
Col. Alexander, of the law firm of Alexander & Saffold, made us a pleasant visit yesterday. The Colonel occasionally writes up the Augusta Republican in the absence of Major Davis. Winfield Messenger.
Walnut Valley Times, March 22, 1872.
Our readers are aware that at the last session of the Legislature, a new Judicial District was formed, composing the counties of Greenwood, Howard, Butler, Cowley, Sedgwick, and Sumner, and called the thirteenth Judicial District. . . .
The friends of various lawyers in the District presented the names of about half a dozen, as suitable candidates for the office of Judge.
Greenwood: I. R. Phenis.
Cowley: Col. Alexander; Mr. Fairbanks.
Sumner: Hon. W. P. Hackney; Hon. R. C. Sluss; and Judge Tucker.
Butler: W. P. Campbell.
The friends of W. P. Campbell, and especially the lawyers of this city, were unanimous in their request that he should receive the appointment. Besides receiving the support of his friends here, he was highly recommended by many of the prominent lawyers, Judges, and Legislators throughout the State. On last Friday, we were happy in receiving the intelligence that W. P. Campbell had received the appointment.
Walnut Valley Times, March 29, 1872.
                                                     DOWN THE VALLEY.
We had the pleasure of forming an acquaintance with Col. Alexander, R. B. Saffold, E. S. Torrance, Col. Manning, Judge Johnson, and Capt. Fairbanks, all members of the legal fraterni­ty, and composing the Winfield Bar.
Walnut Valley Times, March 29, 1872.
Alexander, of Cowley County, is a candidate for State Senator for this District.
Walnut Valley Times, March 29, 1872.
Mr. S. D. Pryor, of Augusta, gave us a friendly call this week, and we are gratified to learn that he has come here with the intention of locating and opening a law office. Mr. Pryor is an acknowledged well read man and talented lawyer, and Winfield will add another useful member to her class of able men, by the addition of Mr. Pryor. We trust our citizens will extend to him a generous welcome. He will be found for the present at the office of Alexander & Saffold. Winfield Messenger.
Walnut Valley Times, April 19, 1872.
Directors present: C. N. James, Sec., M. M. Jewett, Treas., L. B. Snow, H. O. Meigs, A. J. Uhl, D. A. Millington, J. M. Rayburn, J. C. Becker, and J. M. Alexander. 

H. O. Meigs had the proxies of A. D. Keith and T. McIntire, authorizing him to cast their votes on any business that may come before the meeting of Directors.
They came up with Resolution: That this company shall immediately take such steps as will insure the building of the Walnut Valley Railroad as speedily as possible.
Winfield Messenger, March 15, 1872.
                                                 WINFIELD AT PRESENT.
We learn that Alexander & Saffold will purchase one thousand dollars worth of Law books in Philadelphia soon, to add to their already fair library. This will be a great help to the whole bar.
Winfield Messenger, June 28, 1872.
                                                 WINFIELD, June 27th, 1872.
EDITOR MESSENGER: I fear many of the settlers, through a misunderstanding of the late act of Congress, will allow the time to pass at which they should prove up and enter their lands.
All parties whose date of settlement is subsequent to July 15th, 1870, and before the filing of the Government township plat in the local Land Office, must make proof within one year from the date of such filing of the plats. The plats of the Osage Diminished Reserve, as far east, and including range four, were filed in the Land Office then at Augusta July 10th, 1871.
This is as I understand the law, and as it is understood at the Land Office at Wichita.
                                             Respectfully, J. M. ALEXANDER.
Winfield Messenger, July 12, 1872.
A Convention of the Attorneys of the 13th Judicial District will be held at Winfield, in Cowley County, on the 25th day of July, A. D. 1872, for the purpose of recommending to the District Convention, or Conventions, to be held for that purpose, a Candidate for nomination for Judge of said District to be voted for at the next general election.
W. S. TUCKER.                      J. T. SHOWALTER.
M. W. SUTTON.                    J. M. HOOVER.
D. F. BAYLESS.                     J. B. FAIRBANK.
THOMAS MASON.               W. H. KERNS.
J. M. McCOLLEN.                 JOHN REED.
J. J. WINGAR.                        E. B. KAGER.
R. B. SAFFOLD.                     E. L. AKIN.
D. N. CALDWELL.                A. H. GREEN.
T. T. TILLOTSON.                 D. S. HEISHEY [?HEISNEY].
L. J. WEBB.                            JOHN G. TUCKER.
E. S. TORRANCE.                  REUBEN RIGGS.
J. M. ALEXANDER.               S. D. PRYOR.
E. C. MANNING.             T. H. JOHNSON.
H. D. LAMB.                           G. P. GARLAND.
D. DODGE.                             J. McDERMOTT.
and many others, attorneys of said district.

[A. T. & S. F. R. R.]
Winfield Messenger, July 12, 1872.
This road is within 40 miles of Winfield, and it would be but natural to suppose that goods could be shipped to this place by that route a great deal cheaper than it has cost heretofore, when the railroad was 75 to 80 miles distant. We have been told by some of our  businessmen here that it costs less to get goods to Winfield by way of Independence, than it does to Wichita, over the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Road. With the present management Independence is carrying off the laurels that Wichita as a shipping point, ought to wear. It would be well for the men who have the interests of Wichita at heart to look into this matter, and bring about a change, that will be benefi­cial to their welfare as well as ours.
Winfield Messenger, August 16, 1872.
We acknowledge a call from Col. J. M. Alexander, of Winfield, Cowley County. This colonel formerly made Leavenworth his home, and is known by all our old settlers. He was an honorable citizen, and we are glad to chronicle his success. He is named for state senator for his district. No better or truer man could be selected . . . .
Winfield Messenger, October 4, 1872.
Having passed over many railroads during my late absence, I wish particularly to add a tribute of praise to the A. T. & S. F. Railroad. The road bed is splendid; and it is the wonder of the traveler how so new a track can be so smooth and firm. This road, now completed to Ft. Larned and Wichita, has a direct and sure connection at Atchison with the Rock Island & Pacific Southern Division, and is the shortest and most pleasant route to Chicago. I was pleased to learn that the road is considered the best in the State. I believe it to be for the best interest of Cowley County to secure a branch from that road, if possible, to run through the Walnut Valley. Let us make an effort to that end. J. M. ALEXANDER.
Winfield Messenger, November 1, 1872. Front Page.
                                                    ATTORNEYS AT LAW.
Will practice law in all the courts in the state of Kansas and at the U. S. Land Office at Wichita.
              Office in stone building on 9th Avenue, east of Main street, Winfield, Kansas.
Winfield Messenger, November 1, 1872. Front Page.
                                PRYOR & KAGER [S. D. PRYOR/E. B. KAGER].
                ATTORNEYS AT LAW AND NOTARIES PUBLIC, Winfield, Kansas.
Will give attention to business at the U. S. Land Office at Wichita, file and prove up on land, and procure titles to school lands. Will practice in Cowley and adjoining counties.
                                                       NOTARIES PUBLIC.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 6, 1873.
                                                                  A Card.

EDITOR COURIER: I have been advised that my name is being used by certain parties for Mayor at the coming election. I desire to say that I will not be a candidate, but as I was chiefly instrumental in getting the charter, I am truly anxious that the city offices shall be filled by our best men. And it is unusually necessary at this time that we fill the highest office in the city with a man of high standing with the people of the county. Believing W. H. H. Marris to be that man, I shall cheerfully support the Citizen’s Ticket, headed by him.
                                                        J. M. ALEXANDER.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, April 24, 1873.
Col. J. M. Alexander started for Leavenworth last Sunday.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 10, 1873.
Col. J. M. Alexander showed his familiar face in our sanctum yesterday, after several months absence in Leavenworth. The Col. looks well, and we welcome him back to Winfield where his pres­ence reminds us so strongly of old times.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 17, 1873.
Board met in Co. Clerk’s office July 7th, 1873.
Present: Frank Cox, J. D. Maurer, and O. C. Smith.
Dr. Headrick appeared to have his assessment taken off the rolls, as his land was not properly entered until after the first of March 1872. Upon his statement the board refused to act.
Changes were made to property of Phoeby Smith of Omnia Township.
J. M. Alexander appeared and protested against receiving the assessment rolls of Winfield Township from T. B. Myers as he had not returned his rolls as required by law, and also that he was a non-resident. In the above matter the Board received the assess­ment rolls of T. B. Myers and await for the Attorney General’s opinion touching said case. . . .
Winfield Courier, Thursday, August 14, 1873.
Col. Alexander has dug out for Leavenworth.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, August 28, 1873.
                                                   BLACK CROOK, Dairy.
All persons who wish to be furnished with good fresh milk will please notify Mike McDonald, or leave orders at
                                        ALEXANDER & SAFFOLD’S Office.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, October 30, 1873.
Among the lawyers in attendance at the District Court from abroad, we notice Col. J. M. Alexander of Leavenworth; Hon. Wm. P. Hackney, of Wellington; Gen. Rogers of Eureka, and Judge M. L. Adams of Wichita. From Arkansas City are C. R. Mitchell and A. J. Pyburn. From Dexter, Hon. James McDermott. Our own bar is, as usual, ably represented by Fairbanks, Torrance & Green, Webb & Bigger, Manning & Johnson, Louis T. Michener, Pryor & Kager, and T. H. Suits.
Winfield Courier, May 22, 1874.
RECAP: SHERIFF R. L. WALKER SELLS ON SATURDAY, JUNE 13, 1874, LAND OWNED BY W. H. CADY, WHO HAS BEEN SUED BY S. L. BRETTUN: West ½ of the southeast 1/4 of section 21, tp. 30, south of Range four East of the sixth principal meridian in Cowley County, containing 80 acres, the said land having been levied upon as the property of said W. H. Cady.
Attorneys for plaintiff, S. L. Brettun: Alexander & Saffold.
Winfield Courier, June 19, 1874.

Money to Loan. Money can be had at the office of Alexander & Saffold, at reasonable rates and on time to suit borrowers, for the purpose of deeding land, etc., by giving good real estate security.
Winfield Courier, July 3, 1874.
We are pleased to see the smiling countenance of Col. J. M. Alexander back in Winfield. The Col. has been for some months past in Leavenworth, looking after his large property there. He came through, as Sid. Clarke went to Topeka last winter, in his own conveyance.
Winfield Courier, July 10, 1874.
                                                  THE 4TH AT WINFIELD!
                          The Biggest Gathering Ever Seen on the Walnut River.
                                       PROCESSION THREE MILES LONG.
                                  Five Thousand People Join in the Celebration.
                                                      CALLED TO ORDER.
The meeting was called to order by G. S. Manser, president of the day. The Declaration of Independence was read by L. T. Michener, Esq. Speeches were then made by Col. John M. Alexander and Judge Ross. The “Star Spangled Banner” was sung by Mrs. A. H. Green, assisted by J. T. Hall, and a full chorus of young ladies, when a short recess was had for
Winfield Courier, August 28, 1874.
We are happy to welcome to our town Mr. Wm. P. Hackney, who has removed his family to this place, which he will hereafter make his home. Mr. Hackney has always acquitted himself credit­ably in whatever position he has been placed, whether as a representative or lawyer, and himself and lady will prove valu­able acquisitions to our list of citizens. On our first page will be found his card in connection with J. Wade McDonald, of Wellington, who will attend to the business of the firm at that place.
CARD: W. P. HACKNEY,                                                           J. WADE McDONALD,
                 Winfield, Kas.                                                                           Wellington, Kas.
                                                 HACKNEY & McDONALD.
ATTORNEYS AT LAW. Will practice in all the Courts of the State. W. P. Hackney’s office is at Winfield. J. Wade McDonald’s at Wellington, Kansas. Office one door west of Alexander & Saffold’s law office. Winfield, Kansas.
Winfield Courier, August 28, 1874.           
Mr. and Mrs. L. T. Michener took leave of their friends and acquaintances, and left this city last Monday morning to take up their residence at their old home in Indiana. Mr. Michener and his estimable lady were residents of this city less than a year, but during that time they succeeded by their sociability and pleasing address in winning the friendship of all with whom they came in contact, and we know of no one whose departure would cause more sincere regret. The members of the bar met and passed resolutions of regret, at their departure, which will be found in another column.
                     [Skipped Bar Resolution to Michener. Covered rest of the meeting.]
                                                             Bar Meeting.

The members of the Winfield Bar met at the office of Fairbanks, Torrance & Green, on Saturday, August 22nd, 1874, to take some action in regard to the intended departure of one of their members, M. L. T. Michener.
On motion J. M. Alexander was called to the chair, and T. H. Johnston, was elected secretary.
On motion J. B. Fairbanks, D. A. Millington, and N. H. Wood, were appointed a committee on resolutions; after mature deliberation reported the . . . .
On motion the meeting adjourned. J. M. ALEXANDER, Chairman.
T. H. JOHNSTON, Secretary.
Winfield Courier, August 28, 1874.
“The gentleman from Tisdale,” (W. M. Allison) has bought the stone house lately occupied by T. H. Suits. He expects to bring his family here, and will make this place his permanent resi­dence. He has intimated to a few of his intimate friends that he was tired of the worthless life he is now living, and that he would be willing to go into some kind of business if an opportu­nity should present itself. He has already had a number of schemes on foot but has given them all up. At first he con­cluded that he would construct a railroad from New Orleans up the Arkansas River and continue it to San Francisco, but he couldn’t bear the idea of becoming a monopoly, so he dropped that grand scheme which would have been a blessing to thousands of people. Next he was about to purchase two or three corner lots of Manning upon which to erect a five story brick hotel with a marble front and mahogany finish, when the idea suddenly occurred to him that by so doing he would necessarily become a capitalist, which was entirely at variance with his principles, so that had to be given up like the first. Then he thought of becoming a Moses to the unfortunate farmers in this county by buying their corn at one dollar and a half per bushel, their wheat at three dollars per bushel, and their hogs at ten dollars per hundred, and then give them their groceries and dry goods, besides offering a reward of fifty cents for every grasshopper scalp that should be brought him, but he was afraid the grangers would snub him on account of his being a middleman, so that philanthropic idea was cast to the winds. He is now in doubt as to what use to put his capital.
LATER. Just before going to press we learn that Mr. Allison has concluded to start a newspaper, and run it in the interest of Col. Alexander for Congress, hoping thereby to win the Colonel’s favor so that immediately upon his election, he will revive the old Thomasville post office and appoint Allison to the genteel, honorable, and highly lucrative position of postmaster.
Excerpts from lengthy article...
Winfield Courier, September 25, 1874. [Editorial by James Kelly.]
                                               THE POST OFFICE “RING.”
For the first act, Col. J. M. Alexander and the P. O. ring are responsible. They are the parties who more than anyone persuaded Mr. Cox to make the contract with the city of Winfield to build a courthouse and jail.
Col. Alexander and other pets of the Telegram told the board that the salaries allowed the County Attorney and Probate Judge ought to be al­lowed, and several Republicans, among the number, E. C. Manning, discountenanced all these propositions.

The Telegram is for anybody or anything that will keep T. K. Johnston in the Post Office at Winfield, and serve the interests of its masters, Read & Robinson, and Alexander & Saffold.
Now the Telegram and the “ring” are moving everything to organize an opposition to the Republican party of Cowley County this fall. Why? Because the Republican party won’t endorse Johnston, a man bitterly obnoxious to the public, and notoriously dishonest, as postmaster; won’t give the carpet-bagger from Leavenworth, Alexander, an office; won’t favor the bonding of the County debt so as to enable Read & Robinson, and a few non-residents, to convert the several thousands of dollars of Co. scrip that they hold, into cash. These are the real reasons, no matter what their pretended reasons are.
The cabal that backs the Telegram in its baseness has its head and front in Alexander & Saffold, Read & Robinson, and T. K. Johnston. This “ring” is what Alexander calls the “respectable faction in the Republican party.”
Winfield Courier, September 25, 1874.
Astronomers tell us that the planet Jupiter has four satellites, whose apparent motion is oscillatory. That is, they weave first one way from Jupiter, and his attraction being so great as to force them to return, they fly back with such veloci­ty as to carry them beyond when they are compelled to return again, and so continue. All but one are represented as being larger than Jupiter. Singular as it may appear we have an imitation of this wonder in the animal kingdom. Jupiter and his satellites—Manning and his delegates: Walton, Boyer, Kelly, and Webb. Telegram of Sept. 18th.
The curious orthography of the word “satellites” in two places in the above extract and the remarkable discovery that three of Jupiter’s satellites are each larger than Jupiter, are earmarks of such ample proportions as to convince us that none other than the celebrated “God bless the Grangers” Alexander could be its author. As that would-be candidate for Congress and the State Senate has a hankering for the office of County Attorney, we suppose that Webb must be the smaller satellite referred to.
Winfield Courier, September 25, 1874.     
Col. Alexander is out in the Telegram this week with a long endorsement of R. B. Saffold for State Senator. Of course, Alec. would endorse his law partner.
Winfield Courier, October 2, 1874.
The second bill introduced into the House during the extra session was “House Bill No. 2, by Wm. Martin, to bond the debt of Cowley County.” And in the face of this, Alexander, the heavy editor of the P. O. “ring” organ, says that “Mr. Martin never presented such a bill.” Verily how can we tell which to believe, the published record or the P. O. “ring.”
Winfield Courier, October 2, 1874.
                                        A KNOT OF NICE “REFORMERS.”

