About Us
Museum Membership
Event Schedule
Museum Newsletters
Museum Displays


Jacob Nixon

                                              Vernon Township and Winfield.
                                      Last address: Kellogg, Vernon Township.
Vernon Township 1873: Jacob Nixon, 30; spouse, Agnes, 24.
Vernon Township 1874: Jacob Nixon, 31; spouse, Agnes, 25.
Kansas 1875 Census, Vernon Township, Cowley County, March 1, 1875.
Name                     age sex color          Place/birth        Where from
Jacob Nixon           32  m     w                  Ohio                       Iowa
Agnes Nixon          26    f      w            Pennsylvania                 Iowa
Samuel Nixon     1  m     w            Kansas
Winfield 1880: Jacob Nixon, 37; spouse, Agnes, 31.
Winfield Directory 1875.
The Cowley County Horticultural Society holds its regular meetings in Winfield the first Saturday in each month. J. F. Martin, President; Jacob Nixon, Secretary.
In October 1885 Ezra H. Nixon married Jessie Millington, daughter of editor D. A. Millington of the Winfield Courier. From an item appearing in the October 15, 1885, issue, it develops that Jacob Nixon of Vernon township was a brother of Ezra H. Nixon. It also appears that the father of both Jacob and Ezra H. was Samuel Nixon of Utica, Iowa, and that a sister, Anna Nixon, also lived in Utica. Other brothers: Moses and Will Nixon.
                                               FROM THE NEWSPAPERS.
Winfield Messenger, October 4, 1872.
                                       Class N—Vegetables—Thirty-Four Entries.
Premiums to J. Nixon, J. A. Churchill, J. D. Cochran, John Lowry, A. Menor, Samuel Waugh, N. R. Churchill.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, May 8, 1873.
Kansas State Grange. We give, herewith, the names of the officers of the Kansas State Grange of the Patrons of husbandry. F. H. Dumbauld, Master, Jacksonville, Neosho County; Joshua Bell, Overseer, Robinson, Brown County; G. W. Spurgeon, Secretary, Jacksonville, Neosho County; H. H. Angell, Treasurer, Sherman City, Cherokee County; L. J. Frisbie, Steward, Girard, Crawford; J. A. Cramer, Lecturer, Lawrence, Douglass County.
J. J. Nixon of Vernon Township is appointed deputy for Cowley County.
Winfield Courier, Friday, December 26, 1873.
That school land sale that operated so seriously on the spleen of Mr. Nixon as to cause him to give Mr. Wilkinson a punch when he thought Hopkins had him down, is so thoroughly explained by the State Superintendent and Attorney General that we hope Nixon will take the dose quietly, go to bed and sweat it off.


RECAP: Wilkinson obtained affidavit from David M. Hopkins, stating: “David M. Hopkins, being first duly sworn, deposes and says, that he is a resident of Vernon Township, in said county of Cowley and state of Kansas. That he is acquainted with the northeast quarter of section sixteen in township thirty-two south of range three the best of his knowledge and belief said quarter section belonged to the state of Kansas as school land prior to May 13, 1873, and that on the said day, one Charles Tilton made an application before the Probate Judge of said county to enter the same and did enter the said land upon comply­ing with the Statute made and provided for the entry of school land, and that said entry, he believes, was fraudulent and void.”
H. D. McCARTY, STATE SUPERINTENDENT, responded to Wilkinson, who sent him Hopkins’ affidavit: “I have submitted the affidavit to the Attorney General. He says the affidavit amounts to nothing—no decision can be given—the question is open to the courts.”
Note: Jacob Nixon had a brother, Will Nixon. I have not covered activities of Will Nixon. MAW
Winfield Courier, June 1, 1876.
The Butler County papers chronicle the arrival of a steam thresher in this county, and hurrah it up as the first in the southwest. Not so fast, boys! The Nixon brothers, of Vernon Township, in this county, had a steam thresher here in March last, and will blow the whistle on the streets of Winfield this week. They commence threshing June 20th at the Slemmons farm, west of town, and are to set down by J. B. Holmes’ four hundred acre wheat field June 26th. W. H. Grow, of Rock Township, has ordered a steam thresher also. We guess that Cowley will claim the honor of having the first steam thresher in southwest Kansas. You may beat us on a “bob-tail” whistle, but we will hear the thresher whistle first. Next.
Winfield Courier, June 15, 1876.
On Wednesday Jacob Nixon, of Vernon, brought us specimens of timothy of fine growth, with heads seven and eight inches long.
The following item was signed “NIXON.” Unknown whether this was sent by Jacob Nixon or his brother, Will Nixon. MAW
Winfield Courier, April 5, 1877.
                                                             From Vernon.
EDITOR COURIER: A destructive fire started on some school land in Sumner County, east of the Arkansas River, Tuesday evening, the 20th inst., by a party for the avowed purpose of keeping out the wolves, destroyed the house and stable containing some 300 bushels of corn on the Horsebrough farm, also stable, feed lot, and some 600 bushels corn in crib, hay, etc., for George Haffer; also several ricks of hay for W. L. Pennington. Haffer’s house and Walker Bros. house, occupied by Mr. Dale, were only saved by the most strenuous exertions of the neighbors. There is a strong feeling of making an example for the warning of others in the future.
Vernon had a visit this week, from gentlemen from Arkansas City, circulating a petition calling an election to vote aid for a narrow gauge railroad from Kansas City via Emporia. Eureka, Winfield, and Arkansas City. They received cold comfort from the settlers. Everyone I have interviewed are in favor of a standard gauge to Oswego so as to have direct communication to St. Louis. All parties concerned may count on Vernon to give substantial aid to such a route and to no other. This is substantially the sentiment of the businessmen of Oxford and Sumner County so far as I can learn, who stand ready to do their part in continuing the road westward when the proper time arrives. Let us have something definite  and sure and safe and then let all of us pull together with a will. NIXON.
Winfield Courier, May 31, 1877.
Board of County Commissioners met in special session. All the board present, with James McDermott, County Attorney, and M. G. Troup, County Clerk. Among other proceedings had the following jury and election fees were presented and allowed.
Election Fee: Jacob Nixon, $2.00.

Winfield Courier, September 13, 1877.
Read the announcement of Jacob Nixon for Register of Deeds in another column. A cripple for life in his country’s service, a man fully qualified for the office he seeks, the party would honor itself as well as him by the nomination of the “Little Sergeant.”
Register of Deeds. We are authorized by the old comrades and friends of Jacob Nixon, of Vernon Township, to announce him as a candidate for the office of Register of Deeds, subject to the decision of the Republican convention, September 22nd, 1877.
Winfield Courier, September 27, 1877.
Pursuant to the call of the Republican County Central Committee, of Cowley County, the delegates assembled in convention at the courthouse, in the city of Winfield, on Saturday, Sept. 22, 1877, at 11 o’clock a.m.
Nominations: Register of Deeds. Jacob Nixon received 5 votes, E. P. Kinne, 30, Chas. Irwin, 10, M. G. Roseberry, 4, I. S. Bonsall, 5. E. P. Kinne was declared nominated.
Winfield Courier, October 18, 1877. Front Page.
                                               VERNON, KAN., Oct. 1, 1877.
EDITOR COURIER: I called the attention of our wheat raisers in July, 1876, to an experiment in making a hard seed bed for wheat, by harrowing and rolling the plowed ground before drilling in the wheat. The return of the pesky grasshopper prevented a trial last fall, and we presume most all have forgotten the suggestion. The result of drilling in a field of wheat by a roller drill which yielded 22 bushels per acre in north Vernon by Mr. Brannon, and also the report of method and results of a wheat grower in Reno County, prompts me to again call our wheat growers attention to it. This wheat grower in Reno County, after getting his land in cultivation, does not plow his land, but burns off the stubble and keeps the ground free of weeds with the harrow until seeding time (a mower could be used), when he drills in his wheat on this unplowed ground and gets a yield of from 30 to 40 bushels per acre, or about one-half more than the average in that vicinity on plowed land. I obtained about the same results on a road square or so in drilling on an unplowed turning row in this year’s harvest. It is late for seeding, but will not everyone that has clean stubble give it a comparative trial at once, say one acre each unplowed, drilled on plowed ground, and harrowed in on plowed ground, and report results another harvest. JACOB NIXON.
Arkansas City Traveler, July 30, 1879.
E. P. Kinne, Republican, Register of Deeds.
J. Nixon, Vernon township, Republican, Register of Deeds.
Arkansas City Traveler, September 10, 1879.
The nominating convention held at Winfield last Saturday placed the following ticket in the field: Sheriff, A. T. Shenneman, Winfield; County Clerk, Capt. Hunt, Winfield; Treasurer, J. N. Harden, Dexter; Register, Jacob Nixon, Vernon township; Coroner, Dr. Graham, Winfield; Surveyor, N. A. Haight, Winfield; Commissioner for 2nd district, Mr. Harbaugh, Pleasant Valley Township.
Winfield Courier, July 31, 1879.

