File set up by RKW years ago...
MAJOR MAHLON STUBBS.
Note: It is believed that Mahlon Stubbs had children, who were also involved in activities in Indian Territory as well as in Arkansas City. They were J. Lindsey Stubbs, S. T. Stubbs, and Addison Stubbs.
Mahlon Stubbs played a large and influential part in the early history of Kansas and Oklahoma, especially in his service as a government representative in direction of Indian affairs, in which connection he gained his title of major—one that customarily applied to executives in such service.
Mahlon Stubbs was born in Preble County, Ohio, February 2, 1825, and died August 1916 at Denver, Colorado. He was a birthright member of the Society of Friends (Quaker).
In 1863 he moved to Council Grove, Kansas, where he established the Indian school under the supervision of the Society of Friends. In 1866 he was given supervision of the farm operations of the Kansas Indians until 1867 when he left government service.
In 1869 President Grant gave the management of the affairs of the various Indian tribes exclusively to the several leading church organizations.
To the Society of Friends was assigned such service in Kansas and Indian Territory, and Major Stubbs was selected as United States agent to the Kaw or Kansas Indians, with headquarters near Council Grove.
In the summer of 1871, he received instructions to visit the several agencies of the wild tribes in Southwest Indian Territory and bring a few of the chiefs from each tribe to Washington to demonstrate to them the futility of the warfare they were waging against white settlers who were invading. He gathered Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Kansas chiefs. The Kiowa, Comanche and Apache chiefs refused. After visiting the east, the Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Kaw Indians smoked the pipe of peace. The result of the mission was that the delegates succeeded in preventing further war uprisings on the part of their respective tribes.
In 1872 Major Stubbs helped in selecting the new reservation for the Kaw Indians in the old Indian territory, as well as moving them to the new reservation. He was appointed Indian Agent and served five years and saw the Kaw tribal agency merged into the Osage agency. He retired to his home in Emporia, and later moved to Denver, Colorado, where he died.
FROM THE NEWSPAPERS.
Emporia News, March 18, 1870.
THE KAW RESERVE. Enoch Hoag, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, has received the following from the Commissioner of Indian affairs, at Washington, in relation to the settlement of the Kaw diminished Reserve.
WASHINGTON, D. C., Feb. 12th, 1870. Sir: This office is informed that a plan is on foot to occupy the lands of the Kansas Indians with “Professional Squatters,” for the purpose of compelling Government to open up the same for pre-emption and sale, thus defrauding the Indians of the value of these lands by terms of pending treaty. This information is communicated in order to place you on your guard, and that you may instruct Agent Stubbs to keep a sharp lookout in order to prevent professional squatters or any other parties from occupying or trespassing upon the Kaw Reservation; and you will please direct him to inform yourself and this office at once of any such unlawful movement, in order that it may be nipped in the bud, as it is the determination of the Government to fully protect these Indians in their rights. Very respectfully etc. E. S. PARKER, Commissioner.
Emporia News, March 18, 1870.
Enoch Hoag, Indian Superintendent for this Superintendency, arrived night before last at the Agency of the Kansas Indians, in this county, and Maj. M. Stubbs, the agent, was to have accompanied him yesterday, with six of the tribe, on a trip to the Cheyennes, on the Canadian River, to council with the plains and other Indians. Other agents are to be present. It is hoped a pacific understanding will be arrived at with the wild Indians, sufficient to avert an Indian war this year, though it is hardly probable such a measure will be accomplished. These Quaker Superintendents are doing all within their power to create a fraternal feeling between the whites and the Indian tribes. C. G. Advertiser.
Emporia News, November 25, 1870.
Friend Thomas H. Stanley called at our office this morning, on his return from the Indian Territory, where he went with the Kaw Indian Agent, Mr. Stubbs, and others, to view the lands proposed for the new Kaw reservation. Mr. Stanley thinks it will require considerable time yet to perfect arrangements for the removal of the Kaws, if it be accomplished at all.
Emporia News, November 25, 1870.
LETTER FROM THOMAS H. STANLEY.