Gathered at P. O. headquarters No. 2, last Wednesday night, were as nice a knot of “reformers” as ever (dis)graced the State of Kansas. In the center, Nelson Abbott, whose record during and since the war brand him as no better than any other murderer and thief. Around him such shining lights as J. M. Alexander, R. B. Saffold, Will. M. Allison, H. B. Lacy, not to mention Judge Ross. We noticed a few vacant chairs, which to have made the circle complete, should have been filled by the fisherman of the P. O. “Charley,” Alexander’s former partner, and one or two others we could name. No doubt they had a good time “fighting their battles o’er again.” Certainly if each was not benefitted, neither could he be contaminated by contact with the others.
Winfield Courier, October 2, 1874.
                                                        SLIGHTLY THIN.
J. M. Alexander, Saffold’s law partner, says of that gentle­man, in the Telegram last week; that he is a “farmer.” True, he don’t do the work himself as his republican opponent Col. St. Clair does. “But ‘tis because his health is not good.”
When the war broke out, Alec. further tells us, Judge Saffold was forced into the army against his wishes and in order that he might do the Union as little damage as possible, he chose the least conspicu­ous position in it. “So much so,” continues Alec., “that he was often in imminent danger of his life.”
Now we appeal to every soldier, on either side, if the least conspicuous position in the army wasn’t also the least dangerous. The fact is that Mr. Saffold was a Commissary Sergeant during the war and of course it was not conspicuous. But of course, also, it wasn’t dangerous, as Alec. would have us believe.
Another funny thing is, that Saffold being forced into the army, i.e., conscripted, that he could choose where and how he would serve. Had Alexander left that part of his record out entirely, it would have been better for Judge Saffold.
Or if he had owned up manfully to his having been a rebel and volunteering in the army, no one would have found any fault with him on that ground. But the pitiful excuse made for him by his law partner ought to snow him under worse than ever. Now he has no claim on those who served in the Southern Army and he certainly never had any on Union men. Of course, Alexander thought that we would show up Mr. Saffold’s war record so he thought he would be out first.
The truth is, Alec., we would have done no such thing. For besides having considerable personal regard for Judge Saffold, we have no ill will against a man for having served his time manful­ly in the rebel army. But for such a soldier as described by Alexander, we have the most profound contempt.
Winfield Courier, October 2, 1874.
Alexander, the Leavenworth carpetbagger, Johnston, the fisherman, and the other members of the P. O. “ring,” which the “COURIER” showed up so effectually last week, have joined in an article covering one whole side of the Telegram, all devoted to the abuse of Manning.
Winfield Courier, October 2, 1874.
Court convened last Monday, the following lawyers in attendance: Webb & Millington, Pryor & Kager, Fairbanks, Torrance & Green, Alexander & Saffold, Suits & Wood, E. C. Manning, W. P. Hackney, T. H. Johnson, and John E. Allen, of Winfield. J. Wade McDonald, of Wellington. M. S. Adams and Chas. Hatton, of Wichita. James McDermott, of Dexter; and C. R. Mitchell and L. B. Kellogg, of Arkansas City.
Winfield Courier, October 9, 1874.
                                                  MANNING vs ALLISON.

Col. E. C. Manning had Allison of the Telegram arrested last Saturday on charge of libel. The ground for the charge was an article in the Telegram of the 2nd inst. We are sorry that Col. Manning saw fit to take the course he has in the matter. We advised him otherwise, but he thought different.
We were satisfied that that was just what the “ring” in their desperate strait wanted. Something that would create sympathy for their champion. We understand that they (the ring) justified Allison on the ground that Col. Manning wrote the “ring” expose for the COURIER, and that he is in the habit of writing our articles for us.
Now while we take it as quite complimentary to have writers of such well known ability as Col. Manning, Maj. Fairbanks, and D. A. Millington credited with the authorship of our articles, yet we will say once more, that no man writes our editorials for us (except when we may be absent, and our local attends to that) and nobody knows this better than the P. O. “ring.” If they are not satisfied that we have the ability to show them up, we invite T. K. Johnston, J. M. Alexander, or any other members of the “ring” to call on us any week, and we will give them permission to look over our shoulder while we tell the public of their many rascalities. 
Winfield Courier, October 15, 1874.
J. M. Alexander has purchased the Oxford Enterprise office, and removed it to this place where a new paper will be started. As we understand it, Allison is to have nothing to do with this new enterprise, as the friends (?) who should have stuck by him in his adversity have gone clear back on him. We hope this new venture will succeed.
Winfield Courier, October 22, 1874.
                                                 THE “CARPETBAGGER.”
A new paper is soon, if ever, to be started here by Lillie, Smith, Alexander & Co. As we have not been taken into the confidence of the managers, we of course cannot tell just to a “brilliant em,” how many feet wide by yards long the new paper is going to be. We suppose, however, that it will be something near a 19 column paper, and will contain about 700 pages nonpareil. It is to be issued regularly when started, once in two years, or as Alexander gets run out of Leavenworth and carpet bags back to Winfield. It will be perfectly independent in politics, having no interests to serve, save that of the P. O. “Ring,” and other peculiar interests of its managers. As its name indicates it will be ready at all times to pack up its carpet bag and go back to Leavenworth.
Its motto is to be taken from Alexander’s celebrated 4th of July oration:
                                                  “God Bless the Grangers!”
As near as we can find out the editorial staff stands about as follows:
J. C. Lillie, editor in chief.
J. M. Alexander, agricultural editor.
S. C. Smith, financial editor, with occasional contributions from T. K. Johnston, Dr. Dobson, and others.

As a ready writer Mr. Lillie has few superiors, as witness his “My say so,” something over a year ago. On the subject of agriculture, Alexander is well posted, having practiced skinning the farmers for thirty odd years, he knows a thing or two on that subject. On finances S. C. is up with the times, having probably loaned as much or more money than anybody in Cowley County. 
As to the honesty of the management, we have nothing to say. What if they did try to steal Allison’s subscription books, and start their paper on his ruins. That was but a clever coup de plume which will better stand excuse than investigation.
True, the new paper will be called a bastard by some igno­rant people; but suppose it has not been blessed with either father or mother, its foster-mother, Alexander, is an experienced wet nurse, who will no doubt raise the bantling to a respectable standing in society. Of course, we write this “prospectus” without our host, as the Carpetbagger may never make any more of an appearance than it now does behind Read’s bank. But as we always hate to be behind in this matter, we give it the benefit of this advertisement.
Winfield Courier, October 29, 1874.
We understand that Alexander talks of disorganizing the city and placing it back where it was before it was incorporated. Well, Aleck and the P. O. “ring” have been disappointed in the result. The experiment has cost several thousand and ‘tisn’t so lovely with the “ring” as it might have been; and now they are ready for some other change to try and save their failing fortunes.
                                            WINFIELD PLOW AND ANVIL
                                        [BEGINNING NOVEMBER 19, 1874]
                           SCATTERED ISSUES NOV. 19, 1874 - FEB. 17, 1876
             WINFIELD, KANSAS, THURSDAY, NOV. 19, 1874. VOL. 1. - NO. 1.
Winfield Plow and Anvil, November 19, 1874. 
One copy one year, --------- $2.00
One copy six months, -------  1.00
Clubs of 10 (1 copy free to getter-up) $17.50
Clubs of 20 (1 copy free to getter-up)  35.00
ALEXANDER & SAFFOLD. ATTORNEYS AT LAW. Will practice in all the Courts in the State of Kansas and at the U. S. Land Office at Wichita. Take filings and proofs on land at their Office in Stone building on 9th Avenue East of Main street Winfield, Kans.
Winfield Plow and Anvil, November 19, 1874. 
NEW PAPER.—Col. J. M. Alexander, of Winfield, has purchased the material of the Oxford Enterprise, and intends publishing a paper at the county seat. We extend our sympathy to the Colonel, but fear the result, although we know him to be experienced, well-qualified and adapted to the calling.—Arkansas Traveler.
Cast your fears to the wind, brother Scott. We have already a paying patronage without using an effort; and we intend to increase that patronage in the next six months to an extent that ought to satisfy any reasonable mind. We thank you, however, for your kind compliments, and bespeak that good will and success for the Traveler, which its true courtesy and ably conducted columns demand.

The most difficult thing in the world for one to do, is to “let well-enough alone.”  Discontent, especially in a new coun­try, seems often to pervade almost every household. We have seen this to a great extent the past season in our own county. Numerous families, sacrificing their household effects and their stock, and sometimes their land, to “go back” to their former places of residence, or to some new place. And for what? The United States does not, in any other locality, furnish more beautiful and fertile lands than the valleys and rolling prairies of Cowley County. Indeed, few places can be found that will compare, in point of perfectibility, and in everything which goes to make up a desirable and lovely home, to the slopes and vales of this section of Kansas.
When we see families leaving this glorious land for the ignis fatuus of a better one, we commiserate their folly. And what disappointment awaits them at the end of their journey. Wherever they go, the same iron despotism of “Hard Times” stares them in the face. It is no better anywhere; nor will it be any better anywhere sooner, than here.
We have heard from several who have left, and invariably it seems they regret keenly their removal. Our kindest advice to the citizens of Cowley County is, to “let well-enough alone,” study contentment; fight out manfully the hard times; cultivate your land with energy and industry; set out fruit and shade trees around your houses; abstain from the daily use of whiskey and tobacco; never go to town except to attend church or on business of necessity, and subscribe and pay for the PLOW AND ANVIL, and we will guarantee to you, both happiness and success.
Winfield Plow and Anvil, November 19, 1874. 
                                                        LOCAL MATTERS
                                                            Special Notice.
Editorial rooms at the office of Alexander & Saffold in the Stone Building on 9th Avenue.
Winfield Courier, November 26, 1874.
                                Alexander’s Salutatory, with running Comments
                                                           By the Courier.
“We have been a citizen of Cowley County for upwards of four years.”
How about the time you spent in Leavenworth, when you left here cursing the country, the town, and everybody in it?
“We have intended for a long time to start a newspaper in Winfield. . . . This intention has been accomplished sooner than we expected.”
Yes. Allison was down with a libel suit on his hands, his paper attached, so he couldn’t run. That was your favorable opportunity to start a paper on the ruins of the Telegram.
“We have never intended to build up by tearing someone else down.”
You didn’t intend it when you tried to throw Allison out and get your carpetbag paper installed in its place? And why was it necessary for Mr. Allison to replevin his subscription books from your clutches?
“When a newspaper has outlived its usefulness, its best service to humanity is to die. And when it is dead, a decent respect for its memory leaves nothing to be done but to bury it out of sight.”

The above is aimed directly at the Telegram. Everybody familiar with the facts know full well that Alexander as much as any man alive helped to kill theTelegram. In fact, Alexander is so far gone in sin, that his connection even with a newspaper, would be sure to kill it.
“We cannot consent to support a bad man for an office because he belongs to a certain party.”
Then you will never support yourself for an office.
“Capacity and integrity in a candidate, should govern the people’s support of him.”
Alexander just fills half that bill. He has the capacity (of stomach) without the integrity.
“We cannot descend to the muddy pools of blackguardism through this journal, nor can we condescend to loan its columns to others for such a purpose.”
Of course a man who has never been above the “muddy pools of blackguardism,” couldn’t descend to it. Alexander did not hesitate to enter the “dirty pool of blackguardism” when he could shift the odium and responsibility on somebody else. He could take advantage of Allison’s absence to fill the Telegram with dirty blackguardism, and then forge Allison’s signature to it. Descend, indeed!
“It requires both heart and brains to print a newspaper that a decent man or woman can read without a blush.”
So it does. That is the very reason we do not believe that you can run a decent paper. It is much harder for a man like you, whose mouth is daily filled with oaths, imprecations, and blasphemy—to say nothing of course vulgarity—to conduct a paper free from blackguardism.
Winfield Courier, November 26, 1874.
“Hew to the line, let the chips fall where they may” is the motto of the carpetbag paper of this town. And it is wonderful with what exactness, the editor of that murky sheet, unwittingly describes himself, in an article, this week entitled “The Slan­derer.” We quote:
“Whose tongue out venoms all the worms of Nile:
 Whose breath rides on the posting winds,  and doth belie all comers of the world.
 Kings, Queens, and states; Maids, Matrons, nay, 
       The very secrets of the grave this viperous slanderer enters.”
Alexander has set himself up as a teacher of morals. Well, Aleck is about as competent to teach morals as any man we know of, he has been so immoral that he can warn the young how to avoid the filthy sluices he has passed through.
Now that our people have got a nice moral home paper, we expect to see it introduced in our Sunday schools this winter in place of the children’s papers heretofore taken there.
The Leavenworth carpet-bagger used to think nothing too vile or mean, to say about a Newspaper publisher. Wonder if he thinks so now.
Alexander is now publishing Major Hudson’s old campaign speech as an editorial.
Winfield Courier, November 26, 1874.
Well, well, wonders never cease. It now turns out that Alexander always was a farmer and not a lawyer at all, as some people used to think.

Winfield Courier, January 21, 1875.
                                                       HIGHLY MORAL!!
                         The Old Hog Gets Down To His Wallowing In The Mire!
When the old carpet-bagger started his paper, he promised the public that he would not get down to the “dirty pools of blackguardism.” We predicted at the time that the old male prostitute’s life had been such that he could not keep up the “high moral” tone any great length of time. However, we were willing to give him a fair trial; knowing that the good book said that “while the lamp held out to burn, the vilest sinner might return.” But our prediction was verified sooner than we expect­ed. The old hog that was going to bring about a new order of things in the era of Journalism in Cowley County couldn’t hold out any longer; but must return to wallowing in the mire, from which he was raised, and in which he has spent his worse then useless life. We did not intend to tell the good people of Cowley what kind of a man this Alexander was, who had made to them such fair promises to get their support for his bastard paper. Although there are a good many things we might tell on him were we so inclined, every word of which is easily suscepti­ble of proof.
Suppose we should tell the public how this man Alexander had rented his Leavenworth property to prostitutes. How he had first starved and then abandoned his wife (if she was his wife); and how he came to Cowley with a young woman dressed in male garb, whom he called “Charley;” how he was convicted and fined for selling whiskey without license; how he got money under false pretenses; how he was the only man to be found in the city of Winfield who was low enough in the slough of degradation to rent a house in the city of Winfield to a couple of prostitutes from Wichita, where they might ply their nefarious trade and inveigle our young men to their ruin. How he kept in this very town, a woman whom he introduced as his “sister,” and cohabited with her for months at a time. Should we tell all these things of this old reprobate, people would think we were indulging in something personal. We have a great many other things we could tell, but we do not propose to get down to the dirty pools of blackguardism, hence we will say nothing about it.
Winfield Courier, February 4, 1875.
Some say that Alexander has not stopped running yet. It must be a mistake, however, for we have it from good authority that he did stop—a stone with the back of his head.
Winfield Courier, February 4, 1875.
Old Alex, of the Carpet-bagger, sent a petition up to the Legislature, the other day, addressed, “To the Legislature of Kansas in Congress Assembled.”
Winfield Courier, March 25, 1875.
The District Court is in full blast, Hon. W. P. Campbell presiding. The following attorneys are in attendance: Webb & Millington, Hackney & McDonald, E. C. Manning, J. B. Fairbanks, Pryor & Kager, T. H. Suits, John E. Allen, A. H. Green, Alexander & Saffold, T. H. Johnson, M. S. Adams of Wichita, C. R. Mitchell and L. B. Kellogg of Arkansas City, James McDermott of Dexter, and A. J. Pyburn, County Attorney.
Winfield Courier, June 10, 1875.
Col. J. M. Alexander, formerly of the Plow and Anvil, has returned to Winfield. He reports the grasshoppers fearfully bad in the Northeastern part of the state.
Winfield Courier, June 24, 1875.