We desire to call particular attention to the announcement of Capt. Jacob Nixon as a candidate for the Office of Register of Deeds. He is a young and active Republican who has seen service in the cause of the nation. Jacob Nixon enlisted as a private in Co. I, 19th Iowa Infantry, Aug. 6, 1862, in which regiment he went through the campaign of that year in Arkansas, was promoted sergeant for brave conduct, and was seriously wounded at the battle of Prairie Grove, Dec. 7th, in consequence of which he was honorably discharged, but entered immediately into the service of his State (Iowa), where he served with rank of First Lieutenant and was promoted to the rank of Captain for efficient service in disciplining troops for the field. Since then he has “voted as he shot” and has been an ardent and active Republican. He is an early settler of this county, an energetic hard working man, honest, finely educated, a beautiful penman, and a trenchant writer. Some of his articles for the COURIER have been copied widely. He is in every way well qualified for the position he seeks and deserves it. He would make one of our most popular officers.
Winfield Courier, September 11, 1879.
The Cowley County Republican convention met on Saturday, Sept. 6th, at 11 o’clock a.m., at Manning’s Hall, in Winfield.
Vote for register of deeds.
      1st ballot  2nd ballot  3rd ballot
I. H. Bonsall, 15, 13, 14
E. P. Kinne, 18, 14, 14
Jacob Nixon, 25, 43, 48
D. S. Wilkins, 18, 15, 15
Alex. Thompson, 1st ballot, 8
C. W. Roseberry, 2nd ballot, 3
Thompson withdrew after the first ballot.
The nomination of Jacob Nixon was made unanimous.
Arkansas City Traveler, October 8, 1879.
The Republican candidate for Register of Deeds of Cowley County is a native of Ohio.  When quite young he removed to Iowa, and there enlisted in the U. S. service before he was 18 years old on August 6, 1862, in Company I, 19th Iowa volunteers, and with that regiment he went through the campaign of that year in Arkansas, and was promoted sergeant for brave conduct. He was seriously wounded at the battle of Prairie Grove on December 7, 1862, in consequence of which he was disabled and honorably discharged; but as soon as he recovered sufficiently, he entered into the service of his State (Iowa) in disciplining troops for the field with the rank of First Lieutenant, where he served with great efficiency.
Jacob Nixon has always been an ardent Republican, and he has never wavered. He is a farmer and a good one; resides in Vernon township, a hard working man, finely educated, a beautiful penman, a trenchant writer, honest, and in every way qualified for the office.
Winfield Courier, November 13, 1879.
Today we publish our complete table of the official returns of the election in this county November 4th. It appears there were only 3,400 votes polled. We think a full vote would have reached 4,000. The republican majorities were as follows.
Shenneman for sheriff: 881; Harden for treasurer: 745; Nixon for register: 739; Hunt for clerk: 952; Haight for surveyor: 1,073; Graham for coroner: 905.

The average republican majority is 1880, but this is rather above what the actual majority really would have been on a straight ticket. We should state the majority at 750 on a 3,400 vote, and 800 on a 4,000 vote.
Winfield Courier, February 26, 1880.
On Monday Mr. Frank Baldwin sold his residence property to Register Nixon for $1,400.
Winfield Courier, August 19, 1880.
Winfield is partly depopulated by the great exodus to the Knight Templars triennial reunion in Chicago. Last Saturday and Sunday the trains were loaded with excursionists, many of whom were taking this opportunity to visit friends in the east with the excursion rates for fares. A great many went from here whose names have not been given us, but the following are some that we know of: Dr. W. G. Graham and wife, Capt. S. C. Smith, E. P. Kinne, J. E. Conklin, Capt. James McDermott, Rev. J. Cairns and wife, Rev. J. A. Hyden and wife, J. D. Pryor, R. D. Jillson and daughter, Mrs. D. A. and Miss Jessie Millington. C. C. Black and wife, J. W. Johnson and daughter, J. P. M. Butler and wife, Miss Jennie Melville, G. H. Buckman, J. C. and Miss Ioa Roberts, Will Baird and wife, Mrs. N. L. Rigby, Jacob Nixon and wife, J. S. Hunt, and T. R. Bryan.
Winfield Courier, August 26, 1880.
Mr. W. T. Roland is busy in Nixon’s office registering deeds.
Winfield Courier, November 18, 1880.
We have neglected to give Jacob Nixon, our big hearted, energetic Register of Deeds, his due credit for attention to guests and visitors from distant parts of the county. On the morning after the election when there was a crowd from a distance who had come in during the night to get the news, Mr. Nixon took some of them home to breakfast and distributed twenty tickets for breakfast at Ledlie’s.
Winfield Courier, March 3, 1881.
Register Nixon, Mr. Crenshaw, and Fred Appling have new babies at their home since our last issue.
Winfield Courier, March 24, 1881.
The Republicans of the First Ward of the city met at the courthouse on Saturday evening, the 19th. Called to order by W. J. Wilson of the Ward committee: D. A. Millington was chosen chairman and S. M. Jarvis secretary. J. E. Platter was nominated for member of the school board by acclamation. The following 13 delegates were elected to represent the ward in the city convention to meet on the 26th: D. A. Millington, W. P. Hackney, E. S. Bedilion, T. M. Bryan, Jacob Nixon, James Bethel, J. W. Crane, S. M. Jarvis, J. E. Conklin, J. L. M. Hill, H. D. Gans, E. P. Greer, W. J. Wilson.
Winfield Courier, March 31, 1881.
Jacob Nixon’s new house will soon be completed.
Arkansas City Traveler, May 11, 1881.
Jake Nixon, our register of deeds, is just now laying his ropes for a reelection. Jacob will not get there as easy as he expects, however he may wiggle in. If he does, it will be by the skin of his teeth. Jake, you want to keep your eye on the “solid south west.” If they bring out a candidate, “you are a gone gosling” and don’t you forget it. Enterprise.

Winfield Courier, June 16, 1881.
A considerable number of the citizens of Winfield met on Monday evening on the steps of the Winfield Bank to provide for raising funds for the immediate relief of the sufferers caused by the cyclone Sunday evening. Mr. Crippen called the people together by music from the band. Jacob Nixon donated $10.00.
Arkansas City Traveler, July 20, 1881.
To the Union Soldiers of the late War: We, the undersigned, your comrades and survivors of the late rebellion, believe that a reunion of the old soldiers now resi­dents of Cowley and surrounding counties, would meet your approv­al and serve to renew and strengthen a patriotic and brotherly feeling in the hearts of all old soldiers and lovers of the Union, we would, therefore call a reunion at Island Park, Winfield, Kansas, for the 7th and 8th of October, 1881. For a more complete organization and the successful carrying out of this plan, we would ask all old soldiers residing in the limits above named, to meet at Manning Opera House, on Saturday, July 23rd, at 2 o’clock p.m., at which time to effect a permanent organization, and the appointment of such general and local committees as the meeting may deem proper, essential for the ultimate success of this—an old soldiers’ reunion—at the time and place above mentioned. The county papers are requested to publish this call.
                                    Jake Nixon was one of those who signed notice.
Arkansas City Traveler, July 27, 1881.
Messrs. Jacob Nixon, our Registrar of Deeds, and J. S. Hunt, county clerk, were in the city last Friday.
Winfield Courier, July 28, 1881.
Register Nixon, secretary of old soldiers organization, sent out Monday twenty muster rolls to the committeemen in the differ­ent townships for enrolling the old soldiers.
Winfield Courier, July 28, 1881.
A large number of the Soldiers met in the Hall Saturday afternoon to consider the ways and means of organization. Mr. C. M. Wood was chosen President and Jacob Nixon, secretary.
Winfield Courier, August 4, 1881.
Jacob Nixon will be a candidate for reelection to the office of register of deeds.
Winfield Courier, August 4, 1881.
Register Nixon has purchased a lemon wood bow and will shoot with the shooters this afternoon.
Winfield Courier, August 25, 1881.
The meeting at Manning’s hall on Saturday, August 20th, was well attended by the old soldiers. Capt. Haight with a section of his battery, put in a number of shots that sounded like old times to the boys. Messrs. Pixley, Requa, Woodruff, Roseberry, and others furnished old time martial music. At 11 a.m., the meeting was called to order with C. M. Wood in the chair, and Jake Nixon, secretary. On motion a committee of seven was appointed as a permanent organization consisting of comrades Wells, Steuven, Stubblefield, Nixon, Waugh, Kretsinger, and Jennings. After some interesting remarks on the part of Capt. Stubblefield, J. W. Millspaugh, H. D. Catlin, and S. M. Jennings, the meeting adjourned until 2 p.m.