AMERICUS, 11 mo., 15th, 1870. ESTEEMED FRIENDS, STOTLER & WILLIAMS: On the 26th of last month I joined the company that were going to look out a new home in the Indian Territory for the Kaw Indians, consisting of their agent and farmer, six of the prominent Indians (four of them that are part French), one Frenchman who had married a half-breed, and Carlos Briges, our cook. Two of the party acted as interpreters when occasion required it. The first night most of the party camped near Soden’s mill. The night was quite wet. The next day, being still wet, we got a late start, and when we reached Eagle Creek, near Elmendaro, it had risen so that we could not cross with safety for near two days. Then by going up the creek near two miles, we crossed it and went over to the Verdigris, and followed it on the east side to near the Falls, where we camped for the night. The day following we pursued our journey down the Verdigris, passing near Virgil and Sheridan, which are very small towns. At the latter there is a steam saw mill and a little grocery. The next town we came to was Toronto, which had about fifteen or twenty new houses on it. It is situated on a nice elevated prairie, about seventy feet above the bottom land, and near one mile and a half from the river, and ten miles northwest from Coyville. Several of the settlers are from Canada, and our Indians appeared to be rather a curiosity to some of them. Some of the party were not pleased with being looked at so much. A little beyond this town we camped for the night in a little grove of timber.
Early in the next day our company divided, as the river was too high to be forded. We left the wagons and all of the party but Mahlon Stubbs and myself, to wait until they could cross the river, and then go nearly south to the south line of the State, where we would meet. And Mahlon and I followed the road down the river, passing Guilford, near the center of Wilson County. Our friend, Akin, formerly of Council Grove, has a mill at this place. About six miles further down the river, near the mouth of Cedar Creek, is the new town of Altoona, with about thirty houses in it. It is handsomely located near the river. Our son, William F. Stanley, lives about five miles nearly east of this place. We were much pleased with the appearance of this county. It appeared to be settled with an enterprising class of people. After a short visit with my son and family, we went on south near twenty miles, to Morgan City, and then four miles east, and called on our friend, Isaac T. Gibson, the agent for the Osages, whom I was well acquainted with in Iowa. We called on him in order to ascertain where he had located the Osages, so that we might know how to proceed with our business. We had an interesting conversation on Indian matters, in comparing views, etc. Our dear friend has formerly bee a devoted laborer among the freedmen, and we heard some speak of him in our travels in high terms. I felt a sympathy with him in his arduous field of labor. He appears to be doing all he can to improve the condition of the Osages, and has a general interest in the welfare of mankind, particularly those that need encouragement to improve their condition.
Emporia News, December 9, 1870.
Friend Thomas H. Stanley informs us that Mahlon Stubbs, agent of the Kaws, has returned from his mission to the Indian Territory, and reports the prospect favorable for the settlement of the Kaws on a new reservation in that country. If such an arrangement can be effected, we suppose the Kaw reservation will soon be brought into market.
Emporia News, December 30, 1870.
Samuel Radges, the traveling agent of the Topeka Commonwealth, was in town Tuesday. Also, our old friend, Mahlon Stubbs, agent of the Kaw Indians. Mr. Stubbs is on a visit to the office of the Southern Superintendent, at Lawrence. He reports our neighboring city, Council Grove, on the increase, trade is lively and everybody in good spirits.
Emporia News, May 12, 1871.
Mahlon Stubbs, agent of the Kaws, has just returned from a visit to some of the Southwestern tribes of Indians, where he was sent by the Government. Frequent rumors having reached Washington of hostile intentions on the part of the Cheyennes, Arapahos, Kiowas, Comanches, Apaches, and other Indians, the Government thought it would be wise to induce some of the chiefs to visit Washington to have a consultation, in order to prevent, if possible, an outbreak. Mr. Stubbs was sent to deliver the invitation of the Government to the chiefs. No better selection could have been made to perform this duty. After considerable persuasion, he induced six chiefs to make the journey to see the “great father.” Two of these are Cheyennes, three are Arapahos, and one is a Wichita. The Kiowas, Comanches, and Apaches refused to go. Mr. Stubbs says all the Indians assured him that they did not intend to make any trouble, and he believes the reports from time to time sent east, that certain tribes intended to “take the war path” is unfounded. He thinks if there is any trouble at all, it will be made by the Kiowas on the borders of Texas.
The chiefs who accompany Mr. Stubbs were never in Washington; in fact, never visited any white settlements before. They came through Wichita, and that was the largest town they had ever seen. They were a good deal annoyed at the way they were looked at by the whites. It was with much reluctance that they undertook the trip, and after they started some of them wanted to go back.