                                                      COWLEY COUNTY.
The following letter, as will readily be seen, was written by Col. J. M. Alexander of this place to the Leavenworth Times, from which we clip it.
                    WINFIELD, COWLEY COUNTY, KANSAS, June 11th, 1875.
Editor Times: I write, because I think that the people of that portion of the state which has lately suffered from the locusts, will feel refreshed on learning that other portions of the country are extraordinarily blessed with good and abundant crops. The inhabitants of this section of Kansas are exultant over their prospects. An extensive acreage of wheat was sown in this, and adjoining counties, last fall; and now, the eye of the traveler becomes almost wearied at gazing over so vast an area of wavy golden grain, about ready for the reaper, and which is expected to yield an average of 25 bushels to the acre.
My friend, Mr. Frazier, of the celebrated Occidental Hotel in Wichita, in riding from that city to this, a distance of 45 miles, counted 169 wheat and rye fields on his way.
Our farmers are beginning to catch the inspiration of the true and noble science of agriculture, and are becoming laudably ambitious. Hundreds of acres of sod are being turned over this season for an extended wheat and rye culture; and if the corn crop follows with proportional exuberance, this land will soon teem with wealth.
The opinion that I have heretofore expressed that, this (Cowley) county is superior in beauty and landscape, in her area of forests, in her numerous, clear, and copiously running brooks, and in her fertility of soil, to any county in the state, I am more than ever confirmed in. And such I believe will be the candid judgment of everyone who becomes versed in the geography of the state. Nor is the population inferior in average intelli­gence and accomplishments to that of the elder counties.
Last night I attended a strawberry and ice-cream festival at the courthouse given by the Presbyterian and Congregational churches; and there I met as intelligent gentlemen and as accom­plished ladies—as recherche in mode, save the costliness in apparel—as I have witnessed in far older and larger cities. It is true, the absence of wealth forbade any particular attention to the elegant arts of Pompadour and Maintenon, in matter of wardrobe; but I may say in truth, and without intending invidi­ousness, that Miss M. and Miss G., late teachers in Winfield; Miss S., late from Virginia; Miss H., late from Mississippi, and others had I time to name them, were as graceful and lovable young ladies as any critical gentleman would wish to meet.
Almost everyone I meet inquires anxiously after the condi­tion of Col. Anthony. I find a deep-seated feeling prevailing in the country that a great wrong has been done his case; and even those who never knew the Colonel personally, appear to feel an unusual anxiety for his recovery. J. M. A.
Winfield Courier, October 21, 1875.

The joint discussion between the candidates of our parties came off last night. A good crowd met at the schoolhouse to see the aspirants for office and to hear the speeches. While there was no discussion between the opposing candidates, each one of them made a speech, not so much however to display his oratorical abilities, for each one said, “I am no orator, as Brutus is,” but to let the people see what good looking men were seeking to serve them. Col. W. P. Hackney opened the exercises, after which Messrs. Handy, Bryant, Kinne, Henderson, Deming, and Walker became bold enough to speak. Col. J. M. Alexander was then called out, and he made a happy and well received speech. Judge Gans followed the Colonel with some good natural remarks and a joke on one of the candidates. After our distinguished visitors had spoken, some of our township candidates and citizens joined in the “discussion.” Squire John Clover, Charley Jones, B. H. Clover, H. D. Wilkins, and Burt French made effective and telling speeches. There was but one disappointment in the evening, namely, the non-appearance of friend Walton of the Plow-Handle. The meeting was closed with a few remarks by the chairman, R. C. Story.
Winfield Courier, October 28, 1875.
Col. J. M. Alexander started for Leavenworth yesterday to visit old friends and attend to business interests at the “whis­tling station.” He will be gone about three weeks.
Winfield Courier, October 28, 1875.
                                                         Railroad Meeting.
Railroad meeting at the Courthouse Tuesday night, Oct. 26th, 1875.
Meeting called to order for the purpose of discussing the railroad question; organized by electing Dr. Mansfield chairman, and Amos Walton secretary. Col. Alexander stated the object of the meeting to be to work up correspondence with different parties on the railroad question.
Mayor Millington spoke at some length of the necessity of such an enterprise and that action should be taken immediately in order to cooperate with the counties north of us at once. On motion D. A. Millington, J. E. Platter, M. L. Robinson, and J. C. Fuller were appointed as a committee to carry out the intention of said meeting. On motion, adjourned.
                                               W. Q. MANSFIELD, Chairman.
A. WALTON, Secretary.
Winfield Courier, November 25, 1875.
Col. J. M. Alexander has returned. Leavenworth, he thinks, is a nice place, but too far away from Winfield to ever make much of a town.
                                               THE WINFIELD COURIER.
                                                     CENTENNIAL ISSUE.
                         WINFIELD COURIER, THURSDAY, JANUARY 6, 1876.
The city of Winfield was incorporated Feb. 22nd, 1873. The first city election was held March 7th, 1873, at which W. H. H. Marris was elected Mayor.
A. A. Jackson, Probate Judge.
O. F. Boyle, J. D. Cochran, H. S. Silver, S. C. Smith, and C. A. Bliss, for Councilmen.
The Council chose S. C. Smith, its President; J. W. Curns, Clerk; M. L. Robinson, Treasurer; C. W. Richmond, Marshal; and J. M. Alexander, Attorney.
The first annual election was held April 7th, 1873, and the same persons were re-elected to the various offices, excepting that S. Darrah succeeded C. A. Bliss, and the Council re-appointed the same persons to the other offices, with the exception that W. T. Dougherty succeeded Richmond as Marshal.

On the 19th day of November, 1874, the Plow and Anvil made its first appearance, with Col. J. M. Alexander editor and proprietor. Col. Alexander was succeeded by Amos Walton and C. M. McIntire, the present editors and proprietors, April 22 last.
The Censor was, and the Traveler and COURIER are, republican in politics. The Messenger was, and the Telegram and Plow and Anvil are independent in politics.
Winfield Courier, January 27, 1876.
The undersigned, residents of Cowley County, cordially unite in inviting the citizens of said county to meet in mass meeting at Winfield, on Saturday at 2 P. M.,
                                                          FEBRUARY 5TH,
to take such action as shall seem advisable upon consultation to secure the construction of a railroad into Cowley County. We desire each paper in said county to publish this call, and we hope that every township will be fully represented at said meeting.
Dated January 25, 1876.
ROCK TOWNSHIP: John M. Harcourt, Robert F. Bailey, Andrew Dawson, John Foster, J. L. Foster, Jess. J. Tribby, H. D. Lee, W. B. Wimer.
BEAVER TOWNSHIP: William D. Lester, B. W. Jenkins, John A. McCulloch, W. A. Freeman.
VERNON TOWNSHIP: Wm. Martin, C. M. Denkin, R. L. Walker.
SPRING CREEK TOWNSHIP: R. P. Goodrich, Cyrus Wilson, F. W. Vance.
TISDALE TOWNSHIP: E. P. Young, D. H. Southworth.
LIBERTY TOWNSHIP: Chas. W. Frith, J. L. H. Darnall.
OTTER TOWNSHIP: H. C. Fisher, R. R. Turner.
OMNIA TOWNSHIP: Elisha Harned.
DEXTER TOWNSHIP: T. W. Coats, J. D. Maurer, Mark Kenton Hull, Levi Quier, J. A. Bryan, George Bryan.
WINFIELD: M. L. Read, S. D. Pryor, N. M. Powers, N. W. Holmes, N. L. Rigby, Thomas McMillen, L. J. Webb, Charles C. Black, J. S. Hunt, W. M. Boyer, John W. Curns, G. S. Manser, B. F. Baldwin, J. H. Land, A. H. Green, W. Q. Mansfield, E. C. Manning, S. H. Myton, J. C. Fuller, A. B. Lemmon, James Kelly, W. H. H. Maris, T. H. Henderson, A. N. Deming, H. S. Silver, J. M. Alexander, Amos Walton, D. A. Millington, J. E. Platter, W. M. Allison, And one hundred others.
Winfield Courier, April 6, 1876.
Col. J. M. Alexander is making preparations to break two hundred acres of prairie this spring on his farm one mile east of town. He has planted out three hundred Lombardy poplars around the beautiful mound overlooking the valley and is making other improvements noticeable from the road.
Winfield Courier, May 18, 1876.
                                             Republican District Conventions.
Pursuant to call the Republican delegates from the townships of the 88th Representative District met in convention at the Courthouse in Winfield last Saturday.
On motion, W. B. Norman, of Maple, was chosen chairman, and Wm. White, secretary of the meeting.

After the usual formalities were disposed of, the delegates present proceeded to vote for two delegates and two alternates to represent this district in the State Convention, May 24, 1876. The choice fell upon D. A. Millington and E. P. Kinne, with respective alternates, as follows: Charles Eagen, of Rock, and J. M. Alexander, of Winfield.
All motions to adopt resolutions declaring for Presidential candidates were tabled, though the meeting was strongly Blaine in sentiment.
On motion the following District Republican central commit­tee was chosen: L. J. Webb, B. Shriver, and W. B. Norman.
On motion the convention adjourned sine die.
Winfield Courier, May 25, 1876.
COL. ALEXANDER started for Topeka Monday morning, to attend the Republican Convention as alternate for Mr. E. P. Kinne. He will go from there to the Exposition.
Winfield Courier, May 25, 1876.
We understand that Messrs. Hackney and McDonald have pur­chased of Col. Alexander the beautiful and sightly mound at the head of Ninth Avenue, just east of town.
Winfield Courier, August 3, 1876.
Col. Alexander arrived home Wednesday evening from an extended trip through the east. He is looking hale and hearty. Centennial air evidently agrees with him.
Winfield Courier, October 5, 1876.
The following attorneys are in attendance at the present term of court: M. S. Adams, of Wichita; L. B. Kellogg, of Emporia; C. R. Mitchell, A. Walton, and James Christian, of Arkansas City; James McDermott, Dexter; Webb & Torrance, Hackney & McDonald, Pyburn & Seward, D. A. Millington, J. M. Alexander, Jennings & Buckman, A. H. Green, 
Pryor, Kager & Pryor, A. B. Lemmon, and John E. Allen, of Winfield.
Winfield Courier, November 2, 1876.
COL. ALEXANDER has just completed and moved into his house down on Twelfth avenue. His daughter having arrived from New York, he has no further use for hotels. The boys uptown miss him of evenings.
Winfield Courier, November 9, 1876.
The Republicans of Winfield Township met pursuant to call, at the Courthouse Saturday, the 4th instant, and proceeded to nominate the following township ticket:” For trustee, J. S. Hunt; for Clerk, Ed. S. Bedilion; for treasurer, B. F. Baldwin; for justice of the peace, W. M. Boyer; for constables, Ed. R. Evans and Burt Covert. After which the following township central committee was chosen: Wirt W. Walton, C. C. Pierce, and S. E. Burger.
                                               J. M. ALEXANDER, Chairman.
E. S. TORRANCE, Secretary.
Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, April 6, 1876.
The district court opened on Monday; Judge Campbell on the bench. Attorneys present: A. J. McDonald of Wellington; C. R. Mitchell and James Christian of Arkansas City; James McDermott of Dexter; Mr. Ruggles of Wichita; Byron Sherry of Leavenworth; J. M. Alexander, A. H. Green, L. J. Webb, D. A. Millington, A. J. Pyburn, T. H. Suits, W. P. Hackney, E. C. Manning, John Allen, Wm. Boyer, S. D. Pryor, W. M. Boyer, and Amos Walton of Winfield.

                                          COWLEY COUNTY DEMOCRAT.
                             [From February 24, 1876, through August 17, 1876.]
                                    Published by Amos Walton and C. M. McIntire.
[Cowley County Democrat was the name given to former “Plow and Anvil.”]
Cowley County Democrat, March 6, 1876.
On November 19, 1874, the Plow and Anvil made its appearance in Winfield, with Col. J. M. Alexander as its editor and proprietor. On the 22nd day of April, 1876, Messrs. A. Walton and C. M. McIntire purchased the office and continued its publication together, till the 17th day of May, the present year, when Walton retired, leaving it in sole charge of Mr. McIntire. On the 24th day of February, 1876, its name was changed from the Winfield Plow and Anvil to the Cowley County Democrat; the name it bears to-day.
The Censor was, and the Traveler and Courier are, Republican in politics. The Messenger and Plow and Anvil were, and the Telegram is, Independent in politics. As its name implies, the Democrat is Democratic in politics.
Arkansas City Traveler, April 19, 1876. Front Page.
There were in attendance upon the District Court in this County, the following named attorneys.
General Sherry, of Leavenworth.
Judge Adams and Major Ruggles, of Wichita.
Judge Christian, C. R. Mitchell, and E. B. Kager, of Arkan­sas City.
Prof. Kellogg, of Emporia.
Capt. McDermott, of Dexter.
Judge McDonald, of Wellington.
Messrs. Pryor & Pryor, Allen, Boyer, Pyburn, Webb, Millington, Hackney, and Alexander, of Winfield.
Arkansas City Traveler, May 23, 1877.
The following attorneys were in attendance upon the present term of the District Court: Hon. Alfred L. Redden, of Eldorado; Mr. White, Howard City; Judge M. S. Adams, Wichita; Mr. McBryan, Sedan; Hon. C. R. Mitchell, Amos Walton, Judge Christian, E. B. Kager and Col. McMullen, of Arkansas City; and Messrs. Hackney & McDonald, Pryor & Pryor, Jennings & Buckman, Pyburn & Seward, Jas. McDermott, Henry E. Asp, E. S. Torrance, J. E. Allen, L. J. & Linus Webb, D. A. Millington, A. H. Green, W. M. Boyer, J. M. Alexander, of Winfield.
Winfield Courier, February 15, 1877.
Capt. James McDermott has purchased the stone residence in the southeast part of town from Col. Alexander.
                                                 REV. J. L. RUSHBRIDGE.
                      [His name appears as either “Rusbridge” or “Rushbridge.”]
Winfield Courier, February 22, 1877. Editorial Page.

The gentleman above named made a grave mistake last Satur­day. He is not a taxpayer. He attended a taxpayer meeting which was called for the purpose of voting for or against a resolution asking the legislature to change the bond law. He did all that he could to prevent the resolution from coming before the meet­ing. He made a speech calculated to alarm people against voting bonds to aid railroads. He said the adoption of the resolution asking for a change of the law would do no good for the Legisla­ture would adjourn before the proceedings of the meeting could get to Topeka. This statement was a point-blank falsehood. And this statement coming from such a source, had much to do with the defeat of the object of the meeting. By his unwarrantable course in this matter, he has destroyed his influence for good in this community. We regret this on his account, and because there is ample field for doing good. Everybody understands that this action of his was dictated by the ring which is opposed to railroads. We are aware that he is under special obligations to them for his bread and butter, but the measure of his usefulness is sadly circumscribed by obeying their behests in a matter outside his calling and duty. We hope the action of the conceit­ed reverend will be looked upon charitably and that due allowanc­es will be made for his dependent circumstances.
                                               WHO ARE DISAPPOINTED.
Winfield Courier, February 22, 1877. Editorial Page.
The taxpayers and farmers of Winfield Township are grievously disappointed at the action of Saturday’s meeting. They are no more so than the same class of men all over the county. It is a common cause. That our readers may see that our conclusions are justified, we give the names of the following heaviest taxpayers in town, who were in favor of a change of the law, and who have so expressed themselves: C. A. Bliss, C. C. Black, Dr. W. R. Davis, Col. J. M. Alexander, J. C. Fuller, J. B. Lynn, Dr. W. Q. Mansfield, B. F. Baldwin, D. A. Millington, Rev. J. E. Platter, J. P. Short, S. H. Myton, E. C. Manning, R. Hudson, W. L. Mullen, Wm. Rodgers, Max Shoeb, Ira Moore, J. P. McMillen, J. M. Bair, J. S. Hunt.
Besides these gentlemen there is a large class of smaller taxpayers in town of the same mind. Outside of the city limits four-fifths of the farmers are in favor of a change in the law.
                                               A DEMAGOGUE’S DODGE.
Winfield Courier, February 22, 1877. Editorial Page.
Last Saturday Bill Hackney said in his speech at the rail­road meeting that the Legislature would adjourn on last Monday, the 19th inst., and that it would do no good to ask the Legisla­ture to change the bond law, for the proceedings of that meeting could not get to Topeka before adjournment day. When he made that statement, he knew it was not true. The Legislature will not adjourn before the 1st of March.
Winfield Courier, April 5, 1877.
Col. J. M. Alexander has had a field of one hundred and twenty acres of his farm enclosed with a stone fence. Mr. Matthew Prendable did the work. The Col.’s farm is now one of the handsomest in Cowley County.
Winfield Courier, May 10, 1877. 
The following are the attorneys in attendance at the Cowley County district court now in session: L. J. Webb, J. E. Allen, D. A. Millington, Jennings & Buckman, E. S. Torrance, Hackney & McDonald, James McDermott, A. H. Green, Pyburn & Seward, J. M. Alexander, Pryor & Pryor, Henry E. Asp, Linus S. Webb, of Winfield; C. R. Mitchell, E. B. Kager, James Christian, of Arkansas City; A. L. Redden, of Eldorado; M. S. Adams, of Wichita; J. D. McBrian, of Sedan, Chautauqua County; J. M. White, of Howard City, Elk County.