The afternoon meeting showed an increase of delegates and much more enthusiasm. The committee on permanent organization submitted the following report. Your committee on permanent organization beg to submit the following. For President: Col. J. C. McMullen, of Winfield; for Vice Presidents, we would recommend one from each township to be named by this meeting, and one from the city of Winfield. We submit the name of T. H. Soward. For recording secretary, Jake Nixon, of Vernon; corresponding secretary, A. H. Green, Winfield; treasur­er, J. B. Lynn, Winfield. Executive Committee: Col. McMullen, Capt. Stubblefield, Capt. Hunt, Capt. Tansey, T. R. Bryan, D. L. Kretsinger, and C. M. Wood. Finance Committee: J. B. Lynn, Capt. Siverd, Capt. Myers, James Kelly, and Judge Bard. Encampment: Dr. Wells, Capt. Steuven, and Capt. Haight. Printing: E. E. Blair and Jake Nixon. Invitation and speakers: Hon. W. P. Hackney, Gen. A. H. Green, D. L. Kretsinger, M. G. Troup, Capt. Chenoweth, Capt. Nipp, Major D. P. Marshall, N. W. Dressie, and C. H. Bing. That the executive committee be entrusted with the general management of the reunion and are authorized to call to their assistance such help, and any subcommittee in their judgment which may seem best for the success of the reunion; and may fill all vacancies in committees that may occur; that the vice presi­dents are charged with responsibility of prompt organization of their respective townships, and shall muster and make due report of all old soldiers to the secretary as soon as possible. On motion the report was adopted.
The time for holding the reunion as published in the call for the 7th and 8th of October was then discussed. The sense of the meeting seemed to indicate that the farmers would not be through seeding at that time, and that a later date should be named. On motion the 21st and 22nd of October was fixed as the time for holding the reunion. On motion all county papers were requested to publish the proceedings of this meeting. The meeting then adjourned. JACOB NIXON, Secretary.
Arkansas City Traveler, August 31, 1881. Editorial Page.
                                                    THE OLD SOLDIERS.
Delegates meeting—a permanent organization elected, committees appointed, and the time fixed for the reunion of the old soldiers of Cowley. The meeting at Manning’s hall on Saturday, Aug. 20th, was well attended by the old soldiers. Capt. Haight with a section of his battery, put in a number of shots that sounded like old times to the boys. Messrs. Pixley, Requa, Woodruff, Roseberry, and others furnished old time martial music. At 11 a.m. the meeting was called to order with C. M. Wood in the chair, and Jake Nixon, secretary.

On motion, a committee of seven was appointed on permanent organization, consisting of Comrades Wells, Steuven, Stubblefield, Nixon, Waugh, Kretsinger, and Jennings. After some interesting remarks on the part of Capt. Stubblefield, J. W. Millspaugh, H. C. Catlin, and S. M. Jennings, the meeting ad­journed until 2 p.m. The afternoon meeting showed an increase of delegates and much more enthusiasm. The committee on permanent organization beg to submit the following. For President, Col. J. C. McMullen, of Winfield; for Vice President, we would recommend one from each township to be named by this meeting, and one from the city of Winfield. We submit the name of T. H. Soward. For recording secretary, Jake Nixon, of Vernon; for corresponding secretary, A. H. Green, Winfield; treasurer, J. B. Lynn, Winfield. Executive committee—Col. McMullen, Capt. Stubblefield, Capt. Hunt, Capt. Tansey, T. B. Bryan, D. L. Kretsinger, and C. M. Wood. Finance committee—J. B. Lynn, Captain Siverd, Capt. Myers, James Kelly, and Judge Bard. Encampment—Dr. Wells, Capt. Steuven, and Capt. Haight. Printing—E. F. Blair and Jake Nixon. Invitation and speakers—Hon. W. P. Hackney, Gen. Green, D. L. Kretsinger, M. G. Troup, Capt. Chenoweth, Capt. Nipp, Major Marshall, N. W. Dressie, and C. H. Bing.
Arkansas City Traveler, September 14, 1881.
For Register: JACOB NIXON.
Winfield Courier, September 15, 1881.
No one had the hardihood to contest the nomination of Capt. J. S. Hunt for Clerk or Jacob Nixon for Register of deeds.
Winfield Courier, November 10, 1881.
The Grand Hunt proved a grand success. Several catastrophes are reported. Jake Nixon burst a barrel of his fine breech-loading gun, Tom Soward lost a “plunger,” and Deacon Harris got soaking wet. The score was a very fair one!
J. N. Harter: 830                                        A. D. Speed: 170
J. M. Keck: 1,000                                      B. F. Cox: 290
G. A. Rhodes: 975                               C. C. Black: 90
T. H. Soward: 335                               G. L. Eastman: 2,375
S. Burkhalter: 480                                Dr. Davis: 450
Jacob Nixon: 80                                         E. Meech, Jr.: 285
Fred Whitney: 765                                Q. A. Glass: 180
____ Chapman: 980                                   Deacon Harris: 500
Total: 5,445                                                Total: 4,360
The defeated party gave a big banquet at the Brettun Friday evening and the tired and hungry sportsmen fed their friends and told of the hair breadth escapes of “mud-hen” and turtle-dove. Skunks counted fifty, but none were brought in.
Winfield Courier, November 17, 1881.
Cowley County Courant, November 17, 1881.
That Jake Nixon, Ben Cox, Deacon Harris, et al. have gone to the Territory for a few days hunt.
Cowley County Courant, November 24, 1881.
A new lodge called the National Union, has been organized in Winfield, with the following officers: F. Barclay, ex-president, A. Howland, president, C. H. Bahntge, vice-president, Mrs. Mina Bliss, speaker, G. N. Searcy, Chaplain, Jacob Nixon, secretary, W. G. Graham, financial secretary, E. S. Bliss, usher, Mrs. E. S. Howland, sergeant-at-arms, A. H. Graham, door-keeper. There were twenty odd charter members. The objects of the society are similar to those of the Knights of Honor, and the members carry a life insurance of from $1,000 to $5,000.
Cowley County Courant, December 1, 1881.