Emporia News, May 19, 1871.
The big chiefs who passed through town Saturday on their way to Washington created a considerable furor—nearly as much as Robinson’s show will. They bought several hundred dollars’ worth of fine clothes of Perley & Bearce. They were accompanied by Enoch Hoag, the Indian Superintendent, and Mahlon Stubbs, agent of the Kaws.
Emporia News, May 19, 1871.
We met Friend Mahlon Stubbs, Agent of the Kaws, yesterday. He was returning home from a four weeks trip to Fort Sill. He was present at the grand Indian council near Fort Sill, and had conferred with delegations of all tribes of the Plains Indians nearby. He reports all peaceful in that direction. Having been absent so long he of course had not received any official information in relation to the sale of the Kaw lands, and knew nothing concerning such sale save what he had gathered from the newspapers. His interpretation of that is, that the Trust Land only is to be sold. The allotments spoken of in the published dispatches, he says, will consume nearly all of the diminished reserve.
Emporia News, May 19, 1871.
Agent Stubbs, of the Kaws, accompanied Superintendent Hoag to Washington, and upon his return the people will doubtless learn the status of the Kaw lands.
Winfield Courier, April 10, 1873.
Agent (Mahlon) Stubbs has orders to remove the Kaw Indians as soon as he can make the necessary arrangements. Get ready soon, Mr. Stubbs.
Winfield Courier, July 17, 1874.
Mahlon Stubbs, one of the cleverest Quakers, and late, the agent for the Kaw Indians, was in town one day this week.
Winfield Courier, August 28, 1874.
WASHINGTON, Aug. 22, 1874. The following telegram was received here today from Gov. Osborn, of Kansas: “I have information through Indian Agent (Mahlon) Stubbs and other sources, that the Osage tribe of Indians have, at a general council, declared war against this State. Depredations have already been committed by them on our southern border. The State has but few arms, and the United States troops, before guarding the line, being new in the Indian Territory, at a great distance from the Osage Reservation, exposes the frontier settlements of this State to great danger. With arms we can defend our border. Can you furnish 2,000 carbines and accouterments, and 100,000 cartridges on account of the State of Kansas!” The telegram has been referred to the war department.
Winfield Courier, August 28, 1874.
On the 24th inst., Agent Stubbs, of the Osages, and Enoch Hoag, had a conference with Gov. Osborn, on affairs of the Osage tribe today. They asked for the restoration of horses and ponies captured by Capt. Ricker’s troop of militia.
Agent Stubbs said that the Osages had given them but ten days to return with the ponies, during which time they would maintain an armistice; if they were not returned, he intimated that trouble might be feared from them. Governor Osborn said that he would not temporize with the Indians by any such concession; that the Indians must prove that they had no knowledge of the existing order as to the return of the Osages to their reservations or any hostile intention and disprove the claim made by Captain Ricker’s, that they fired upon them first. These conditions are impossible for the Osages to comply with.
J. Lindsey Stubbs, son of Mahlon Stubbs.
Arkansas City Traveler, April 5, 1876.
J. Lindsey Stubbs departed for Emporia last Friday, and will accompany his father to Washington, D.C., where he has been summoned to testify before the Commissioner of the Interior.
Winfield Courier, April 6, 1876.
Mahlon Stubbs, of Emporia, very well known about Arkansas City, has received a summons to appear before the Committee of Indian Affairs, at the House of Representatives, at Washington. The summons should have included Col. McMullen and C. M. Scott, of the city, so that ‘the other side’ of the Indian question could have a chance to speak.
Arkansas City Traveler, April 12, 1876.
J. L. Stubbs is at present clerking in George Newman’s store in Emporia.
[NOTE BY RKW: J. Lindsey Stubbs had been a partner in Sherburne and Stubbs dry goods store, but sold out to A. A. Newman. He later was a clerk at Newman’s in Emporia.]
Arkansas City Traveler, July 12, 1876.
J. Lindsey Stubbs and Mr. Tisdale, of Paw-hus-ka (Osage Agency), favored us with a call. They report great damage done to the wheat crop in that vicinity, and state that the water in Bird Creek was fifty feet high.
Arkansas City Traveler, October 11, 1876.