Winfield Courier, June 7, 1877.
                                                          Publication Notice.
In the District Court of Said county,
W. H. Hitchcock and O. F. Boyle, plaintiffs,
John N. Yerger and Julia Yerger, defendants.
Julia Yerger, one of the above named defendants, in the State of Illinois, will take notice that the above named plaintiffs did, on the 26th day of March, A. D. 1877, file their petition in the said District Court of Cowley county, Kansas, against the above named defendants, setting forth that the said defendants gave a mortgage to one Joseph Likowski on the southeast ¼ of section 27, in township 31, south of range 3, east, situated in said county of Cowley, to secure the payment of $450.00, according to a certain promissory note referred to in said mortgage; which note and mortgage has been assigned to these plaintiffs, who are now and were, at the commencement of this action, the legal owners and holders of the same; and praying for a judgment against the said defendant, John N. Yerger, for the sum of $450.00, with interest at 12 percent per annum from the 14th day of April, A. D. 1874; for an attorney’s fee of $25.00, stipulated in said mortgage; costs of suit, and a sale of the said land according to law, to satisfy the said judgment. The said Julia Yerger will take further notice that she has been sued and must answer the petition filed by the plaintiffs in this action, on or before the 12th day of July, A. D. 1877, or the petition will be taken as true and a judgment as prayed for aforesaid will be rendered accordingly.
                                         W. H. HITCHCOCK & O. F. BOYLE.
                                              By J. M. Alexander, their attorney.
Winfield Courier, June 14, 1877.
Our friend, Col. J. M. Alexander, started for Leavenworth last Tuesday morning. He will probably return about the 10th of July.
Winfield Courier, June 28, 1877.
Sheriff Walker keeps his office with J. M. Alexander now.
Winfield Courier, July 19, 1877.
Col. Alexander has returned to Winfield.
Winfield Courier, March 14, 1878.
                                                  Items from the Wichita Eagle.
Colonel Manning and Alexander, of Winfield, were in the city yesterday. Winfield is growing.
Winfield Courier, March 14, 1878.
Col. J. M. Alexander arrived in town last Thursday evening. He has disposed of most of his Leavenworth property and will now remain in Winfield and attend to his large property here and his law business. He looks as if he had been well treated in Leavenworth.
Winfield Courier, March 28, 1878.
                                               WINFIELD, MARCH 26, 1878.

EDITOR COURIER. The great and growing agricultural interests of Cowley County demand at this time the attention of the farmers to the importance and necessity of organizing an agricultural society, which will enable them to compete with other counties in the state, and, in fact, place our favored county in the foreground to which her super-excellence entitles her.
In order to give the farmers an opportunity to discuss this measure and compare notes, I would suggest that a meeting be called to be held at the Courthouse on Saturday of court week (May 11th) for that purpose.
I would also suggest that farmers officer the meeting and the society, if they form one, and run it in their own way; and I am certain that success, instead of the failure that characterized the former undertaking, will be the result. J. M. ALEXANDER.
Winfield Courier, April 11, 1878.
                                    J. M. ALEXANDER, ATTORNEY AT LAW.
Has money to loan on real estate, and will buy claims, notes, mortgages, etc. At stone office, opposite post office, on Ninth avenue, Winfield, Kansas.
Winfield Courier, April 11, 1878.
                                                      VERNON JOTTINGS.
Article starts out about cultivation of potatoes on new land which is full of decaying vegetable matter versus old soils...I skipped the first part!
He continues:
We think that J. M. Alexander’s call for the organization of an agricultural society is timely, believing with him that our county is able to support, and should have, such a society to develop its industries by friendly rivalry; but we doubt the wisdom of the suggestion of offering the society by farmers exclusively. In an organization of this kind, every industrial pursuit should be represented to make its annual fairs a success; the undue preponderance of any one interest to others is detrimental. Agriculture is the occupation of fully three-fourths of our population, and while this interest is paramount, it should not be to the exclusion of others as well. It was a most signal failure in our old society to make agriculture the tail of the kite, instead of the kite itself; and we hope that this extreme in the opposite direction will not be taken, but that all interests will be represented as their merits deserve.
April 5, 1878. REX.
Arkansas City Traveler, April 17, 1878.
                                                          CIVIL DOCKET.
                                        J. M. Alexander, et al, v. W. W. Andrews.
Winfield Courier, April 18, 1878.
The following bills were allowed.
                                                        J. M. Alexander, rent.
Winfield Courier, May 9, 1878.
                                                  District Court Proceedings.

Monday, May 6th, 10 o’clock a.m. His Honor, W. P. Campbell, on the bench. Present: C. L. Harter, sheriff; E. S. Bedilion, clerk; Jas. McDermott, prosecuting attorney; attorneys C. Coldwell, W. F. Hackney, Henry E. Asp, J. E. Allen, D. C. Beach, E. S. Torrance, J. M. Alexander, A. J. Pyburn, N. C. Coldwell, Jas. Christian, G. H. Buckman, S. D. Pryor, J. Wade McDonald, C. R. Mitchell, J. D. Pryor, C. C. Black, R. C. Story, L. J. Webb, W. M. Boyer, F. S. Jennings, and D. A. Millington.
                                                       Agricultural Society.
                                                Minutes of the Organization.
Winfield Courier, May 16, 1878.
Pursuant to a call heretofore issued, a large assembly of representative men from different portions of Cowley County congregated at the courthouse in Winfield at 2 p.m., Saturday.
S. M. Fall, of Windsor, was chosen temporary chairman of the meeting and W. M. Allison, of Winfield, was chosen temporary secretary.
The chairman having requested that some gentleman should state the object of the  meeting, Col. J. M. Alexander responded with impressive and well considered remarks. The scope and design of the organization was further discussed by Messrs. J. B. Callison, W. B. Nauman, P. M. Wait, E. E. Bacon, and Solomon Wise, and words of encouragement came from each.
On motion the chairman appointed the following committee on permanent organization: E. P. Kinne, A. Walck, Chas. McClung, S. Phenix, A. A. Wiley, and E. E. Bacon.
The committee having retired for duty, Capt. S. W. Greer, having been called upon, spoke warmly and interestingly in favor of the permanent organization of a Cowley County Agricultural Society.
The roll of townships was also called to ascertain how large a representation from the county was present. Richland, Maple, Ninnescah, Vernon, Tisdale, Silver Creek, Windsor, Sheridan, Liberty, Pleasant Valley, Beaver, Silverdale, Spring Creek, Cedar, and Winfield responded.
The committee on permanent organization having completed their labors reported as follows, which report was unanimously adopted.
                                                    Permanent Organization.
                                          Cowley County Agricultural Society.
President: J. W. Millspaugh.
Vice President: S. M. Fall.
Secretary: E. E. Bacon.
Assistant Secretary: W. H. Grow.
Corresponding Secretary: S. W. Greer.
Treasurer: J. M. Alexander.
Executive Committee: E. P. Kinne, A. A. Wiley, R. F. Burden, Ed. Green, Dr. A. S. Capper, O. P. Darst, E. C. Manning.
Col. Alexander, Mr. Manning, and Mr. Millspaugh each asked to be excused from service in the organization; but the audience would accept no declinations.
Upon discussion it developed that the most satisfactory plan upon which to base the society was to incorporate it under the state law and issue shares of stock. On motion, after discussion, the shares will be 2,000 in number at five dollars each. The executive committee will meet at the courthouse next Thursday, at 1 p.m., to perfect the organization.


On motion the meeting adjourned.
Note: Creswell and Bolton Townships not present. Apparent Winfield started this organization.
Arkansas City Traveler, May 22, 1878.
COL. J. M. ALEXANDER, of Winfield, is said to be the best jury lawyer in Southern Kansas.
                                                       Council Proceedings.
Winfield Courier, June 13, 1878.
                                         WINFIELD, KANSAS, June 3rd, 1878.
Council met in council chamber. J. B. Lynn, mayor, and G. W. Gully, E. C. Manning, and C. M. Wood, councilmen, present. 
Petition of J. M. Alexander, et al., for sidewalk on north side of 9th Avenue, from Main to Millington Streets, reported from committee on streets and sidewalks favorably and ordinance ordered drawn; ditto, petition of M. L. Robinson, et al.
Winfield Courier, June 20, 1878.
                                                  WINFIELD, June 17, 1878.
EDITOR COURIER: Allow us the use of your columns to answer the libelous charge made by the Rev. Rushbridge in his pulpit last Sunday evening. He said: “that the committee appointed to examine petitions for saloon license were only twenty minutes examining 1,000 names,” when this little man was well aware that we spent one whole afternoon in Colonel Alexander’s office examining these petitions. He also knew that Henry E. Asp, one of their chosen number, was with us, and that he expressed himself entirely satisfied with the manner in which the examination was made.
The committee not being entirely satisfied referred the petitions back for additional names. The twenty minutes spoke of was the time spent in examining the additional names to the petition. And this is his basis for false and malicious representation. Respectfully,
Winfield Courier, July 4, 1878.
                                                Walnut Valley Fair Association.
                                         WINFIELD, KANSAS, June 24, 1878.
Board met pursuant to adjournment at the office of Col. J. M. Alexander. Present: J. W. Millspaugh, President; Col. Alexander, Treasurer; E. E. Bacon, Secretary; and Messrs. E. P. Kinne and E. C. Manning, Directors.
Winfield Courier, August 8, 1878.
A project is on foot to cut through the mound between the farms of Col. Alexander and Dr. Davis to make the Tisdale road run straight into Elm Row.
Winfield Courier, August 8, 1878.
Col. Alexander has built a stable back of his office; also a granary in which he will store his surplus wheat and wait for an advance and low railroad freights.
Winfield Courier, August 22, 1878.
                                                                Trial List.

The following is a list of cases that will stand for trial at the August A. D. 1878 term of the District Court of Cowley County, and have been placed on the Trial Docket in the following order.
J. M. Alexander was attorney involved in the following cases.
Mary Strickland vs. Henry Strickland.
Walter L. Pennington vs. Henrietta Craig et al. [Hackney & McDonald; J. M. Alexander.]
Henrietta Craig vs. W. L. Pennington et al. [J. J. Alexander; Hackney & McDonald.]
Winfield Courier, August 29, 1878.
                                                            District Court.
Met Monday morning, August 26th, 1878.
Present: Judge W. P. Campbell, Sheriff C. L. Harter, Clerk E. S. Bedilion, Attorneys McDermott, Torrance, C. Coldwell, N. C. Coldwell, Hackney, McDonald, Pryor, Pyburn, Allen, Jennings, Buckman, Black, Webb, Alexander, Beach, Troup, Jarvis, Asp, of Winfield; and Dennison, of Osage Mission.
Winfield Courier, September 12, 1878.
                                                     Real Estate Transfers.
C. L. Harter, sheriff, to J. M. Alexander, se. 27, 31, 3; 160 acres, $200.
Winfield Courier, October 10, 1878.
J. M. Alexander is putting a brick second story on top of his cut-stone law office on Ninth Avenue.
Winfield Courier, October 17, 1878.
                                      Sold Out by a Ring—The Way It Was Done.
During Thursday and Friday of last week, Allison, A. A. Jackson, J. E. Allen, and two or three other greenbackers of this city were apparently very industrious and busy with the Democrats fixing up something. It seems that they arranged who should be chairman of the greenback convention, what he should do, who should be the committees, what they should do, who should be nominated by the convention, and how it should be done. They had their tickets printed and everything well cut and dried. At least the developments of Saturday show such a state of facts.
The National Greenback Labor Convention met on Saturday at 11 o’clock a.m. J. B. Callison was chosen chairman and A. J. Pickering secretary. A committee on credentials and permanent organization was appointed and then Allison moved that a committee be appointed by the chair to confer with a similar committee to be appointed by the Democratic convention, then in session, to agree upon terms, and candidates for a fusion of the two parties. This motion was opposed by several delegates. When one of them commenced to speak against the motion, Allison would boisterously call him to order and the chairman would help choke the speaker down. Then Allison would make a speech for the motion abusing the opposers. In this way they choked down several delegates and finally crowded the motion to a vote taken standing. Fourteen delegates voted for and sixteen against the motion. The chairman looked beat and at a loss what to do, but Allison was equal to the occasion. He said, “It is carried, Mr. Chairman,” and then the chairman said, “it is carried,” and took up a paper from his table and read from it the names of the pre-arranged committee, of which Allison was made chairman. The convention then adjourned to 2 o’clock p.m.

At the hour named the convention again met and the committee on credentials and permanent organization reported the names of delegates entitled to vote, and in favor of J. B. Callison for chairman, A. J. Pickering for secretary, and T. J. Floyd for assistant secretary. The report was accepted but was not adopted or otherwise disposed of.
Allison then sprang to the floor and in a loud, hurried, and excited manner read without leave the report of his fusion committee nominating M. G. Troup for representative 88th district, M. R. Leonard for 89th district, H. D. Gans for Probate Judge, John E. Allen for County Attorney, J. S. Allen for District Clerk, J. S. Baker for Superintendent, and A. G. Wilson for commissioner first district. He said that the Democrats would nominate this ticket and moved that his report be accepted. This immediately raised a storm. The anti-fusionists were in a majority and a number of speakers arose to oppose, among whom were Douglas and Tansey and Crum, who would not be choked down, as their speakers had been in the morning. A standing vote was taken on the motion to accept, which resulted 17 for and 20 against. This did not trouble Allison much. He pronounced his motion carried and so did the chairman, but Tansey demanded in a motion a call for the ayes and noes. Allison made several speeches and Alexander and Jackson spoke. Seeing they were in a minority they changed their tactics to entreaty, said a vote to accept was not a vote to adopt, that it was necessary to vote to accept in order that the convention might get to work, that after they had voted to accept, they could kill the report by laying it on the table or in any other way they chose and that it would be a terrible insult to the committee to refuse to accept. After an hour of choking down speakers who opposed, of entreaty, bulldozing and confusion that would have put Babel or the gold room into the shade, some of the anti-fusionists yielded and the vote to accept was carried. A part of the anti-fusionists announced their withdrawal from the convention. Allison then decided that the report was adopted so far that the convention must vote for or against the nominees of the report. The anti-fusionists not having the matter cut and dried as had the fusionists, were taken at a disadvantage and were caught and beaten by the trick. In order to make the trick sure to win a motion was made that the candidates having the highest number of votes should be the nominees and was carried before the anti-fusionists had time to see the drift of it. The balloting then commenced and of course the fusion nominees got a plurality and were declared the nominees of the convention. By some blunder some of the fusionists voted for Millard instead of Baker which was the only flaw in the execution of the program.
A cold deck had been prepared, the cards were stocked carefully, the deal and cut were in the hands of the fusionists and the moment a few anti-fusionists consented to play with them they were beaten. It was perfectly clear to any unprejudiced observer that the anti-fusionists were in a majority but were beaten by the cut and dried tactics of Allison and his ring. This ring had completely sold out the convention to the Democrats. They did not even adopt a platform but adjourned hastily. This omission of the platform was evidently not accidental, but was probably a part of the pre-arranged program. The Democrats furnish the platform as they dictate the candidates for the new fusion party. The Democratic snake has swallowed the tail end of the National party but we imagine that the head end will separate and go for principles rather than for fusion with the democrats. After the adjournment of the Nationals the Democrats accepted their blunder and nominated Millard, Allison, Jackson, Allen, and perhaps a few others composing the ring that has done the business.

Winfield Courier, December 5, 1878.
                                                            District Court.
Judge Campbell came down from Wichita on Monday and the session of court commenced.
Present: His Honor Judge W. P. Campbell; C. L. Harter, sheriff; E. S. Bedilion, district clerk; J. McDermott, county attorney; and Messrs. J. E. Allen, C. C. Black, S. D. Pryor, A. J. Pyburn, J. M. Alexander, F. S. Jennings, C. R. Mitchell, L. J. Webb, E. S. Torrance, N. C. Coldwell, W. M. Boyer, W. P. Hackney, O. M. Seward, C. H. Payson, H. E. Asp, G. H. Buckman, J. D. Pryor, D. C. Beach, W. M. Boyer, C. Coldwell, M. G. Troup, S. M. Jarvis, A. H. Green, attorneys.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 2, 1879.
The following is a list of new buildings erected in the city of Winfield since January 1, 1878, with the name of owner and cost of building.
                                             J. M. Alexander, office, brick: $500.
Winfield Courier, January 2, 1879.
The Courier feels proud of its list of advertisers. No county newspaper in the state can boast a larger list or one made up of better, more honorable or more enterprising men. Here they are in alphabetical order.
ALEXANDER, J. M., is an attorney of unquestioned responsibility and efficiency. He is one of the early settlers and brought to this place large sums, which he has largely and judiciously invested in real estate. He is one our most substantial citizens.
Winfield Courier, January 16, 1879.
Board of County Commissioners met in regular session [Janu­ary 6, 1879]. Present: R. F. Burden, W. M. Sleeth, and G. L. Gale, commissioners, James McDermott, county attorney, and M. G. Troup, county clerk.
Among other proceedings had, bills against the county were presented and passed upon by the board as follows.
                                                   J. M. Alexander, office rent.
Winfield Courier, February 20, 1879.
ED. COURIER.—I have read with some amusement a correspon­dence in the Semi-Weekly of last Saturday, written by “More Anon,” in which he advocates the giving of everybody else’s property for the building up of the town. Most of your readers will remember that Artemus Ward prided himself on the fact that he had made as many sacrifices to put down the rebellion as anyone, by giving his uncle and all his wife’s relations to be sacrificed on the altar of his country. So with our friend “More Anon.”
His first foolish proposition is that a real estate exchange be comprised principally of the owners of the “additions to our city and the land owners adjacent thereto.” Now, why shouldn’t the exchange be composed of any property owner in Winfield—the old town as well as the additions?