“Honest Ben Cox,” Deacon Harris, and Jake Nixon, et al., returned from the Territory Friday. They had to charter a train to bring in the game. They made no note of the smaller game, but brought in forty deer and five hundred turkeys. Hunters like fishers are so reckless with figures that it’s possible that there may be a cipher or two too many on the above, still we don’t think Ben would tell a lie. The whole party report a good time and lots of fun, and from the amount of game brought in should say that the last party of hunters who went down would find it pretty dry picking.
Winfield Courier, December 22, 1881.
At the annual meeting of the Knights of Honor in their hall Monday evening, the following were elected as officers for the ensuing year: W. C. Root, D.; J. S. Hunt, T. A.; R. E. Wallis, A. D.; Jacob Nixon, C.; J. W. Batchelder, G.; C. F. Bahntge, R.; J. W. Curns, F. R.; T. R. Bryan, T.; H. Brotherton, G.; D. Berkey, S.
Cowley County Courant, December 29, 1881.
At a regular meeting the evening of the 20th, the Winfield Council No. 2, National Union, the following officers were elected: A. Howland, president; Frank Barclay, ex president; H. E. Noble, vice-president; Mrs. Mina Bliss, speaker; Jacob Nixon, secretary; J. E. Snow, treasurer; W. G. Graham, financial secretary; Mrs. Fanny Barclay, chaplain; E. S. Bliss, usher; E. I. Howland, sergeant-at-arms; G. W. Searcy, doorkeeper.
Cowley County Courant, December 29, 1881.
At the annual meeting of the Knights of Honor, held on Monday evening, the following were elected officers for the coming year. W. C. Root, D.; J. S. Hunt, T. A.; R. E. Wallis,
A. D.; Jacob Nixon, C.; J. W. Batchelder, G.; C. F. Bahntge, R.; J. W. Curns, R.; T. R. Bryan, T.; H. Brotherton, Guardian; D. Berkey, S.
Cowley County Courant, January 5, 1882.
J. S. Hunt, A. T. Shenneman, Jacob Nixon, and S. C. Smith, county officers elect, have filed their official bonds. The sureties are good.
Winfield Courier, January 19, 1882.
Horticultural Society. The Society met in regular session, called in order by the President. S. E. Burger elected Secretary pro tem. Society proceeded to elect officers for coming year as follows. President: J. F. Martin; Vice President: A. R. Gillett; Secretary and Librarian: Jacob Nixon; Treasurer: Geo. W. Robertson; Trustees: J. W. Millspaugh, J. O. Taylor, S. E. Burger; Committee on Orchard: A. R. Gillett. J. F. MARTIN, President.
Winfield Courier, February 16, 1882.
The Horticultural Society. Met at Winfield, February 4, at 2 o’clock p.m., President Martin in the chair. Secretary being absent, J. O. Taylor was chosen as Secretary pro tem.
Note: A cordial invitation is extended to every fruit grower in the county to report varieties, their success and failure. Will prove valuable to all intending to plant this spring. Let the next monthly meeting of the society be one of great interest to our fruit growers. Jacob Nixon.
Arkansas City Traveler, March 29, 1882.
By the courtesy of Jacob Nixon, our efficient and popular Register of Deeds, we learn that there were, during the week ending the 25th inst., nineteen transfers of real estate recorded in Cowley County, representing a money value of about $25,550.00.

Winfield Courier, March 23, 1882.
List of U. S. Patents not recorded now lying in the Register of Deeds’ office, January 12th, 1880. [Township & Range given after Section.]
U. S. to W. A. Barr in Section 12, 31, 5.
U. S. to T. A. Brown, Section 18, 34, 3.
U. S. to Jno. A. Churchill, Section 32, 31, 3.
U. S. to J. I. Cottingham, Section 25, 31, 4.
U. S. to H. C. Field, Section 17, 31, 4.
U. S. to D. Holiday, Section 19, 33, 5.
U. S. to D. A. Huston, Section 9, 31, 4.
U. S. to Thos. J. Jones, Section 28, 33, 5.
U. S. to Christian Miller, Section 31, 31, 6.
U. S. to F. H. Myers, Section 11, 32, 3.
U. S. to C. R. McIntyre, Section 5, 35, 3.
U. S. to Jno. R. Newcomb, Section 12, 33, 5.
U. S. to J. F. Roberts, Section 8, 31, 8.
U. S. to W. L. Tryon, Section 28, 32, 4.
U. S. to D. H. Wilson, Section 14, 35, 3.
Also deeds.
Will parties interested in them call and get them if they do not want them recorded.
                                            JACOB NIXON, Register of Deeds.
Cowley County Courant, March 30, 1882.
Jake Nixon, our popular register of deeds, is arranging to soon become a millionaire. He has lately been granted a patent on a corn husker, which promises great results from a financial standpoint. He also has a patent on a wagon jack, which he expects to pan out in good shape. He is now expecting a patent on some other inventions, which he declines to give away until he gets the papers. At this rate he will become the inventor of the age.   Burden Enterprise.
Winfield Courier, April 13, 1882.
Register Nixon has been granted a patent on his improvement for Sulky plows. This makes three patents Jake has engineered through successfully, all of them good ones.
Winfield Courier, June 8, 1882.

A Trip to Oxford. On Wednesday afternoon of last week about thirty ladies and gentlemen from the Good Templar’s Lodge of Winfield forsook the din and bustle of Cowley’s capital for a drive over the rolling prairie stretching from here to Oxford to enjoy the exhilarating atmosphere and balmy breezes of the country. The main object in view, however, was a strawberry and ice cream social which the Good Templars of Oxford had prepared, and to which the Winfield folks were specially invited. It was one of the most perfect of May days, cool, fair, and bright, such as only Kansas can supply, and all along the way nature seemed at her loveliest. The roadsides are covered with a great variety of brilliant flowers, a wild fox glove and larkspur being especially noticeable, while the tall stems of the yucca, or soap plant, as it is termed, stood here and there like sentries, covered with large bell-shaped, dull yellow flowers, a couple of inches in diameter. The road was for a large part of the way lined with wheat fields, every one of which seemed to promise a rich harvest to the farmer. The wheat is almost out of danger, only hail or rust being now feared. Harvest will soon commence, and the crop will undoubtedly be the largest ever harvested in the Arkansas Valley. We passed some of the most fertile farms in the county, and from the substantial buildings, large wheat and corn fields, splendid orchards, tasty yards, etc., it can be plainly seen that they are owned by men of industry, experience, and means. The residences of A. J. Werden, W. H. Martin, John Dunn, Silas Hahn, Ike Wood, and J. F. Paul are very attractive, and being near the road, a good view is obtained of their comfortable homes and surroundings.
As we approached the Arkansas bottom, we noticed with interest the beautiful farm of Jacob Nixon, our very efficient Register of Deeds. This is one of the richest farms on the way, and the neat house, situated on a slight raise about fifty yards from the road, surrounded by shrubbery and trees of numerous varieties, gives the place an air of thrift and comfort.
Cowley County Courant, July 6, 1882.
The Old Soldiers met at the courthouse last night and reorga­nized the old Winfield company. They elected John A. McGuire, Captain; Jake Nixon, 1st Lieutenant; and H. L. Barker, 2nd Lieutenant. Here are three of the best old soldiers that could be had. John A. McGuire was a sergeant in Company H, 10th Illinois, infantry, and served with it in all the battles of the Tennessee and Cumberland during the war. Jake Nixon was a member of an Iowa regiment and the scar he carries in his mouth and jaw testify to Jake’s efficiency. Henry L. Barker served in a Kansas regiment as Captain of one of its companies, and was in command of the post of Mound City at one time, and time only will wear out Henry Barker’s loyalty and fidelity. The company is well officered.
Cowley County Courant, July 6, 1882.
Pursuant to the call issued, members of the Winfield company of old soldiers met at the Courthouse last evening, to fill vacancies. On motion, Jacob Nixon was elected chairman and James Kelly secretary. John A. McGuire was elected Captain, vice Bard transferred. Jacob Nixon was elected 1st Lieutenant, vice James Kelly, promoted. Henry L. Barker was elected 2nd Lieutenant, vice A. T. Shenneman, resigned. On motion the captain was requested to call a meeting of the company for Monday evening July 3rd, at the Opera House. The following appointments were made by Captain J. A. McGuire. Marquis Quarles to be Orderly Sergeant. On motion the meeting adjourned to meet at the call of the commanding officer. James Kelly secretary, Jacob Nixon chairman. In accordance with the foregoing the members of the Winfield Company of veteran soldiers will meet at the Opera House Monday evening July 3rd, for the transaction of business, prepa­ratory to the soldiers’ reunion at Topeka in September, and any other business that may come before us. Any honorably discharged soldier of the late war, who has not done so, can meet at that time and sign the roll. It is imperative that we know at once how many will go to Topeka in order that transportation be secured. J. A. McGUIRE, Capt. Commanding.
Winfield Courier, July 6, 1882.
The Horticultural Society. Met in COURIER office, Mr. Martin in the chair, S. E. Burger elected Sec. Pro tem. General discussion as to exhibition of horticultural products at Topeka.