The Finney boys, A. T. Gay, and J. Lindsey Stubbs, all of “White Hair” town, were here last week. The Finney brothers have leased Mr. R. Hoffmaster’s livery, and will devote their time to accommodating the traveling public. J. Lindsey Stubbs came home to prove up on the Arkansas, and Mr. Gay as company for the crew. Rudolph will go into the blacksmith shop with Henry Franklin, and assist in the work.
Arkansas City Traveler, May 2, 1877.
J. Lindsey Stubbs and Miss Gertrude Finney are to be married by Rev. Fleming, at Osage Agency tomorrow. We have not the pleasure of the acquaintance of the lady of Lindsey’s choice, but know she is of one of the best families of Lawrence. What we could say in behalf of our friend could not add more to his credit, as he is, and always has been recognized as one of the most gentlemanly young men that ever graced the Kansas border. May peace, prosperity, and long life attend them.
Arkansas City Traveler, May 23, 1877.
It was our privilege to meet the good people of Osage Agency at the nuptial ceremonies of Mr. Stubbs and Miss Finney, on Thursday evening, May 3rd, and seldom have we seen a more social and joyous group of individuals. We were surprised to meet there ladies and gentlemen who had graced the best society in the land, and others whose presence would adorn any reputable society. We congratulate our friend, Stubbs, in his success in marrying into one of the most reputable families of the State of Ohio. Rev. Mr. Finney and his noble wife, the parents of Mrs. Stubbs, and “the boys,” known to all, were missionaries of the Presbyterian church in the State of Ohio, and their sterling character and earnest piety contributed in no small degree to the high position which that State takes today in all questions of morals and religion. Though now in heaven, yet the impress of their lives and character is reflected in their children.
Arkansas City Traveler, October 21, 1877.
Mahlon Stubbs, formerly agent of the Kaw Indians, is a candidate for Treasurer of Lyon County. Mr. Stubbs has always had the reputation of being an honest, reliable gentleman.
Arkansas City Traveler, October 2, 1878.
J. L. Stubbs, late of Osage Agency, called in upon us yesterday morning. He is accompanied by his wife, and they are en route for Emporia, their prospective home.
S. T. Stubbs, Teacher.
Arkansas City Traveler, November 21, 1877.
An Interesting Letter from Kaw Agency.
KAW AGENCY, INDIAN TERRITORY, November 12, 1877.
A Kaw Indian named Amos Doane was publicly whipped here at three o’clock this afternoon for stealing a pony belonging to Alemono [?Alemmo], an Indian living on Beaver creek, half a mile east of the agency. After stealing the pony, Doane took him up into Chautauqua county, Kansas, and exchanged him with a Mr. Ingalls, who lives on Caney creek, eight miles north of Cedar Vale, for another. Circumstances seeming to point to Doane as the perpetrator of the theft, Supt. Spray caused him to be arrested on Thursday last.
Upon being accused of the robbery, the prisoner at first stoutly denied his guilt, but finally confessed to the Superintendent that he had stolen the missing animal, and had left him with Mr. Ingalls to be doctored.
A Council of the chiefs was held this forenoon, and it was decided to release Doane from custody. To this the Superintendent would not assent and announced to the chiefs his determination to send the prisoner to Agent Beede for punishment.
Thereupon the chiefs reconsidered their decision, and sentenced the culprit to receive twenty lashes from a rawhide whip. To this Supt. Spray assented and measures were immediately taken to carry the sentence into effect.
The Whipping took place near the council house, and was witnessed by all the head men of the tribe and agency employees, together with many pupils of the Kaw Mission school, who were attracted thither from their play to behold the unusual spectacle. Seven braves had been appointed by the council to do the flogging. Doane was then led into the center of a circle formed by the chiefs, marshals, and braves, and the whipping began. The back of the victim was deprived of covering except a calico shirt. He received his punishment with that stoical indifference to physical pain peculiar to the red man. He exhibited no emotion as the cruel blows from the rawhide lash descended upon him, save a slight shrugging of the shoulders, at each of the lashes given by Ma-ho-jah, a strong and muscular brave. When the flogging was ended, Doane’s blanket was given him and accompanied by his wife, he departed for his wickiup on Beaver creek. It is to be hoped that this experience of Doane’s will have a tendency to render pony stealing among the Kaws unfashionable.
S. T. STUBBS, Teacher.
Arkansas City Traveler, November 21, 1877.
Addison Stubbs has resigned his position at Cheyenne Agency and returned to Emporia.