It was the enterprise and vim of the citizens of the old town site that made Winfield what she is today, and started her on that high road to greatness to which “More Anon” looks forward to with such simple and childlike faith.
“More Anon” says: “Let Mr. Fuller give sufficient ground for a woolen factory; Mr. M. L. Robinson donate ground and privilege for another grist mill—a thing much needed in the country; Mr. Loomis, ground for a chair factory; Mr. Thompson, ground for a hemp or flax factory; Mr. Manning, ground for a linseed oil mill; Mr. Vandeventer, ground for a planing mill and sash factory. Let Col. Alexander and Dr. Davis sell a part of their grounds, at a reasonable price, for some state purpose, as soldiers’ and orphans’ home, or normal school; while Mr. Platter could donate part of his land for a college, under the auspices of the Presbyterian synod. The Baptist and Methodist folks should secure land for the same purpose.”
This, I confess is an excellent program. But why should “More Anon” require all the above gentlemen except Col. Alexander and Dr. Davis to “donate” and “give” of their possessions, and the two latter be simply asked to “sell” a part of theirs? In other words, why shouldn’t Col. Alexander “give” as well and as much as Mr. Platter? Why shouldn’t Dr. Davis “give” as much as Mr. Fuller or Mr. Thompson or Mr. Loomis, or either of the other gentlemen named?
Then, again, we find the name of “More Anon” among the list of donors. How is this? From the same paper we learn that the generous contribution of other people’s property he is requesting that he himself is one of the most enterprising citizens, and largely interested in the future of Winfield.
I am certainly as much in favor of “pushing things” in and for Winfield as anyone can be, but I believe in every citizen putting his own shoulder to the wheel instead of that of his neighbor’s. FRITZ
Winfield Courier, March 20, 1879.
                                           CITY COUNCIL PROCEEDINGS.
                                          WINFIELD, KANS., March 17, 1879.
Council met at the usual place and hour, C. M. Wood, Presi­dent of Council, in chair; Councilmen Gully, Jochems, Manning, and Robinson; J. P. Short, clerk, and N. C. Coldwell, city attorney, present.
The Governor’s proclamation making Winfield a city of the second class was then read, after which a petition of some ninety citizens in opposition to changing the class of the city was read; and Mr. Manning moved that the prayer of the petitioners be granted. The matter was discussed by Councilman Manning and H. E. Asp and J. E. Allen, citizens, for, and N. C. Coldwell, Col. Alexander, and M. G. Troup, against. The roll being called the vote stood as follows: Yes—Jochems and Manning. Nay—Gully, Robinson, and Wood.
On motion of Robinson, the clerk was instructed to spread the Governor’s proclamation on the Record.
Winfield Courier, March 27, 1879.
                                       THE FARMS OF COWLEY COUNTY.
The Farms of Cowley County are the pride of her people. In every township may be found men who came here poor, but who by industry, perseverance, and economy have built for themselves homes which neither money nor mortgages can take from them.

Col. J. M. Alexander owns a farm adjoining Winfield. It contains a half section, one hundred and twenty acres of which are enclosed by a stone fence. Through this pasture runs an unfailing stream. The farm is one of the best in the west for dairy business.
Winfield Courier, April 17, 1879.
At a meeting of the stockholders held in this city on the 14th inst. the following were elected officers of the Walnut Valley Fair Association.
R. F. Burden, President.
E. P. Kinne, Vice President.
J. M. Alexander, Treasurer.
E. E. Bacon, Secretary.
W. J. Hodges.
A. A. Wiley.
S. R. Marsh.
John Stalter.
H. B. Pratt.
Chief Marshal: P. M. Wait.
Chief Police: Jno. C. Roberts.
                                                         E. E. BACON, Sec.
Winfield Courier, April 24, 1879.
The persons who projected and carried out the building of the courthouse and jail were W. H. H. Marris, then Mayor; S. C. Smith, R. B. Saffold, C. A. Bliss, H. S. Silver, J. D. Cochran, S. Darrah, then councilmen; J. M. Alexander, city attorney; Frank Cox, of Richland, John D. Maurer of Dexter, and O. C. Smith, of Cresswell, county commissioners.
Winfield Courier, April 24, 1879.
                                               To the Voters of Cowley County.
On the 29th of this month you will be called upon to cast your ballots for or against the proposition to exchange the bonds of your county for $68,000 of the stock of the Southern Kansas and Western Railroad Company. It is your duty to prepare your­selves to vote intelligently, and in order to assist you in doing so, your committee, appointed to look after the railroad inter­ests of your county, desire to advance a few reasons (which appear to them to be well founded), why this proposition should receive the favorable consideration of every vote in the county.
      In the first place, the proposed road is greatly needed to advance the material interests and welfare of the people. It is to extend through the county from east to west, affording this county a connection with all the eastern roads running through Missouri to the Mississippi river; with the projected road through southern Missouri to Memphis and with the M. K. & T. road running through the Indian Territory to Texas, with a Ft. Smith connection soon to be made which will open up to us the long coveted market of Little Rock and other coveted southern points.

The advantages to be derived from these connections, in bringing to our doors the cheap lumber from the pineries of Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas, the superior coal of the eastern counties, reduced freights from St. Louis and the east, and in the transportation of our own exports to a favorable market, certainly cannot be overestimated.
But will the road be built if the bonds are voted? This query, owing to the singularly modest demand of the company in asking but $68,000 for building nearly forty miles of first-class road, using steel rails, and overcoming the Grouse hills, may well be repeated and answered doubtingly by the reflective mind. Nevertheless, we can confidently assure you, fellow-citizens, that if the bonds are voted in Elk and Cowley Coun­ties, the road will not only be built, but will be completed considerably ahead of time. A letter just received by the chairman of this commit­tee from Major O. B. Gunn, chief engineer (and who, we may justly add, stands at the pinnacle of his profession), whose honor and truthfulness are unimpeachable, says: “I told your people that while our proposition was for the first of March, we should expect to reach Winfield by the 1st of January; but I am able to say that if the bonds are voted all along the line, so we can spread out, we shall try to do even better than I stated.”
How do we know that the company mean business, and that the road will be constructed if the bonds are voted? We know it on business principles. The company is backed by representatives of some of the best railways in the country, and possessed of immense capital. The building of this road is necessary to the welfare and prosperity of other roads owned by these backers. The company have deposited with the Winfield Bank the amount of money fixed by the county clerk to pay the expenses of the election, provided the bonds are voted and they fail to comply with their agreement.
The company has placed in the hands of T. H. Bryan, county treasurer, a certificate of deposit of the banking house of Armour Bros., Kansas City, payable to the order of the county treasurer, for $10,000, dated April 12, 1879, to be forfeited to the county, provided the bonds are voted in Elk and Cowley counties, and the company fail to build the road as stipulated.
The contract for the construction of the road from Indepen­dence west to the Elk county line has already been let, to be commenced immediately, and the ties and steel rails for the same are purchased and waiting to be used.
But some men say that the voting of this subsidy, though small, will, added to that already voted to the Cowley, Sumner & Ft. Smith company, increase and make our taxation burdensome. Let us see if it will. We propose to make a plain statement of figures that cannot lie, nor be controverted.

The interest on $68,000, for one year, at 7 percent, amounts to $4,760. The road will be assessed at not less than $6,000 per mile. Taking 38 miles as the least length (a low estimate) of the road, the assessment will amount to $228,000. We will average the tax at $3 on the $100 valuation, as some townships pay more, and some less. The tax on the road then will amount to $6,840, or $2,080 in excess of the interest! It is easy to see that this excess, each year for 30 years, without any accumula­tion of interest, would nearly extinguish the whole debt. But used as a sinking fund, which under the present law, it must be, and availing ourselves of the wise provision in the proposition, giving the county the privilege, after ten years, of paying off the indebtedness, as we become able, no one need feel the least apprehension that the county is assuming more than she is able to bear; but that, on the contrary, she could not do a wiser thing for her future welfare and prosperity, than to buy the construc­tion of this road with her bonds, getting the stock of the company to boot, which may not be considered, by any means, worthless. The time may come when the stock of a first class road like this one, and backed by unlimited capital like this, will be worth nearly par.
But the road itself is by no means all the taxable property that it brings in. Consider the increased valuation of all kinds of property resulting from it! The settlement of unsettled lands—the growth of towns and stations—the increase of crops and stock, and the inflow of capital for all purposes, certainly must convince a reasonable mind—a mind of fair capabilities—that it would not be the part of wisdom to reject such a proposition as the one before us.
In conclusion, fellow-citizens, we would have been pleased to have paid a deserved eulogy to our county, the best and fairest, and to become the richest of the best and fairest state in the Union; a county, in which to be a resident, may justly add to one’s pride and self-respect—but our circular is full lengthy now; and we must be contented with the few plain facts herein stated.
                                                        J. M. ALEXANDER.
                                                         M. L. ROBINSON.
                                                             E. P. KINNE.
                                                          T. K. JOHNSON.
                                                           R. L. WALKER.
Winfield Courier, May 1, 1879.
                                          W. C. Muzzy to J. M. Alexander. $300.
Winfield Courier, May 8, 1879.
There will be a meeting of the Officers and Directors of the Walnut Valley Fair Association, on the 17th inst., at the office of Col. Alexander, in this city, at 12 o’clock m.
                                                  EUGENE E. BACON, Secy.
Winfield Courier, August 21, 1879.
The editors of the New Enterprise enjoyed a pleasant visit to the beautiful and prosperous city of Winfield, last Monday. Mr. Eagin formerly lived there, but we had never before seen Winfield, and were surprised to find such a live, enterprising, and prosperous city.
While there we made the acquaintance of some of Winfield’s leading citizens: among them Hon. E. C. Manning, Hon. W. P. Hackney, Hon. J. Wade McDonald, Hon. J. M. Alexander, Gen. A. H. Green, Frank S. Jennings, attorneys, and Baird Bros., Lynn & Gillelen, Spotswood & Co., C. A. Bliss & Co., and S. H. Myton, merchants. We also made the acquaintance of the county officers who are all affable gentlemen.
We noticed that the improvements in Winfield were permanent and substantial. Several fine brick blocks adorn the business street, and as many beautiful residences, which would do honor to a city of 10,000 inhabitants.

Winfield Courier, January 15, 1880.
Messrs. Hackney & McDonald on last Monday purchased Col. Alexander’s office property on Ninth avenue. They will fit the upper story up for their office. They have also purchased Dan. Miller’s property on South Main street.
Winfield Courier, January 22, 1880.
Col. Alexander has commenced excavating for a new business block near the north depot.
Winfield Courier, January 22, 1880.
The spirit of improvement seems to be general on north main street. Besides the three new store buildings now being complet­ed, Mayor Lynn has let the contract for the excavation and stone work on his building, and will push it forward as rapidly as possible. The excavation for Col. Alexander’s building is being done by the L. L. & G. Railroad, and the dirt is being used in filling up around their depot grounds. We also hear rumors of a new brick to be built on the corner north of the American House.
Winfield Courier, February 5, 1880.
With Col. Alexander we think it time something was done about the courthouse. The county has records that have cost thousands of dollars, and their loss would entail upon the citizens of the county hundreds of thousands of dollars in almost endless litigation. Were the courthouse the safest building in the county so far as the danger of falling is concerned, it is not a safe place to store the records. We commend the manly course of our correspondent in writing over his own proper signature. Like him we were skeptical about the dangerous condition of the courthouse, but we were always ready to urge that vaults should be constructed to preserve the records. We think the time has come when the courthouse should be recon­structed under the supervision of a competent civil engineer in such manner as to save the present building and add to it what is needed, and we urge the matter upon the immediate attention of our county commissioners.
Winfield Courier, February 5, 1880.
ED. COURIER: I think no one will accuse me of indulging in extravagance in my own affairs, or of advising, or approving the same in others. But all good businessmen will bear me out in the assertion that there are times and places in the affairs of every business individual when a dollar, rightly invested, will make, or save, ten for the investor.
What would we think of a householder owning a house needing repairs, who, instead of repairing it, would vacate it, and rent a house of his neighbor to live in? We should naturally think the man needed a guardian. Well, in all the business relations of life, the same rules that govern the life of the businessman apply to the affairs of corporations, municipal, as well as private.

I have been led to these reflections by the foolish, I might say almost criminal, negligence of our Board of County Commis­sioners in the policy it pursues in reference to the condition of our Courthouse. Individuals, pursuing the same line of policy in their personal and private affairs, would be stigmatized as improvident and shiftless. And yet, our Commissioners are only improvident and shiftless in their public capacity. As individu­als, working for their own private interests, they are all honest, thrifty, and responsible. They are also highly respect­able, and first class as neighbors and citizens.
They were elected by their constituents because they were good men, and the people had a right to believe that the inter­ests of the county would fare as well in their hands as their own private interests. That such has not been the case will be admitted by every sensible person, when the present condition of county matters are once understood.
Look at the condition of our courthouse. When its unsafe condition was first made public, I, with others, was incredulous, and thought that, perhaps, the report was invented in order to give someone a job, or to satisfy somebody’s personal conve­nience. But after our own citizen architect, Mr. Hoenscheidt, and a celebrated architect from abroad, Mr. Bartlett, had exam­ined the courthouse and pronounced it unsafe in its present condition; and after learning from our District Court Clerk, Mr. Bedilion, that he had experimented with measures, and found that the walls were gradually spreading, I became convinced that something ought to be done immediately to make the building a safe one to occupy.
Judge Campbell will not hold the District Court in it, and the county is now paying Manning from $360 to $400 a year for his Opera House to hold the court in. Here is economy with a ven­geance! But this is not the worst feature of it. The court­house, unrepaired, is a death-trap in which the lives of our county officers are liable at any moment to be sacrificed. It is true, the structure might stand for years as it is. So might the Tay bridge, but it didn’t; and how long brick walls may stand, that are gradually and surely spreading, the Lord only knows. I know this: that, if the courthouse should fall and destroy a single human life, I should thank my God that I was not one of the respectable and responsible Board of County Commissioners.
To repair the courthouse, means to make it better than it ever has been, and to enlarge it to meet the progressive demands of the county. It means, also, to provide a receptacle for the records of the county. And it can be done at an expense, tri­fling to the county; at an increase of taxes that might cover to the individual the cost of a single plug of tobacco. Yet, the Honorable Board plod along undisturbed, as though the county was too poor to own a respectable building, and pay out every year for rent enough to pay the interest on a much larger sum than would be necessary to make the courthouse what it should be.
Only think of it. The great county of Cowley—the banner county of the state—un-surpassed in her increase of population, her agricultural and horticultural productions; her superior standard of schools, education, intelligence, and refinement; with two railroads and the prospect of more; with a courthouse that could be built today for the paltry sum of $3,000, and in a shabby, tumble-down condition, which ought to bring the blush of shame to every citizen of the county. If the County Board believe that the people of the county prefer the “Penny Wise and Pound Foolish” manner in which this courthouse policy is conduct­ed, I, for one, hope the Board is mistaken. Respectfully, J. M. ALEXANDER.
Winfield Courier, February 19, 1880.