On motion Joseph Taylor, F. A. Williams, S. Maxwell, R. I. Hogue, and J. Nixon were appointed a committee to collect specimens for the purpose of exhibition at State Fair Sept. 10, 11, and 12.
Winfield Courier, August 10, 1882.
Notice to Cowley County Fruit Growers. All fine fruit now ripening, samples of not less than five (5) of each variety can be left at the COURIER office, where they will be taken and preserved for exhibition by Mr. Taylor. All specimens ripening sent should be free from bruises, insect stings, hail blemishes, and as of an even size as can be procured. All fruit that will bear shipment must be delivered at COURIER office Sept. 9th. Keep varieties separate and label them with a slip attached to stem. Leave stem attached in all specimens. Your committee will try and make arrangements for delivery and shipment also from Arkansas City, for the convenience of Creswell and Bolton Township horticulturists. Jacob Nixon, Secretary.
Winfield Courier, August 10, 1882.
Horticultural Society Meeting. Society called to order by President Martin. Minutes of last meeting read and approved. President appointed F. A. Williams, G. W. Robertson, and R. I. Hogue a committee to test and report on fruits placed on exhibition on table. Committee on State Fair collection reported by Secretary; good encouragement and cooperation of our orchardists, so far. State reports from State Horticultural Secretary for 1881 received and distributed to members present. Suggestion from President Martin that bees are necessary to fertilize flowers of tomato by carrying the pollen. General discussion on grape. It was suggested by a member that the Delaware grape should be planted on the north side of buildings to insure returns this far south. Invitation extended to society by T. A. Blanchard, Secretary of Agricultural Society for this Society to take charge of the Horticultural exhibit at County fair this fall. Mr. Hogue moved that “Resolved, That the Cowley County Horticultural Society take charge of and make an exhibition of fruits at our County Fair this fall.” Carried. Moved and carried that President appoint a committee of five to take charge of such exhibition at Fair. President appointed Jos. Taylor, F. A. Williams, S. Maxwell, R. I. Hogue, and J. Nixon such committee. Motion prevailed that the Society meet at COURIER office each Saturday in August at 2 p.m.
Winfield Courier, August 17, 1882.
Special Horticultural Meeting. August 12, 1882. Society called to order in COURIER office. Minutes of regular meeting passed. Notice to Cowley County fruit growers by secretary, read by president. Messrs. Taylor, Gillett, and Hogue were appointed a committee to report on varieties of fruit on table, which was loaded with fine products of horticultural skill from orchards and garden. After an interesting discussion by members, committee and visitors present, among whom we noticed Mr. Myron Hall, of Newton, an old veteran horticulturist, who labeled, named, and arranged Kansas’ exhibition of fruit at the Centennial exhibition. We hope and expect his aid and assistance in preparing an exhibit for Topeka in September. The committee on fruit reported as follows on the present exhibit.
Jacob Nixon, Large Early York peach.
Winfield Courier, August 17, 1882.

Jake Nixon has just completed an addition to his dwelling and repainted the whole of it. His trees and blue grass have made a fine growth this year.

Winfield Courier, September 7, 1882.
Minutes of Horticultural Meeting. Minutes of last meeting read and approved. President called attention to the fact that it would be necessary to appoint a committee to collect specimens for exhibition at Topeka.
J. Nixon, Vernon: 6 Belle Lucrative and 6 Bartlett pears. Sutton Beauty, Wagner, Mo. Pippin, Grimes Golden and Willow Twig apples, George IV and President budded peaches, with two varieties unknown.
Winfield Courier, September 7, 1882.
Jacob Nixon is appointed Colonel and A. D. C. on Gen. Milliard’s staff, at the reunion.
Winfield Courier, September 7, 1882.
Jake Nixon left for Chicago and other eastern points, Monday. He will visit his old home before he returns.
Winfield Courier, September 7, 1882.
Jacob Nixon, Co. I, 19th Iowa Infantry, was included in this list.
Winfield Courier, October 5, 1882.
Register Nixon has been taking observations of the rain fall during the summer and finds that there has been a total fall since April and including September, of 21.61 inches. The heaviest rainfall was in May, 9.70 inches; the lightest in August, 0.12 inches. April gave 2.20 inches, June 2.16, July 4.70, and September 2.75.
Winfield Courier, October 19, 1882.
The Winfield Sportsman’s club met at the Brettun House parlors the evening of the 16th and elected their annual officers: C. C. Black, President; J. N. Harter, Vice President; Jacob Nixon, Secretary; and J. S. Hunt, Treasurer. Eleven new members enrolled. Second annual hunt to take place November 2nd, followed by a supper at the Brettun, at the expense of the losing side.
Winfield Courier, October 26, 1882.
T. H. Soward, H. L. Wells, J. E. Snow, J. A. McGuire, and Jacob Nixon went over to Dexter last Monday evening and organized Post No. 133 G. A. R., with J. D. Maurer, Post Commander; H. C. McDorman, S. V. C.; Megredy, S. V. C.; Wells, Treasurer, and O. P. Darst, Chaplain. Number of members: 19.
Winfield Courier, November 9, 1882.
Sporting News. The Grand Annual hunt of the Winfield Sportsmen’s Club took place last Thursday. The club met at the Brettun House Monday evening and elected J. N. Harter and Fred Whitney captains. Each hunter, with the advice of his captain, selected his route, and most of them went out to the field the evening before. The following is the score.
J. N. Harter, Capt., 2,700; Jas. Vance, 1,400; Frank Clark, 1,140; Frank Manny, 200; Jacob Nixon, 1,780; Ezra Meech, 620; Sol Burkhalter, 610; Dr. Davis, 310; C. Trump, 150; Ed. P. Greer, 160; E. C. Stewart, 120; G. L. Rinker, 360. TOTAL: 9,550.

Fred Whitney, Capt., 110; G. W. Prater, 290; J. S. Hunt, 1,130; C. C. Black, 1,070; Jas. McLain, 1,000; A. S. Davis, 100; H. Saunders, 130; Q. A. Glass, 240; A. D. Speed, 240; Dr. Emerson, 190; J. S. Mann, 100; J. B. Lynn, 000. TOTAL: 4,660.
The gold medal was won by Mr. Harter. The tin medal will be won by J. B. Lynn. On next Wednesday evening the nimrods will banquet at the Brettun, at the expense of the losing side. The score made by Mr. Harter has never been equaled in this county.
Winfield Courier, January 18, 1883.
Treasurer made his annual report. Balance in treasury, $2.15. Receipt accepted. J. F. Martin re-elected President, A. R. Gillette Vice President, Jacob Nixon, Secretary. Dr. Marsh, Mr. S. E. Maxwell, and Mr. Mentch elected trustees, who were instructed to procure charter for Society. Mr. S. G. Phillips and Mr. Kirkpatrick from Creswell Township enrolled as members of Society. Adjourned to first Saturday in February.
Winfield Courier, January 18, 1883.
Cowley County has an inventor of more than ordinary genius. Jacob Nixon, our register of deeds, has invented and received a patent on a traction engine which bids fair to eclipse anything of the kind now in use. He had a miniature pattern made, and since its exhibition, he has received several orders from the largest companies in the United States. Its success is assured. We will give a full description of the engine next week.
Winfield Courier, January 25, 1883. Front Page.
                                                   Nixon’s Traction Engine.
                                              [A sketch of traction engine given.]
Our worthy Register of Deeds, Jacob Nixon, has patented a steam power for farm use which will undoubtedly prove a success. His ingenuity will, we hope, meet with a substantial reward.
The following is a description of the machine in full. It consists of four parallel I steel sills with cross beams at ends, and diagonal braces throughout except at base of boiler, giving stiffness to frame, and supporting at ends the coal tender and water tank, thereby giving equal distribution of weight and balance on tracks. The pairs of parallel sills are twenty-four inches apart from centers, to which are attached on the undersides of sills by adjustable boxes, three axles on each side of boiler and engines. On these axles are firmly keyed driving wheels of 2 and 3 inch faces, with a space of 2½ inches between. On each of front and rear axles are four wheels, the first and fourth, or outer wheels, are 3 inch face with flanges on outside of wheels to prevent track from slipping off in turning. The center axles have three wheels of 3 inch face. The gangs of wheels intermesh or overlap each other; the tires of the center gang work close to the hubs of the front and rear gangs.
Revolving over and making the track of the engine on the ground are two tracks of rubber or other suitable elastic material composed of an outer and an inner layer, between which are transverse metallic plates, secured through layers and plates by rivets or bolts, to retain track in shape transversely.
The gangs of wheels are driven forward or backward, or one track forward and the other backward in turning, by spur gears secured to inside of wheels; front and rear gangs are connected by idle gears on center axles.