ED. COURIER: I have been asked by several parties to give a legal opinion concerning the title to the school district, in what is known as the schoolhouse block, and whether the Winfield Town Association, in which the legal title rests, could convey the fee in said block to any other party, while the school district remains in possession of it?
Without designing any ostentatious display of legal ability, I will, with your permission, make my answer public through your columns, as many others undoubtedly feel an interest in the question.
The townsite of Winfield, as is well known, was entered by the Probate Judge of the county, under, and by virtue of, an act of Congress, and by an act of the Legislature of Kansas, “for the use and benefit of the occupants thereof.” Every actual occupant of the town, owning an improvement at the time of the entry, was a tenant in common with every other such occupant, in all of the unimproved portion of the town. It is true, in this case, all such unimproved lands were conveyed by the Judge to the said Town Association, but that did not affect, really, the rights of the occupants in the same. The law would say, that the Town Associa­tion held the land as trustee, in trust for the occupants.
But, suppose the Town Association, under these circumstanc­es, had “set apart” for public use, certain squares, or blocks of ground, say for churches, schools, or public parks; or proposed to donate grounds for such purposes, and the town, or city, authorities had accepted the offer and improved the same for park purposes; or the respective churches had received the donation and erected their buildings thereon; or the school district the same; and whether the proposed gifts were by written instrument or by parol, what lawyer would say that the Town Association could afterward lay claim to such donated and occu­pied lands and convey them to other parties? Certainly none of respectable qualifications.
And I may go further and say, that if the Town Association possessed an unqualified title in fee simple to the lands, and should propose, verbally, to donate a portion of them to a school district for school purposes, and the district should accept the gift, take possession and improve the same as agreed upon, it would be impossible for the Association to convey the land in fee to any other party, even if no record existed showing the trans­ac­tion between the Association and the district. Because the actual possession of the district, with its improvements, imparts legally, as good notice to the world of its equitable title, as if such title had been conveyed by deed and duly recorded in the Register’s office of the proper county. And such is the situa­tion of our present schoolhouse site in Winfield.
But the Winfield Town Association proposes to grant such title as it possesses to the school district by deed absolute, and without any reservations; and has already placed such convey­ance, as an escrow, in responsible hands, to be delivered when the present school building shall have been completed, as origi­nally required, and agreed upon. When this is done, the school district will possess an unqualified title, both legal and equitable, and can sell and convey the same if deemed best, although it would puzzle one to invent a valid reason for ever wishing to change the public school from the present locality to another one. In my view, it is not in the nature of things, that the present school site will ever be too valuable to be used for school purposes. J. M. ALEXANDER.
Winfield Courier, June 3, 1880.
Hackney & McDonald have moved their law office into the building on 9th Avenue, formerly occupied by Col. J. M. Alexander as a law office. They have fitted up the new office in the best style.
Winfield Courier, June 17, 1880.

Dr. W. R. Davis has fitted up the lower part of the old Alexander building on Ninth avenue, and will hereafter occupy it as offices.
Winfield Courier, December 30, 1880.
The Rev. J. A. Hyden invited to dinner on Tuesday last all the old men in the vicinity. Quite a gay party met and did full justice to the magnificent tables loaded down with turkeys, hams, cakes, pies, coffee, and the many et ceteras, got up in the best order and with the best taste.
During and after dinner the guests and host entertained each other with many pleasant stories and reminiscences of the past. Mrs. Hyden and her sons and daughters furnished charming music. Mr. Hyden made a short and very entertaining address, and the guests made short speeches of sentiment and thanks.
John M. Alexander, born in Cortland Co., New York, Dec. 6, 1822; went to Pennsylvania in 1840, and to Kansas in 1854; came to Cowley County in July, 1870.
Winfield Courier, January 20, 1881.
On Wednesday night there was a meeting held at council rooms, embracing a number of our prominent citizens, to secure, if possible, one of the two roads that Gould proposes building. All the gentlemen present were in favor of doing what was possi­ble to secure this end. W. H. Smith, Col. Alexander, J. L. Horning, T. K. Johnson, Mayor Lynn, and M. L. Robinson were appointed as a committee to confer with the managers, and obtain from them, if possible, a proposition. Messrs. Myres, Read, and Seward were appointed a committee to defray expenses.
Winfield Courier, January 27, 1881.
Col. Alexander wants the registry law repealed. He says that it is the most expensive, cumbersome, and least needed of any law on the statute books.
Winfield Courier, February 10, 1881.
On Monday morning the county commissioners again called an advisory meeting of the citizens to consider the matter of selling the S. K. & W. stock.
Met at the office of Jennings & Buckman at 11 a.m., about forty citizens being present. Col. J. M. Alexander was chosen chairman and C. C. Black secretary.
It appeared that only two offers were before the commission­ers, that of W. N. Coler & Co., of New York, of 65 cents for the stock, in the county 7 percent, bonds at par, and that of Edwards & Bo., of St. Louis, of 68 cents in cash for the stock.
A long discussion ensued, in which was discussed the rela­tive merits of the two offers, the probability of getting better, and of loss by delay, in which many citizens took part. Finally the meeting passed the following resolution almost unanimously and adjourned.
Resolved, That this meeting advises the county board to sell the $68,000 stock to-day at 68 cents cash or Cowley 7 per cent, bonds at par (unless a better offer is made) to such parties as it shall deem best.

The commissioners then met and agreed to sell the stock to W. N. Coler & Co. for 68 cents cash, amounting to $46,240, the exchange to be made at Read’s Bank in Winfield without expense to the county, the bank becoming security that the purchaser shall consummate the trade immediately. As this arrangement saves the county all expense for exchange, transmission, etc., it is an advance over the St. Louis offer.
The treasurer drew on W. N. Coler & Co. for $46,240, accom­panied with the stock, and Read’s Bank gave a receipt on deposits to the credit of the county of $46,240 in New York exchange. It is known, we believe, that N. Y. exchange is generally at a premium; never sells for less than par.
Winfield Courier, June 16, 1881.
A considerable number of the citizens of Winfield met on Monday evening on the steps of the Winfield Bank to provide for raising funds for the immediate relief of the sufferers caused by the cyclone Sunday evening. Mr. Crippen called the people together by music from the band.
                                                      J. M. Alexander: $5.00.
Earlier article indicates that J. M. Alexander was constructing a new building and the impression was left that he would make an office out of it. Now it is apparent that the “Carriage Works” was put instead into his brick block.
Winfield Courier, November 10, 1881.
Last Friday afternoon we visited the Carriage Works and were shown through the institution by the Superintendent, Mr. W. F. Dorley. Since their removal from Ninth Avenue to the commodious buildings on Main street, the business has increased to propor­tions hardly realized by our citizens. The works now occupy all of Alexander’s brick block, three rooms 25 x 76 on the first floor, and have 1,800 square feet of storage room in the base­ments. They work fifteen hands and turn out five buggies and spring wagons each week.
Their orders come in much faster than the work can be completed. Since the commencement they have manufactured and sold 150 buggies and spring wagons. Ninety-nine of these have been furnished with the Elliptic side-bar spring: the invention  and property of Mr. Dorley. They now have on hand $1,500 worth of work ready for delivery. Their buggies range in price from $60 to $250, and are built and sold cheaper than a buggy can be laid down here from Chicago. The reason of this is that they can ship the material for ten buggies in at less than the rates for one finished.
The quality of work being turned out is equal to any eastern manufacture. Mr. Dorley has built buggies all his life and has been foreman of several of the largest carriage factories in the United States. He is an enthusiast in his line, and knows more about a wagon than any one.

The shops are run on the most business-like principles. Everything moves like clock-work. One man does nothing but make buggy boxes, another works exclusively on another part, and every hand does nothing but that with which he is most familiar; thus all the parts work harmoniously. They have turned out buggies and wagons for Wichita, Wellington, Arkansas City, and many other neighboring towns. The finishing touches are just being put on a buggy which goes to Iowa. One of the greatest troubles they have had to contend with has been to secure skilled workmen, and especially carriage painters. Last week they overcame this difficulty by securing the services of one of the finest carriage painters in the country, who came on from New York and took charge of their paint shops.
Such manufacturing interests as this is what, above all else, Winfield wants to encourage. This one has added nearly fifty souls to our population, as their skilled mechanics were all brought from the east. Their payroll foots up about $200 per week, all of which goes into the hands of our merchants and helps to build up business and make a market for produce. It brings in money from other localities and helps to swell the name and fame of our city. This is good: let’s have some more. It is pros­pering, and so can others.
We want a paper mill, a sugar factory, and more grist mills: and we want them bad. We must have a woolen mill to furnish wearing apparel for the carriage builders and a sugar factory and more grist mills to feed the woolen mill men, while we want a paper mill to furnish the COURIER with white paper on which to blow about it.
Let us all take hold of this business with a will and give a long pull and a strong pull toward bringing about the desired end. Let the Board of Trade take immediate steps toward getting mill men interested and bring to their knowledge the many advan­tages of location and raw material to be worked up. Now is the accepted time and if Winfield wakes up, she can be the future great city of the southwest. She cannot afford to sit idly by and let these “golden moments fleeting pass.”
Winfield Courier, December 15, 1881.
Col. Alexander will leave for Florida January 1st, where he will spend the winter, and will return about April.
Cowley County Courant, January 19, 1882.
Col. J. M. Alexander left this morning for Florida, where he will remain during the winter.
Cowley County Courant, February 9, 1882.
Col. J. M. Alexander writes a glowing letter from Jackson­ville, Florida, full of “splen-dids! oranges! bananas! cocoanuts! strawberries! watermelons! beautifuls!” etc., praising the climate, inhabitants, and fruits of Florida to the skies, but those who have known the Colonel for many years prefer to wait until he has been there a year and hear what he then says, before following his example and traipsing off to the land of Alligators and Seminoles.
Col. Alexander, like James Christian, was member of Kansas Supreme Court...
Arkansas City Traveler, February 15, 1882.
Cowley County has the two oldest living members of the Supreme Court of Kansas. Judge James Christian, of Arkansas City, is the oldest member; J. Marion Alexander, of Winfield, is the second. They were both admitted at Lecompton the same day in December, 1855, the first day the court was organized. Samuel D. Le Compt was Chief Justice, Rush, Elmore, Saunders, and W. Johnson, associate Justices. Noel Eccleson, Clerk; and Andrew J. Isaacs, United States Attorney. On the same day was admitted R. R. Reed, Marcus J. Parrott, Edmund Brierley. But three of the above named gentlemen are living: Judge Christian, Judge Le Compt, and Col. Alexander.
Winfield Courier, January 19, 1882.

Col. Alexander left Monday morning for Florida to spend the winter. He will travel over the state, take his time, and enjoy himself. He has promised to tell the readers of the COURIER something about the land of magnolias and orange blossoms, when he finds leisure to do so. We know of no one who can tell it nicer than the Colonel, for as a caustic, pleasing writer he has few equals.
Winfield Courier, February 2, 1882.
                                                  A Winfield Citizen in Florida.
Col. J. M. Alexander has reached Florida and writes back to Mr. Rhodes. The letter is dated at Jacksonville, January 21st. The Colonel says:
“The morning I left was a bad one and I found snow and ice until I reached Cincinnati and into Kentucky. I left St. Louis at 8 o’clock a.m., Tuesday morning, and reached Cincinnati at 6 o’clock p.m., 340 miles, running at 34 miles an hour, and making but few stops. I took a Pullman at Cincinnati, and kept my berth to this point, and seats. Had a splendid Conductor and a splendid party, all coming to Florida. Reached here Thursday morning, just three days in passage.
My cough has left me. It is delightful here. Ladies all bareheaded on their verandas sewing, and I never did feel better. This is a beautiful city and a splendid business place, and a splendid people; affable, polite, and entertaining. What a splendid river in the St. Johns, far surpassing the Hudson. The city is full of oranges, bananas, and cocoanuts, and now strawberries are just coming in. Next month we will get plenty of water melons. I can safely say that I had never eaten an orange before. We get nothing at the north but culls. I have eaten, and eat every day, oranges that will fill a great bowl, and contain a pint of juice, and the flavor I cannot describe. But I pay five cents for them and one is all I can eat. I can buy such as we get in the North for 10 cents per dozen, only they are fresh and sweet and juicier. I feel like one living in Paradise, and I don’t hesitate to say that I am a resident of Florida and shall always remain so. I’ll not be worn out by a cough here.
Next week I am going to Palatka. Palatka is a splendid town and I now think that either there or here will be my future home. Hundreds and thousands are coming in and settling the counties of Orange, Sumpter, Hernando, and others. Tomorrow an excursion steamer runs to the mouth of St. Johns, to a watering place 25 miles, with good music—fare round trip and spend the day, 75 cents. I have a companion, a Mr. Vail, from Illinois, a nice man and well off. He is an old acquaintance of E. P. Kinne. I do like the cut of Jacksonville better and better everyday. No dust, no mud, only clean, dry sand. Oysters as large as your hand at 25 cents a solid quart. This is the healthiest place I know of. Nobody dies here except consumptives who come from the North. They have got a new cemetery away out of town, and they can’t get anybody to put into it. I never did feel better. I sleep with my window up all night, and pay $7 a week for board. I am told that I can get board at Palatka for $5 per week. Beautiful little sharp prowed steamers are constantly running up and down the river. I don’t think of anymore that I can write of interest until I have seen more.
                                              Yours truly, J. M. ALEXANDER.
Winfield Courier, March 9, 1882.
                                                      FLORIDA LETTER.
                                JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, FEBRUARY, 1882.

EDS. COURIER: I had not intended to make any public note of my ramblings in Florida, for the public is often nauseated with such efforts, and as often unappreciative and unthank-ful towards the writer for even meritorious productions. But, to fulfill a promise made to the editor, I will take the liberty to furnish a few crude “pencilings by the way” of what I have seen and shall see in this wonderful state.
I left Winfield on that fearfully demoralized morning of Jan. 16th, with mercury I know not how many degrees below zero, the wind racing I know not how many miles an hour, and the sleet cutting like grains of sand into the wayfarer whose unprotected face met the blast. I arrived at Cincinnati on the evening of the 17th (having made the distance from St. Louis—340 miles—to Cincinnati in just ten hours), where I took a through Palace Pullman sleeper to this city, and arrived here on the morning of the 19th—out just three days—a feat in traveling that I would not have believed had I not proved it. On the morning of my departure, I was coughing a race with the storm; a cough that had exercised me incessantly for two months. But, presto, change! The benign atmosphere of the pine woods of Southern Georgia and Northern Florida, had more than half cured my affliction when I reached here, as my martyred companions of the sleeper could testify; and now, I am as well as the summers of Kansas usually find me.
As the Northerner ever associates the orange with the name of Florida, so my pioneer thoughts engrossed that delicious fruit. Sauntering down the shady side of Bay street, the great commercial thoroughfare of Jacksonville (the mercury standing at 75) this welcome sign met my vision: “Dummit’s Grove, Indian River Oranges.” I found a great number of racks, containing as many different kinds of the golden fruit, graded as to size and quality. I could buy from 10 cents a dozen to five cents a single one—the latter being 4 to 4-1/2 inches in diameter—I invested a nice nickel in one, and commenced the work of consumption. At the slightest pressure the juice, a nectar fit for gods, seemed fated to run over and waste wherever punctured. After soaking my shirt bosom and vest, I said to a colored gentleman who had just stepped from his cart, “My dear brother of ebony descent, will you do me the favor to eat an orange at my expense, and do it scientifically, that I may hereafter profit by the lesson?” Said he: “Boss, I’s at yer sarvice, sah.” He took the fruit, opened a pair of lips like the parting of two pillows, opened the blossom end with his teeth, and squeezing the orange with both hands, sucked out the juice in a moment, then pulling the fruit apart, made way with the pulp. He thought if he had another one, he could finish his education; but I told him I would forgive him and thought I could remember. I said to the vendor: “That is the first orange I ever ate.” He wanted me to explain. “Well,” I said, “the fruit sold to us in the North for oranges are about the size of your smallest, contain very little juice, have a tough, woody pulp, and contain no such flavor as the one I have just eaten.” He assured me that there is as much differences in oranges as there is in apples and about as many different kinds. My few days in Jacksonville has prepossessed me greatly in its favor, and in my next I shall do this city and surroundings, Palatka, and the St. John’s river and her  borders between the two cities. J. M. ALEXANDER.
Winfield Courier, March 16, 1882.
We publish on the first page an excellent letter from Col. Alexander, dated at Palatka, Florida. The Colonel is highly pleased with the land of the Magnolias, and his description of it will be read with interest by those who have never seen it.
Winfield Courier, March 16, 1882.

                                                        FLORIDA LETTER.
                                     PALATKA, FLORIDA, February 2nd, 1882.
EDS. COURIER: I am quite sorry that I engaged in this series of articles, for I find it impossible to do justice to qualities and scenes in a simple communication when a volume would scarcely be sufficient. My descriptions will necessarily be crude enough.
The city of Jacksonville when first located was singularly unpretentious; and now, with her additions of East Jacksonville, Oakland, Springfield, La Villa, Brooklyn, and Riverside, it is surprising to a Western man that she possesses a population of less than 16,000. And especially so, knowing her to be the Metropolis of a large and prosperous State, and having an extensive commerce by both railways and navigable waters. I must believe, however, that she must soon feel the pressure of the wonderful advancement going on in the interior of the State, and leap forward to meet the progress of an unprecedented immigration. If she does not, she will, like many an individual, have missed the opportunity of a life time. Jacksonville today needs a Board of Trade equal to the emergencies. And those emergences are, to control and secure forever, the retail trade of the State. The wholesale houses of Jacksonville ought to supply every retail dealer in the State on as good terms as he can buy in New York, and save that much freight to him. At present, a heavy portion of the State trade is done in Savannah and New York, and the former city is making great efforts to secure this trade. Jacksonville had better wake up. She is a beautiful city, with grounds rolling enough for good drainage; with good churches, schools, and hotels; and possessing in the main a good city government—would be faultless if draymen were compelled to walk their horses, if street crossings were made and kept in repair, and the back yards of boarding houses were kept in better condition.
The St. John’s River from Jacksonville to Palatka seems more of a lake than a river. I suppose it will average three miles in width, and yet it is deep enough for large steamers, like the St. John’s of New York, now running between Charleston and Palatka. While there are several landings on either side of the river at which the mail is left, the only towns of much importance are Orange Park, Mandarin, and Green Cove Spring. The first named place is the town of the Winter Home and Improvement Company, and is really a very nice place, notwithstanding what the land agents of other towns will tell one. For instance, I was talking with an agent of another locality, and casually spoke of the eligibility of Orange Park, as a pleasant place and where prices were reasonable. The agent began to laugh. And he seemed to see something so exceedingly funny in what I had said that he nearly went into convulsions. As soon as he could catch his breath, and wipe the tears from his cheeks, he exclaimed: “What! That old grave yard of Benedicts down there, where every man who has set out an orange tree in that white sand has failed, and finally had to get out himself to keep from dying with the chills?” Now, this is only a specimen. And from this it will be observed that each one must canvass closely with his own eyes, and talk with other people than land agents, if he expects to learn the true merits of any place.

A trip up the St. John’s on a pleasant day is one of the delights of a life time. Lounging on the upper deck and watching the hazy shores, studded with the Live Oak, the Palmetto, and Magnolia, hung in festoons with the rich living moss of the Gulf country, you naturally fall into reverie. It is dream life indeed. Only the romance of life has any business there. And it was in one of these delicious reveries that the writer one day on the upper St. John’s, had a singular visitation. He had for days been visiting the orange groves in and around Palatka until the whole earth seemed almost turned to gold. You can have no idea of the sensation produced on a refined mind when first introduced into an orange grove in full bearing. I think I can say safely that no other earthly sight compares with it. Poor old Stephen saw a sight that transfigured his poor old bruised features into ineffable beauty. But that sight was in another world. I had been regaling on sights the nearest to heavenly that mortals are permitted to enjoy in this life. What wonder then, that I should seem to see myself metamorphosed into a statue composed entirely of perfect oranges! And as fast as fair women and beautiful maidens would pluck one away, another would appear in its place; and no dogs nor children were permitted to approach!
Mandarin is a pretty, cozy little hamlet on the east side of the river, where, nestled among the trees, could be seen from the wharf Mrs. Stowe’s cottage, less pretentious than others around it.
Green Cove Spring, like Orange Park, is situated on a high bank, and is a thrifty town and the county seat of Clay County. By far the largest part of the river shores are flat and swampy. Palatka is a town in importance next to Jacksonville. It is a place of large expensive hotels, has a good class of people, a good city government, and consequently has good order. But I was disappointed. I knew she was the head of large steamboat navigation; that one railroad had been completed connecting her with the Peninsular road and with the interior; that another road is already commenced which will connect her with the Indian River country; and that a railroad will assuredly be constructed along the west side of the river connecting her by rail with Jacksonville. I knew that any town with such advantages and prospects in Kansas would have not less than 150 buildings in process of erection. Well, after traveling every street in Palatka, and through her suburbs, the result of my hunt for improvements was this: One large, rough building on the wharf for ice, one three-room cottage back in the town, and two nigger houses of one room each out in Newtown, the colored suburb of the city. J. M. ALEXANDER.
Winfield Courier, March 23, 1882.
                                                        FLORIDA LETTER.
                                        ORLANDO, FLORIDA, February, 1882.
EDS COURIER: Sanford is one of the beautiful towns in Orange County, Florida. It has a monster hotel with an annex, which is always crowded with northern tourists. It is an enterprising town with many long, pleasant avenues, and several elegant residences that would be a credit to any northern city; and to prove the success of the newspaper business in this state, one of these nice mansions belongs to D. L. Way, Esq., one of the editors of the South Florida Journal, an ably conducted and newsy paper published in Sanford. Mr. Way is also the owner of a fine grove near the city.
Here, in the suburbs, resides a live Count, a Russian nobleman. Count Wassillieff, in the midst of a beautiful orange grove, named “Villa Shoora.” I paid a brief visit to this princely gentleman, who delights in entertaining visitors, and enjoyed his entertaining hospitality of conversation and tropical fruits.

And let me advise the Sanford visitor to stop at the boarding house of Capt. Wm. Sirrine, if he wants the best meal he can ever obtain in Florida, and desires enlarged information about South Florida, for the Captain and his amiable wife are Connecticut Yankees who have lived several years in this part of the state and brought their enterprising habits with them.
The South Florida Railroad is now completed from Sanford south, through Orange County, to Lake Kissimmee in Brevard County, its destination being, I believe, Charlotte Harbor on the Gulf. I visited Orlando, the county seat of Orange, by this road, passing through several new and beautiful towns, and over what is called here “High Pine Lands.” Orlando has a delightful location and is surrounded by a rich country, and here I will digress long enough to give my readers, at least, a limited idea of this portion of the Peninsula. A look at the map will show you that a line drawn from the Atlantic through the counties of Volusia, Orange, Sumpter, and Hernando, to the Gulf of Mexico, passes through the narrowest part of the peninsula. It is claimed by old settlers, who claim to speak from experience, that these counties are so situated as to compose what the call the “Calm Belt” of Florida. That is, that the cold frost-laden breath of the North, and the severe and heated gales of the tropics expend their force by the time they reach this latitude, and becoming thus tempered, produce this “Calm Belt.” And, as the tenderest of the Citrus family, the banana and pineapple, can be successfully raised in this “belt,” it is claimed that south of the 29th degree, is “below the frost line;” a decided misnomer, for how can you get “below” a frost line while cold sinks the mercury, or while you approach the equator by ascending as you do in Florida? Now, while a slight frost will make its appearance occasionally above the 29th degree, I believe that this “Calm Belt,” which is above that degree, does lie above the injurious frost line. Limes and lemons which flourish above the 29th, I am, I believe, authoritatively informed, cannot be successfully grown below or north of that degree.
Now, for all purposes, agricultural and horticultural, this “Belt” is probably the garden spot of Florida. The surface is composed of lakes, rivers, swamps, flat pine lands, hammock, and high pine lands. The flat pine lands are useful only for grazing. The hammocks and high pine are the only lands that need interest us. The hammock, covered with jungle, water, and live oak and palmetto, are rich and will produce abundantly of fruit and vegetables, without “feeding,” as they call fertilizing here, but are more or less malarious to reside upon, and will cost from $30 to $100 per acre to get it in cultivation.
The high pine lands constitute the hill country and are delightful to travel over; no undergrowth to impede a carriage drive through the woods anywhere, and always dotted with little clear water lakes with no out or inlet. You rise from one lake over a beautiful high land swell, to as gradually descend to another lake, and this constitutes the most delightful and healthiest region in the world. Breathing this air is like drinking inspiration from an immortal world.
Consumption’s corpse if left to summer here, will come forth in the autumn and sell its grave clothes to a Jew pedlar. I have cases in point which I may allude to hereafter. Why a doctor in the Lake Dora country said to me with a lugubrious countenance that he did not know wheat he should do; that but one death had occurred there in six years, and that was an old woman of ninety, who had been dead a year with consumption, and had just come in from the North; that no sickness prevailed, and his only encouragement then was that a lady had told him that morning that she thought she might want him in about two weeks.

“Well,” said I, “doctor, stick to it.” That sort of thing will become epidemic in such an atmosphere as this, and you will have enough to do yet.
I will tell you more about the high pine land in my next. J. M. A. [ALEXANDER]
Winfield Courier, March 23, 1882.
Col. J. M. Alexander arrived from Florida Tuesday evening, and this weather is to him a wide contrast with the everglade state. He brought us an orange which is large enough to pass for a pumpkin. He will remain a few weeks.
Winfield Courier, March 30, 1882.
                                                A NEW TOWN. Mount Dora.
Col. J. M. Alexander, of Winfield, Kansas, has purchased twenty acres of land of Mrs. J. P. Donnelly, at the beautiful point on the east end of Lake Dora, and four hundred acres in the immediate vicinity, and has decided to lay out a town site. Col. Alexander will, among the first improvements, build a large store and hotel, and is now on his way back to Kansas. He will return in May with a colony of his friends. This site selected is well known to be the most beautiful spot in Florida, and the Colonel, being a town builder in Kansas, the new town of Mount Dora starts under favorable auspices. Semi-Tropical, Lake Eustis, Florida.
Winfield Courier, March 30, 1882.
The letter of Col. Alexander on first page should have appeared in last week’s issue and that of last week in this issue in order to come to regular order in the series.
Winfield Courier, March 30, 1882.
No Puritan son and daughter were ever more proud of their birthplace and home than is the Vernon Cottager of his hearthstone. Never did sons and daughters of toil labor harder to make home beautiful, and home, “sweet home,” in truth as well as in song, and beautiful thoughts will be the birthright of our children. A Prohibition State, the Banner Prohibition county, the Banner Prohibition township! Then let Col. Alexander sing and write of blossoms and oranges of Florida, and its “everglade shade,” and for aught we care, of its mosquitoes and alligators too; or the seekers of wealth and health of Oregon, Colorado, New Mexico, or California. We are in favor of St. John for a third term, and prohibition forever. 
Winfield Courier, April 6, 1882.
Col. Alexander received an express package last week addressed to “Connel Eischsondy,” one of the Colonel’s German clients. The address is certainly German in its construction.
Arkansas City Traveler, April 12, 1882.
Col. Alexander, of Winfield, will locate in Florida. While on a recent visit to that State he met Captain Norton, formerly of this place, who is engaged in growing oranges, and is doing well.
Cowley County Courant, April 13, 1882.
A claim of M. L. Read for $478.81 has been allowed by Judge Gans, against the estate of S. L. Brettun, deceased. Also, one of Horning, Robinson & Co., for $25 has been allowed. Also, one of J. W. Conner for $215.00, and one of J. M. Alexander for $180, and one of A. G. Wilson for $135.42.
Winfield Courier, April 13, 1882.

Col. Alexander sold the brick office and residence next to it, on East Ninth Avenue, last week to Mr. Gilkey for $1,000 cash down.
Cowley County Courant, May 11, 1882.
The following from a Western Florida paper, rather takes the wind out of the Courier’s Florida boom.
“Col. J. M. Alexander came from Winfield, Kansas, three months ago, and on reaching Jacksonville, was induced to go up the St. Johns to Sanford, because a steamboat and a cabin ran there. Thence he has been able to ride in a palace car so far as Orlando, and has located a town site on Lake Dora. So he writes to his old home paper, as learnedly about Florida, after a three months’ experience, over the vast extent he has thus far traveled into the land, as if he were “to the manor born,” and had full knowledge of all its parts. So he talks of a “live Russian Count,” and his visit to this princely gentleman. (We ‘crackers’ had an idea that nobility and princes were residents of other countries.)
“But the Colonel studies his map and locates a ‘calm belt,’ in Volusia, Orange, Sumter, and Hernando counties, not­withstand­ing last summer a tornado passed over the towns of Sanford and Orlando, and tore down houses and a church in the former. He also found that he had left the ‘frost line’ behind him; and that it again becomes frosty as one goes farther South; and then undertakes to prove that the 29th parallel is below the 28th because the St. Johns rises between them and runs North, forget­ting that the Kissimmee rises in the same belt and runs South. “We will leave the Colonel with a single extract of the merits of his paper city on Lake Dora: ‘This constitutes the most delight­ful and healthiest region in the world. Breathing this air is like drinking inspiration from an immortal world. Consumption’s corpse if left to summer here, will come forth in the autumn and sell its grave clothes to a Jew peddler.’
“Colonel, what do you ask for city lots?”
Arkansas City Traveler, June 14, 1882.
Col. Alexander, R. H. True, G. A. Rhodes, Ed. Likowski, and W. J. Keffer are among the Cowley County people with Capt. Norton in Florida, raising oranges.
Winfield Courier, June 29, 1882.
Col. Alexander leaves Thursday morning for Royalieu, Florida, where he will make his future home.
Winfield Courier, November 9, 1882.
Col. J. M. Alexander returned from Florida last week and will spend a month here. The Colonel’s usual rotundity has forsaken him and he looks as slim as a Baffin Bay shad. He reports all our Cowley County folks well and the town of Mt. Dora prospering finely.
Winfield Courier, December 7, 1882.
Col. Alexander left for Florida Monday. His daughter, Mrs. Rhodes and family, accom-panied him. They have abandoned Winfield permanently, but leave many friends behind, who wish them much joy in their new home.
Winfield Courier, May 3, 1883.

Col. Alexander came in from Florida Tuesday. He isn’t near as wide out as he was but looks a good deal healthier. He reports John Swain building a residence and all well except that Mr. and Mrs. Geo. Rhodes have lost their baby.
Carriage factory occupies Alexander building, two stone buildings opposite...
Winfield Courier, June 14, 1883.
We spent half an hour at the carriage factory Monday. They work about thirty men and now occupy, in addition to the Alexander block, the two stone buildings on the opposite side of the street. The display room contains some twenty finished buggies, carriages, and spring wagons, while the sidewalks and paint rooms are crowded with gearing and a great variety of work in the “knock-down” state. In the blacksmithing and wood-work rooms a large force of men are employed making buggy and phaeton boxes and ironing up new work. In the repair department of the work a force of half a dozen men are employed repairing second hand vehicles brought in from the country round about. The firm has a large sale of buggies and carriages in all the surrounding countries and during the past year has done a business of over fifty thousand dollars, which they expect to double. The erection of a new factory, three stories high, is contemplated as the business is fast outgrowing its present quarters. We are glad to note the prosperity of this our first manufacturing enterprise.
Arkansas City Traveler, October 3, 1883.
                                              CIVIL DOCKET—THIRD DAY.
                                            Joseph Likowski vs. J. M. Alexander.
Winfield Courier, May 8, 1884.
Col. Alexander brings the news of the dangerous illness of Mrs. John Swain, at her home in Florida. He says he would not be surprised at any time to hear of her death.
Winfield Courier, May 15, 1884.
Judge Torrance adjourned court Monday until Thursday noon. But little business except criminal has been transacted. The Jury in the assault and battery case against Graham of Dexter failed to agree. It will be tried again next term. The suit between Col. Alexander and Uncle Joe Likowski for possession of the property next to McGuire Bros.’ store came up this term and Likowski gained a point by the court overruling demurrer to plaintiff’s petition. It looks a good deal as if Joe would be able to hold the property.
Alexander’s Mound...
Winfield Courier, July 3, 1884.
                                                       The “Glorious Fourth.”

From all over the county comes the news that everyone, with their cousins and their aunts are coming to Winfield on the Fourth. Wichita, Wellington, Independence, and other towns will come on special trains and enthuse with us. The Burden band will assist in furnishing the music. The oration of the day will be delivered by Judge J. Wade McDonald, which means that it will be one of the most polished and eloquent addresses ever listened to by our people. Immediately after dinner an address will be delivered by Helen M. Gougar, the famous lady orator of Indiana. During the afternoon will occur the amusements, which will be first class, including three races for purses. A number of horses to go in these races are now on the grounds. In the evening the committee on Fire Works will set things to going with a line of fire-works heretofore unsurpassed. After the fire-works comes the Firemen’s Ball in the Opera House, to which all are invited.
At daylight on the morning of the Fourth the battery will begin to play from Alexander’s Mound at the east end of Ninth Avenue.
Winfield Courier, August 14, 1884.
The Narrow-Gauge surveyors have been covering the territory around Winfield all over with stakes during the past week. Their first line into town ran south of Alexander’s mound, northwest to and down Fifth Avenue. The next came between the mound and the reservoir, and Tuesday morning one was run on the south side about on a line with Riverside Avenue and cutting Col. Loomis’ fine piece of ground square in two. The South line seems to be the favorite one with the engineers.
Winfield Courier, November 6, 1884.
Joseph Likowski vs. John M. Alexander—Postponed to April, 1885, term.
Excerpts from a lengthy article...
                                                        MISTAKEN IDEA.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 8, 1885.
We have known Winfield ever since it was a prairie of tall grass, a lob cabin store, Max Shoeb’s cabin blacksmith shop, and a few cottonwood shanties that kept the coyote out till the owner could go out and show some new men a very fine claim. But the town company were “one man” when Winfield’s interests were at stake, whether you struck Millington, Fuller, Alexander, Mansfield, or Jackson. Winfield was the exact center of the Union in general and South Kansas in particular.