The center axles are driven in the same direction by spur gears on axles of the same diameter as those on front and rear axles.
Positive driving motion is given by a long pinion to all six axles from reversing yacht engines, one on each side of upright boiler for each track.
The width of each rubber track is eighteen inches; thickness, four and one half inches; height of wheels, four and one-half feet; length of track in contact with the earth, sixty inches; hence 60 x 18 x 2 = 2,160 inches of earth contact or traction, over which is distributed the weight of engine and that part of track not in contact with the earth.
This engine’s tracks have no loss of power by suction or adherence to the ground if the ground is wet; therefore, no loss of power by carrrying its tracks forward. The tracks cannot be broken by passing over an obstruction, as the rubber will give to wheels until the wheels rotate over, and then instantly return to place. There will be no sticking on an obstructtion for each gang of wheels are drivers, and will propel, if only one is in contact.
The adherence of the tracks to the periphery of the one-half of the front and rear gangs and the bottom and top of the center gang of wheels insures no slipping of wheels on the tracks, when worked to its fullest power on steep inclines.
The rubber tracks supporting the engine will act as cushions to take all jar from the whole machine on uneven, stony ground or street crossings in towns. This should save a machine and wear one-third longer before repairs are needed.
The result of dynamometer tests on the latest improved sulky plows in our light open loam here is about 500 pounds for a farmer of 16 inches wide and 8 inches in depth.
They are hauled by three horses of 1,000 pounds weight on an average. If these horses have a traction of 8 inches to each hoof, then 8 x 9 = 48 [?48 is the figure shown?] inches of contact, (but a horse of that weight has this weight distributed over 24 inches instead of 8 as any single observation will demonstrate), the resistance of furrow is 16 x 8 = 128 square inches of resistance; which is 3 29-32 [3 29-32 is way paper printed it] pounds per inch of resistance of furrow. If the above weight of 500 pounds draft of 16 x 8 furrow is correct, then a furrow 48 inches wide and 8 inches deep would offer a resistance of 384 square inches of resistance or 1,500 pounds, or 3 87-146 pounds per square inch of furrow resistance.
The earth contact of the 9 horses on the plows would be 18 x 8 = 144 inches, or take it in this way, 18 x 18 = 324: this from the 384 square inches of resistance leaves 60 inches of traction to be supplied by the muscular power of the teams.
In a trial of a brass model made for him by the Chicago Model Works, on a carpet floor (equivalent to earth contact), the length of which was 9 inches, width 7 inches, diameter of wheels 3_ inches, width of tracks including flanges on wheels 1¼ inches, the length of each track in contact with the carpet on floor was 4½ inches, hence 4½ x 2 = 9 inches of contact on both tracks—9 x 1¼ = 11¼ inches of traction surface in model, weight of model which is frame, wheels, axles, gears, and track only, 8 pounds; 6 revolutions of crank pinion to one of track wheels.
At trials model dragged on carpet with string 10 pounds weight of a stove grate casting. With 4 pounds weight added to model (for equivalent of boiler), it dragged 15 pounds casting. With 8 pounds added, it dragged 20 pounds. Spring balance scale tests gave the same results.

If we take the above result with the model as to its power and estimate by the rule that a model is one-tenth of full size, it will, when the full size of machine is made, be 10 times larger and become 100 times stronger, and weigh 1,000 times more, and move 10 times faster, would foot up as follows: taking safe premises, the 12 pound weight of model would be 12 x 1000 = 12,000 pounds or 6 tons weight of machine—15 pounds dead weight dragged 15 x 100 = 1,500 will be hauled, equal to the estimate given before of turning a furrow 48 inches wide and 8 inches deep in our loose soil here—or if we accept the generally accepted theory of draft that 125 pounds of force will on a perfectly level road on sand or gravel, move on wagon one ton; it will haul 11½ tons of weight, wagon’s weight included.
Winfield Courier, February 1, 1883.
                                        WINFIELD DON’T WANT SALOONS.
On looking over carefully the list of signatures on the petition to Hackney, we find a considerable number of names of persons who live in the country, and many more whom nobody knows. We find only 101 names, less than half of those on the petition, who are known as citizens of Winfield. Less than half of these probably understood what they were signing, and are in favor of saloons. It is presumable that the originators got all the names of prominent Winfield men they could by any kind of representations; and, considering all these things, the petition is not so very formidable after all. But it is enough to give our city a bad name, and give a severe stab to the cause of prohibition. The Kansas City Journal’s Topeka correspondence says that the names of all the prominent men and business firms of Winfield are found on that petition, except one bank and one hardware store. We notice that the following Winfield firms and names are conspicuously absent from the petition.
                   Jacob Nixon was noted as one of those who did not sign petition.
Winfield Courier, March 29, 1883.
Register Nixon is receiving piles of letters and propositions regarding his new traction engine from persons who want to buy machines or become interested in the patents.
Arkansas City Traveler, April 18, 1883.
We call attention to the card of Mr. J. Nixon which appears in this issue. This gentleman has filled the responsible office of Register of Deeds for the past four years in this county, and has discharged its onerous duties with profit to his constituents and credit to himself, as well as making hosts of friends.
A Card. Winfield, Kansas, April 6th, 1883. At the solicitation of many friends, I will at the proper time announce my name to come before the County Republican Convention for nomination for re-election to the office of Register of Deeds, Official duties will prevent a personal canvas. JACOB NIXON.
Winfield Courier, May 3, 1883.
Decoration Day—G. A. R. In obedience to General orders No. 10 from Department Head Quarters of Kansas Grand Army of the Republic, Winfield Post No. 85 will observe Decoration Day, Wednesday, May 30, 1883, commencing at 10 o’clock sharp. An earnest and cordial invitation is extended to the officers and members of Arkansas City, Dexter, and Burden Posts as well as all old soldiers of the County to be present and assist us in decorating the graves of our deceased comrades.
By order of the Post. T. H. SOWARD, J. S. HUNT, JACOB NIXON, W. P. HACKNEY,  and WM. WHITE, Committee on Invitation.

Winfield Courier, May 10, 1883.
Register Nixon received a letter from Lewis, Count of Cigala, in Austria, last week relative to his traction engine. The count wants to get one to use on his estate.
Winfield Courier, May 10, 1883.
Register Nixon’s traction engine is attracting much attention, not only in this country but in the old world. He is receiving many letters regarding it, and one large manufacturing firm took the trouble to send a man out here to try and buy the patents. Mr. Nixon refused to sell at any price and is bending his energies toward improving his machine. He has applied for one valuable improvement already. We may expect before many months to see the Nixon traction engine traveling about the roads as frequently as horses. Such a result would probably occasion a strike among the heavy draft stock.
Winfield Courier, May 17, 1883.
William White, Jacob Nixon, S. P. Strong, T. H. Soward, N. W. Dressie are some of the aspiring Registers of Deeds who have called on us in the last few days. All are good men.
Winfield Courier, May 24, 1883.
The rain fall according to Jacob Nixon’s gauge of Saturday night, the 12th, was 1½ inches, and on the following Wednesday night and Thursday morning, the 16th and 17th, was 3¾ inches.
Winfield Courier, May 31, 1883.
Register Nixon brought us several bunches of clover from his yard Monday. There was a bunch of alfalfa two feet high, a bunch of red clover nearly as tall, and a fine mat of white clover. Another sample was called “Alsike” clover, and had tendrils running out like the shoots from a grape vine. These specimens are as fine as can be grown in any country.
Winfield Courier, June 7, 1883.
Old Settlers’ Reunion. At Riverside Park, Thursday, May 31, 1883. The Old Settlers’ Association of Vernon Township was called to order by the President, J. W. Millspaugh. Minutes of the last meeting read by the Secretary, H. H. Martin, and approved. On motion of J. H. Werden, the Association of Old Settlers of Vernon Township was dissolved, and an association of the Old Settlers of Cowley County organized. Election of officers for the ensuing year are as follows. E. S. Torrance, president; J. W. Millspaugh, vice-president; Jacob Nixon, secretary and treasurer.
Winfield Courier, June 7, 1883.
Cowley County Horticultural Society Meeting, June 2nd, 1883. Minutes of last meeting, March 3rd, read and accepted. Majority of committee on conference with Co. Agricultural Society reported adverse to the Society purchasing interest of Fair grounds, but would advise the individual members to cooperate in said Society. Reported offer of room from Mr. Johnson. Report accepted, and committee continued to report at next meeting. Vote of thanks unanimously given COURIER Co. for the use of their editorial rooms during the past year. Report of committee on charter reported. Report adopted. Members present signed articles of incorporation to procure charter. Application for charter signed by J. F. Martin, J. Nixon, R. D. Thirsk, G. M. Robertson, F. A. A. Williams, James Cairns, Jno. Mentch, F. H. Brown; prepared by Elder Cairns. Vote of thanks given him by Society.
Arkansas City Traveler, August 8, 1883.