It became necessary to have a paper so their stories would not conflict, so the COURIER was started and Jim Kelly put in charge; one of the jolliest, social editors in the state. The power behind the throne was Millington, to write heavy editorials for the eastern people to read, Mansfield to write articles comparing favorably the climate and health of Winfield to the Italian skies, the robust health of the English and Scotch, proving the almost impossibility of a foreign consumptive to die here; Manning and Alexander to write up the loyalty and far-abiding qualities to the people, with Wirt Walton to write up the immense area of arable lands going to waste in the flint hills, Dick Walker to do the same for the Arkansas Valley. And they had a score or more to work up the special good qualities of the city, of the county, or of the Walnut, Arkansas and Grouse valleys. In short, every man in the town was a committee of about ten to prove Winfield the great future and Max Shoeb was there to translate it into Dutch if necessary. If a storm came, and the Walnut ran four feet deep across the townsite, it was found upon the next issue of the COURIER, that a reliable Indian chief said the like had not happened once before in a century or more. If a drought as in 1874 came, Arkansas City and Winfield could forthwith have an Indian scare and have the young men ordered out at good wages and rations for themselves and horses, till the next corn crop was safe. Winfield and Arkansas City today are monuments not only to the pluck, energy, and faith of their friends but to that unity of action and the sacrifices of that little narrow selfishness so common in little towns. We have much of the same spirit in Burden, and it will be our endeavor to encourage this unity that should exist. Burden Exchange.
                                                           LAND SLIDES.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 26, 1885.
The following are the real estate transfers for the past week, as taken from the official records, and furnished the COURIER by the real estate firm of Harris & Clark.
J. M. Alexander and wife to W. S. Brown, 2 acres in 27, 32, 4, east. $200.00
                                                           LAND SLIDES.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, June 4, 1885.
The following are the real estate transfers filed in the office of Register of Deeds yesterday.
J M Alexander and wife to A B Gardner, part of ne ¼ 27-32-s-4-e: $312.50.
                                                           LAND SLIDES.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, June 11, 1885.
The following are the real estate transfers filed in the office of Register of Deeds yesterday.
J M Alexander and wife to H C Clausen, part of 22-32-s-4e and pt of sw qr 28-32-s-4e, quit claim: $40.00.
                                                           LAND SLIDES.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, June 18, 1885.
The following are the real estate transfers filed in the office of Register of Deeds yesterday.
J M Alexander et ux to August Holwagner, pt of ne ¼ 27-32-s-4e: $550.
                                                           LAND SLIDES.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, August 27, 1885.
The following are the real estate transfers filed in the office of Register of Deeds since our last issue.
J M Alexander et ux to John B Kain, lot 7, blk 285, Thompson’s 3rd addition to Winfield: $390.00.
                                                           LAND SLIDES.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, September 10, 1885.
The following are the real estate transfers filed in the office of Register of Deeds since our last issue.
J M Alexander et ux to Amy J Saunders, tract in Alexander ad to Winfield: $100.00.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, September 17, 1885.
In the Mt. Dora items published in a late number of the Tavares (Fla.) Herald, we clip the following notice of a young gentleman, a grandson of Col. Alexander, who was born in this city under the supervision of Dr. Mendenhall, and who was contemporary of Miss Nina Harter and Masters Clyde Hackney and Baron Bahntge: “Last Wednesday being the fifth birthday of Master Johnnie Rhodes, he gave a party to his young lady friends, to help him celebrate the event.”
                                                           LAND SLIDES.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, September 24, 1885.

The following are the real estate transfers filed in the office of Register of Deeds since our last issue.
W J Cochran et ux to J M Alexander, lot 8, blk 107, Winfield: $1,500.00.
Alexander’s Mound...
Winfield Courier, Thursday, September 24, 1885.
Real estate is looming. Harris & Clark sold Thursday five acres on Alexander’s Mound, east 8th Avenue, for $700; H. D. McCormick’s residence, south Menor street, $1,400; and a half interest in the Hoosier Grocery Building, North Main, $1,500.
                                                           LAND SLIDES.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, October 1, 1885.
The following are the real estate transfers filed in the office of Register of Deeds since our last issue.
J M Alexander et ux to Amy J Saunders, and hus, tract in ne qr 28-32-4e: $200.00.
                                                           LAND SLIDES.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, October 8, 1885.
The following are the real estate transfers filed in the office of Register of Deeds since our last issue.
J M Alexander et ux to Sol Z Fredrick, tract in ne qr 27-32-4e: $426.00.
J M Alexander et ux to A. Shaw, lot 14, blk 245, Citizens ad to Winfield: $160.00.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, October 8, 1885.
Col. John M. Alexander left for Florida today. He will return in the spring when he will build an expensive block in Winfield and make other improvements.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, November 5, 1885.
Doane’s corner, which has just changed hands for eleven thousand dollars, is a splendid indication of the increase in the value of business property in the Queen City. The increase on this lot in the last seven years has been over a thousand dollars a year. Besides this increase in value, the rentals have averaged nearly a thousand dollars a year, making a bonanza investment. It is fortunate, too, that the numerous offers Mr. Doane has had for this property were refused. It is now in hands that will improve it to honor the city. The dirty old rookeries will give place to a magnificent structure. And Colonel Alexander has always said that when a good building went in on that corner, he would put up a good one on his lot next to it.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, November 26, 1885.
Col. John M. Alexander writes that he will build in the spring on lot 2, block 129, a fine and costly building in connection with the First National Bank.
                                      RAMBLERS RAMBLING RAMBLES.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 7, 1886.
The plans for the magnificent new First National bank building, on the Doane corner, will be out soon. It will be one of the very finest blocks in the State. No money will be spared to make it eclipse. Col. Alexander will put a good building adjoining it. Work will begin on both in February.
                                          GETTING READY FOR ACTION.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 28, 1886.

The plans for the new First National Bank building, on the McGuire corner, as pencil sketched by Architect Ritchie, show a structure whose magnificence can’t be discounted in the state. It is full a hundred and forty feet deep, ninety feet of which will be used for the bank and its private offices, and the remainder will be three store rooms forty-eight feet deep, extending on Col. Alexander’s lot, who will build at the same time. The building is full three stories high, with large windows and modern relief clear along its Ninth and Main fronts. The stairway will lead up from the center of the building on Ninth. Its entire arrangement is of modern architecture, unexcelled in exterior design and interior appointments. The First National Bank folks are determined to lay everything in the shade with this structure, and the plans are proof that they will.
                                                           LAND SLIDES.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 4, 1886.
The following are the real estate transfers filed in the office of Register of Deeds since our last issue.
J M Alexander et ux to S S Wood, tract in ne qr 27-32-4e: $636.00.
                                           THE FIRST NATIONAL BLOCK.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 18, 1886.
The First National Bank folks have accepted the plans of Architect Willis A. Ritchie for their magnificent bank block on the McGuire corner, and have employed him as architect and superintendent. This will be one of the very finest blocks in the city—as fine as any in the State. It is full three stories, 140 feet deep, with very artistic fronts on Main and Ninth. It is modern and imposing in every particular. The first ninety feet will be occupied by the First National Bank and its private offices, appointed and furnished in metropolitan style. On the rear will be three store rooms, extending fifty feet back, on Alexander’s lot. Col. Alexander expects to build at the same time. The stairway leading to the second and third floors will be eight feet wide and located at the building’s center on Ninth. The old rookery will be moved off by March first and the excavation begun, when the construction will be pushed rapidly.
                                                           LAND SLIDES.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 18, 1886.
The following are the real estate transfers filed in the office of Register of Deeds since our last issue.
J M Alexander et ux to Charles B Parkhurst, 2 acres in ne qr 26-32-4e: $360.00.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 18, 1886.
Col. Alexander has written the First National Bank that he wants his building constructed in conjunction with theirs, same form and style, and superintended by the same architect. This will cap the finest block in the state.
                                       OUR FLORIDA CORRESPONDENT.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 11, 1886.

Previous to leaving for Key West, I will give you a few of my ideas concerning this land of orange blooms, and perpetual summer. Two weeks ago, when I was yet in Orange County, on the banks of the lovely Lake Dora, every tree, large and small, gave positive proof that Jack Frost had betrayed his trust, and killed each leaf with his frosty breath. However, the amount of damage done to old groves is not nearly as great as was at first feared, when the mercury ran down to 150 above zero, with a northwester blowing a gale which chilled the very marrow in our bones. Like all calamities the horrors increase with repetition, and certain croakers delight to put the worse side out.
Mt. Dora is the home of several families who came from Winfield, some of whom have built themselves convenient and comfortable homes, and are raising their “own vine and fig tree” under which to sit and enjoy the fruit therefrom.
Mr. Swain has a neat, convenient cottage surrounded by two and a half acres of land upon which he has bestowed the greatest care and made it really beautiful. For the comfort of his wife, his house is supplied with rain water from a tank above, and pipes carrying it into stationary sinks in every room where it is needed. Indeed, everything looks as though he had come to stay. Sam Mullen also has 2½ acres upon which he is expending all the money he can get hold of, and the result shows good taste and thorough industry. Alexander and Rhodes are running a general merchandise store on the shore of the lake and a live alligator chained to one of the timbers of the wharf.
As I had determined to see something of the state while in it, my inclination leaned towards Bartow; partly because it was where Mr. Harden and Fred Hunt cast their lots three years since, and I assure you I am very glad I did so; else I would have returned with no very favorable opinion of Florida. First, I am glad I came here, because I have made the acquaintance of an intelligent, interesting, and cultured family, which I exceedingly regret not having done while they resided in Winfield. Pitying me as a waif, Mr. Harden, with his innate hospitality, invited me to his home, and nothing has been left undone by his good wife and lovely daughters to render my stay pleasant. We ride, we ramble, we visit, and when night comes, a well-stocked book case offers a selection of choice literature which gives clear knowledge of the style of reading preferred by the inmates of that household; and when I go forth, I shall feel that their society has had a charm not soon to be forgotten.
Second. At the very northern line of the county (Polk County) I discovered that the leaves were as fresh and green on the orange trees as they were before the frost. The fruit was falling, but the appearance of the country looked more productive; the sand was blacker and there was a grass which I should think would tempt cattle. As we proceeded on the South Florida railroad, there were real live signs of Yankee thrift in nearly every town along the route, new frames were going up and unfinished buildings were conspicuous to the observer; but when we came in sight of this town, we thought it was settled by a go-ahead people sure enough. Churches with spires reaching heavenward; hotels well finished with balconies; handsome, large houses; and neat, extensive cottages; a fine courthouse; good sidewalks and a wide-awake community of about 1,000 souls, as I have since informed myself, is certain a great attraction to a tourist or home seeker.
The South Florida railroad has been in operation for a year, and the Florida Southern completed nearly as far as Fort Ogden, must, as per contract, reach its destination on Charlotte Harbor by the first of May.
Yesterday Mr. Harden took us in his carriage to Eagle Lake, one of a chain of most lovely lakes in this great lake region. The soil surrounding it is a black sand, susceptible of producing all the same tropical fruits and many of the varieties grown north, and the berries to perfection.

On the southwest side of this lake I have bought six and a half acres and shall proceed at once to have it cleared of palmetto and pines, and as fast as practicable, build myself a home in this balmy climate. Not more than a mile off is Lake McCloud, where Quincy Glass and Will Hudson are landholders, in a fine location. The South Florida railroad runs midway between the two lakes, with a depot and town staked off. The idea that Florida is all swamp, is a myth, for I am confident that all this part of the state, and as far as I have noticed, is as healthy as anywhere, judging from the rosy cheeked people who have lived here for years. There are many invalids who came from the north, most of which make the change too late. Some of the natives are yellow, but I believe they are made so by living on sweet potatoes. Irish potatoes do well, and there is no reason why there should be any material change of diet if a man has the energy to cultivate his land. Corn is raised satisfactorily; rice, oats, and sugar cane forming diet for horses and cows. And oh! What a country to raise chickens.
After I return from the gulf, accompanied by Mrs. Harden and Maj. Mansfield, I will describe the people and their customs. H. P. MANSFIELD.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 11, 1886.
Col. J. M. Alexander is at home from the winter at Mt. Dora, Florida, looking as plump and happy as ever. He says he will erect, in conjunction with the First National, a fine business block on his lot next to Hudson Bros. The Colonel will be here all summer.
                                                   ANOTHER ADDITION.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 25, 1886.
Another addition in the city of Winfield will be placed on the market in ten days. Col. J. M. Alexander is having his twenty acres just this side and just across the mounds, extending from 6th to 12th avenues, platted. He will call it “The Alexander Mound Addition” and will sell it out in blocks for fine suburban residences. A street will run clear around the base of the mounds, the mounds themselves to be graded and parked. A more beautiful sight of the city and surroundings than this location affords couldn’t be found. The street railway, which will certainly be built on Ninth avenue, then north to the College and Imbecile Asylum, this summer, will make the Colonel’s addition very desirable for suburban homes.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 25, 1886.
Petition for divorce filed by Lydia A. Krise vs. Wm. A. Krise, on grounds of abandonment. Col. Alexander is her attorney.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 25, 1886.
Fred Kropp has his wheels under the old McGuire building and soon this oldest landmark will hie itself to John McGuire’s lot next to the South Main music conservatory. In its place will rear one of the largest and finest blocks in Kansas, fifty foot front and the handsomest design. The excavation on the cleared part is being rapidly pushed. The First National folks and Col. Alexander mean to have nothing excel them.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 25, 1886.
Recap. Divorce petition: Lydia A. Krise, Plaintiff, vs. William H. Krise, Defendant. Filed March 20, 1886. To be heard May 6, 1886. J. M. Alexander, Attorney for Plaintiff. Attest: Ed. Pate, Clerk.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 25, 1886.

The Alexander building with its ancient sign of “wines, liquors, etc.,” will decorate one of the lots across the railroad on North Main. It seems as though this old building is bound to be the pioneer, as this will probably be the first building in Webb’s Addition.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, April 1, 1886.
Recap. Lydia A. Krise, Plaintiff, vs. William H. Krise, Defendant. Lydia A. Krise suing for a divorce due to abandonment. Petition requests that she have custody of their minor children. Bars Defendant from all interest in the real estate and other property of said plaintiff. J. M. Alexander, Attorney for Plaintiff.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, April 8, 1886.
Another metropolitan air is about to strike us. Col. Alexander and Hudson Bros. have arranged to build a clock tower over the stairway leading between their buildings, ninety-five feet high, sixty feet of stone. In it will be placed the huge clock on which George Hudson has been working for months. It will have a fifteen hundred pound bell, whose tones can be heard three miles as it tolls the half hours and hours. This is a bit of commendable enterprise.
                                                           LAND SLIDES.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, April 8, 1886.
The following are the real estate transfers filed in the office of Register of Deeds.
John A Young and wf to J M Alexander and J R Clark, lots 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, blk 123, Webb’s ad to Winfield: $225.00.
                                                    A $30,750 CONTRACT.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, April 15, 1886.
The First National Bank and Col. Alexander let the contract today for the entire construction of their magnificent blocks on the corner of Main and Ninth. Messrs. Uhl & Giel got the contract, their bids being lower than any of the other and less than the aggregate of any of the partial contract bids. They construct the First National block for $19,500 and Col. Alexander’s for $11,250—a total of $30,750. The contract requires completion in September. The double cellar is now finished and stone work will begin at once. Uhl & Giel also got the work, the other day, of the big hotel at Arkansas City. They are now located at Winfield permanently and their families will be here in three weeks. Already they have proven themselves contractors of superior ability. Their careful watchfulness and knowledge of detail management enable them to get their bids down to the finest point. They are thoroughly reliable, are employing, outside of the three experienced foremen whom they brought from Cleveland and who will also make this their home, all resident laborers.
                                               MORE WINFIELD GLORY.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, April 15, 1886.

A representative of the Topeka Commonwealth visited Winfield a few days ago, and this is the way he writes about the southwest emporium: “This city is in the enjoyment of a boom. Several new railroad projects point to the fact that it will soon be the center of the Kansas Southern railroad system. The walls for the State Imbecile asylum are up, and work has commenced on the Methodist college. Real estate is advancing rapidly, and some splendid business houses are being erected. The Farmers’ Bank has erected a handsome building at an expense of at least $20,000. On the opposite corner, the First National Bank and Colonel Alexander are erecting a building that will cost not less than $40,000. It will be 50 x 140, three stories high above the basement. It will be the handsomest and best built block in Kansas. The lot (25 x 140) for the bank portion cost $12,000. That beats Topeka. Millington and Greer have purchased a lot north of the Farmers’ Bank, on which will be erected a home for THE COURIER. The lot (25 x 140) cost $5,000. Winfield claims a population of 9,000, and its people are confident that they will soon rival Wichita in numbers and business. The city, assuredly, has the most flattering prospects.


Cowley County Historical Society Museum