The announcement of Mr. Jacob Nixon as a candidate for reelection to the office of Register of Deeds of Cowley County appears in this issue. The gentleman’s past record is a sufficient guarantee of what the people may expect in the future should he be reelected to office and he is too well known to need recommendation at our hands.
Arkansas City Traveler, August 8, 1883.
JACOB NIXON hereby announces himself a candidate for reelection to the office of Register of Deeds of Cowley County, subject to the action of the Republican Nominating Convention.
Winfield Courier, August 9, 1883.
Jacob Nixon. As will be noticed, Capt. Jacob Nixon is announced as a candidate for re-nomination for the office of Register of Deeds of this county. He has held the office for the last three years and more by his strict attention to business and gentlemanly bearing has made himself one of the most popular officers our county ever had. He is an active thinker and by his efficiency as a secretary and his inventions has been exceedingly valuable to our county and people. He will come before the convention with a very strong support from active friends and with his merits and efficiency conceded by all. Wellington Press.
Arkansas City Traveler, August 29, 1883.
Old Settlers, Attention! Secretary’s Office, Old Settlers’ Association. The first annual meeting of all the old settlers of Cowley County will take place in Winfield on the first Tuesday, the 4th day of September, 1883. All old settlers of Cowley County are most cordially invited. E. S. TORRANCE, President. JACOB NIXON, Secretary.
Winfield Courier, August 30, 1883.
Special Meeting Cowley County Horticultural Society, Aug. 18, 1883. Society called to order by President; minutes of special meeting read and approved. Society requested Mr. N. G. Davis to publish his essay on “Onion Culture and Varieties.” President appointed as a Committee to collect and exhibit fruit at the County Fair (not to compete for premium as a society) by consent of Society, Jacob Nixon, S. H. Jennings, Dr. Marsh. S. E. Maxwell, A. J. Burrell, N. J. Larkin, R. L. Hogue, A. R. Gillett.

Report on Tree Growth was read by Secretary Nixon as follows. “I made the following measurements on the 15th inst. on tree growth on my farm 3 miles east of Oxford; elevation 1165 feet (elevation of Winfield 1105 feet), mulatto soil—excellent drainage—all on hill. Varieties—black Walnut, from seed planted the spring of 1872, 4 x 4 feet, 20 rods long, no cultivation; circumference 8 to 14 inches, 16 feet high; have born nuts for three years. Two cottonwoods in this row are 45 feet high and 40 inches in circumference. I have a cottonwood grove, 12 rows 40 rods long, 4 x 4 feet, from cuttings April 6th, 1877; circumference 18 to 28 inches, 35 to 40 feet high. I am thinning to 8 x 8 feet. My catalpa grove of 2400 trees planted spring of 1881, are 4 x 8 feet—only lost ten out of the lot—circumference 4 to 6 inches, 8 to 12 feet apart, planted in 1876—20 rods long—circumference 12 to 18 inches, 18 to 20 feet high, badly injured by a round-headed borer, purple color. Box Elder—planted in 1877, circumference 18 inches, height 20 feet. Soft Maple—planted seed spring of 1871 in subsoiled sod; ruined by borers in 1874; what few that are left are 20 to 25 inches in circumference and 25 feet high. Ben Davis apples—circumference 18 inches, 18 to 20 feet high. Sweet June—circumference 24 inches, 18 to 20 feet high. Winesap—circumference 24 inches, 18 to 20 feet high. Bartlett Pear—circumference 18 inches, 18 to 20 feet high. “Foster Peach—planted 1882, circumference, 6 inches, 10 feet high.”
Winfield Courier, September 6, 1883.
Republican Convention. The Cowley County Republican Convention met at the Opera House in Winfield on Saturday, September 1st, 1883, at 11 o’clock a.m. For Register of Deeds, Dr. Wagner presented the name of H. C. McDorman; Mr. Gale presented S. P. Strong; J. M. Barrick presented Wm. White; W. E. Tansey presented Jacob Nixon; D. M. Patton presented N. W. Dressie; A. J. Crum presented S. S. Moore; Dr. Carlisle presented T. H. Soward; and J. S. Strother presented J. S. Rash. Twelve ballots were taken...Total vote 99. Necessary to a choice, 50. Soward having 50 votes on the 12th ballot, was declared nominated, and his nomination was made unanimous. Closest one in votes next to Soward: McDorman.
Winfield Courier, September 6, 1883.
For Register of Deeds: T. H. Soward.
Winfield Courier, September 6, 1883.
The office of Register of Deeds is considered the best paying office in the county and it was not strange that so many candidates sought the nomination. There was no objection to Jacob Nixon, the present incumbent. He is one of the most popular officers we ever had and is recognized as one of our most valuable citizens. His wide intelligence, his inventive genius, and his fine talents devoted to the interests of our county made it hard for any delegate to vote against him. But it was the general view that his four years of incumbency had been a reasonable recognition and it would be better to pass the office along to help some other worthy citizen.
T. H. Soward, the nominee for Register of Deeds, is the plumed knight among the orators of this county. He always knows what to say and how and when to say it. The ticket could not spare him in the canvass. His nomination will strengthen the ticket and is a just recognition of his services, ability, and fidelity.
H. H. Siverd acted a noble part in the convention. It became understood that it was not probable that both Soward and himself could receive nomination at the hands of the convention, being both of Winfield. Siverd therefore urged that the matter of Register of Deeds should be first settled and Soward nominated if possible whatever effect it might have on his own chances for Sheriff. The result in favor of Soward as anticipated made it impossible to nominate Siverd and at an opportune moment, Siverd withdrew from the canvass for sheriff. He would surely have been nominated but for his generous self-sacrifice in behalf of others.
Winfield Courier, September 13, 1883.

The following superintendents of their respective departments will please meet with the secretary at his office as early as possible on the first day of the Fair, Sept. 25th. The duties of the superintendents will be to have charge, under the general superintendent, of the departments to which they are assigned, and to select judges to award the different premiums. Those who find it impossible to serve will notify the secretary as early as possible that others may be appointed in their stead. Fruit, Jacob Nixon.
Winfield Courier, September 27, 1883.
The first annual exhibition of the Cowley County Fair and Driving Park Association opened Tuesday morning last with extensive preparations and a clear sky. Early in the morning the streets began to look active, and by ten o’clock large numbers of persons were  accepting of the many facilities for transportation to the beautiful Fair Grounds, and the thoroughfare has been continually thronged since. Those who have no conveyances of their own find ample accommodation in the numerous omnibuses, express wagons, and common vehicles manned by lusty “rustlers,” fare twenty-five cents; and then there are “Walker’s Line” and “Shank’s Mare,” fare nothing; but we notice few who embrace the latter mode of transportation—these flush times make it unnecessary. Every large exhibition lasting through several days has its time of preparation, and on Tuesday and part of Wednesday, Cowley’s Fair was passing through this period. The superintendents and exhibitors were busy arranging the displays, and were not in shape to give details, but we gained enough information to make a synopsis of the great “show” in this issue, leaving the bulk of details for next week, when everything will be over and full report can be given.
As you pass on and step into the Agricultural Hall, you are struck with wonderment at the magnificence of the display. Enormous squashes, corpulent pumpkins, and obese melons, and, arranged in various ways, about one hundred and twenty different varieties of vegetables greet the eye. Stowed in one corner are the fifty bushels of corn entered for P. H. Albright’s special premium, some of the ears as large as sticks of stove wood, and there is a glorious company of potatoes and onions. Prominent in this hall are the collections of grains and grasses exhibited by Jas. F. Martin and          , both of Vernon Township, in competition for the special premium of M. L. Read’s Bank, the former containing forty-two different varieties and both being very nicely arranged. Down at the farther end of this hall is a “layout” of every variety of apple and peach that ever grew on a tree, and such fruit as it is! One is instantly imbued, on seeing this array, with the reality of Cowley’s fruit productiveness. It is splendid evidence that this county is destined to rank with any county in the State for fruit. In one corner of this building is the Farm and Household display, embracing the bread, butter, cakes, jellies, etc., under the superintendency of Mrs. J. F. Martin. Jacob Nixon and J. W. Millspaugh seem to be the “hosts” in this hall, and after being shown around among the agricultural wonders, you leave with an exalted opinion of Cowley’s mammoth productiveness.
The fruit department under Jacob Nixon was the wonder of all beholders. Such mammoth apples, peaches, and pears reminded one of old New England.
Winfield Courier, October 11, 1883.
Register Nixon will make a visit to Vermont and other places east this month. It will be both a business and a pleasure trip.
Winfield Courier, October 11, 1883.

We present this week an excellent report of the fruit exhibit at the County Fair. It is made up by Jacob Nixon, the superintendent of the fruit department, and will give a better idea of our fruit production than anything yet brought out. Mr. Nixon is an enthusiastic horticulturist, and believes that possibilities of this county in the fruit line are very bright. The exhibit at the fair certainly bears him out in it.
Winfield Courier, October 11, 1883.
Report on Fruit. The following is a report on fruit exhibited at the County Fair at Winfield, Sept. 25 to 28, 1883, in Class “H.”
In sub-class 1, “Best peck of winter apples,” there were seven entries, as follows.
Entry No. 27 was a half bushel of extra Missouri pippin, by Silas Kennedy, of East Bolton Township, which was awarded the first premium.
Entry No. 19 was a peck of very good Missouri pippin by G. W. Yount, of Walnut Township, which took second premium. G. W. Robertson, of Pleasant Valley, showed in this class half a bushel of extra Ben Davis.
Entry No. 10, in this class, by G. T. Stone, of Vernon Township, was one peck each of Ben Davis, very good; Missouri pippin, good; Janette, very good; Winesap, good.
Entry No. 22, by J. C. Roberts of Walnut Township, was one peck of very good Janette; one peck very good Ben Davis; one peck good Missouri Pippin.
Entry No. 10, by G. T. Stone, of Vernon, was half a bushel of Good Ben Davis.
Entry No. 29, by A. Dawson, of Rock Township, was one peck of good Missouri pippin.
In sub-class 2 there were 7 entries.
Entry No. 16, by N. C. Clark, of Vernon Township, had 19 plates of apples, to whom the committee gave the first premium as the best display of winter apples. Mr. Clark’s display consisted of one plate of Rambo, good; one plate Maiden’s Blush, extra good; one plate of Ortley, very good; one plate of Rock or Shannon Pippin, very good; one plate Willow Twig, good; plate Jonathan, good; three plates Dominic, good; two plates Winesap, extra good; two plates Fallawater, very good; four plates Ben Davis, good; one plate Janette, good; one plate Missouri Pippin, good.
The second premium was awarded to entry No. 14, by G. W. Robertson, of Pleasant Valley Township, who had one plate Jonathan, very good; one plate Grimes G Pippin, very good; one plate McAfee’s Nonsuch, very good; one plate Rambo, good, two plates Willow Twig, good; one plate Ben Davis, good, one plate Missouri Pippin.
Entry No. 23, by J. C. Roberts, was one plate Northern Spy, extra good; three plates Ben Davis, good; two plates Winesap, good; two plates Janette, good.
Entry No. 14, by S. C. Sumpter, of Beaver Township, was one plate each of very good Jonathan, Dominic, and Ortley.
Entry No. 1 by Wm. Carter, of Vernon Township, was two plates of Dominic, very good; and six plates of very good Missouri Pippin.
Entry No. 28 was Entry 27 in Class 1.
In Sub-class 3, display of Fall Apples, there were three exhibitors.
S. S. Linn, of Vernon Township, was awarded first premium for one plate Winesap, good; one plate Jonathan, very good; two plates Willow Twig, extra good; one sample each of White W. Pearmain and McAfee’s Nonsuch.
Entry No. 30, by A. Dawson. of Rock Township, took second premium for half a bushel of Wine, or Pennsylvania Red Streak of the West, which were extra good.

Entry No. 25, by C. Lear, of ____ Township, consisted of two plates Ben Davis, very good; one plate Winesap, and one plate Talman Sweet, good.
Sub-class 4: no entries.
Sub-class 5: two entries. Entry 9, by John Jones, of Rock Township, of freestone peaches, was awarded blue ribbon; 1 plate good.
Entry No. 15, by S. C. Sumpter, of Fairview Township, took second premium.
Sub-class 6, Clingstone Peach, was nobly represented in Entry No. 26, by Silas Kennedy, of East Bolton Township, of nineteen plates of budded Heath Cling, extra choice.
Entry No. 25, by C. Lear, of Fairview Township, took second premium.
Entry No. 8, by John Jones, two plates of good seedlings.
Sub-class 20, display of apples.
One entry, No. 3, by S. C. Cunningham of Ninnescah Township, was three plates of wine, extra good, two plates King of Thompkins County, extra good, 2 plates Missouri Pippin, 1 plate Willow Twig, and one plate of a seedling raised by him resembling in shape and color the Belmont, with a fine sub-acid flavor, an apple of fine appearance, and may prove after thorough trial a valuable acquisition for our climate.
Sub-class 21. Entry No. 5, by W. C. Hayden, consisting of 31 plates, was awarded 1st premium.
Entry 18 by Henry Hawkins of Vernon Township, was awarded 2nd premium; he showed 17 plates or 15 varieties, all of his own raising, viz:
1 plate Northern Spy, good.
2 plates Wagener, very good.
2 plates Dominic, good.
1 plate W. W. Pearmain, very good.
1 plate Michael H. Pippen, very good.
1 plate Graines G. Pippin, extra good.
1 plate Fallawater, good.
1 plate Missouri Pippin, good.
1 plate Ben Davis, good.
1 plate Jonathan, extra good.
1 plate Striped Sweet Pippin, extra good.
1 plate Smiths Cider, very good.
1 plate Winesap, good.
1 plate Janette, good.
1 plate Rambo, good.
J. C. Roberts and N. C. Clark had entries in this class described in sub-class No. 2.

Miscellaneous Exhibits. J. R. Richards, of Rock Township, showed 1 plate of Ben Davis, and 1 plate of an unknown variety. Mr. Yoeman, of Vernon, showed 1 plate of Smiths Cider and two plates of Ben Davis. Mr. A. Conrad, of Tisdale, placed on the table 1 plate of Yellow Bellflowers, extra good; 1 plate of Cayuga Red Streak, extra good; 1 plate Maiden Blush, good; 1 plate Ben Davis, very good. J. D. Hammond of Beaver showed Fallawater and Missouri Pippin. A. Ray, of Winfield, 1 plate Maiden blush, extra good; 1 plate Missouri Pippin, 1 plate Russian, 1 plate unknown, extra good. Jno. Mentch, of Walnut, 1 plate, extra good Ben Davis, 1 plate Janette, good. Entry 2, volunteer by superintendent, 1 plate Janette, 1 plate Ben Davis, 1 plate Dominic, 1 plate Wagener, 1 plate Missouri Pippin, 1 plate Rambo, 1 plate Willow Twig, 1 plate Limber Twig.
Special Premium, Fruit Chromo, Lot 9. Entry No. 128, S. C. Cunningham, of Ninnescah Township, was awarded chromo for ten of the largest apples. His exhibit was 3 plates Wine, extra good, 2 plates King, extra good. This exhibit was the best entry on the tables of any class. Entry No. 46 by John Jones was 3 plates of Pryors Red, extra good. Entry No. 17 by T. B. Ware, of Vernon Township, was 2 plates Ortley, extra good; 1one-plate Maiden blush, extra good; 1 apple of Ben Davis. Entry No. 112 by Rudolph Wellman of Vernon Township, was 1 plate of Dominic, very good; 1 plate Ortley, very good.
The general excellence of the varieties shown, and the freedom from insect was noted by every visitor during the fair. One collection was sent at the close of the fair to the president of the A. T. & S. F. R. R., at Boston. Two collections were sent to Illinois and one to Ohio.
A rearrangement of the fruit tables and a premium for best peach or five of each variety in displays of summer, fall and winter—there should be 5 of each variety shown to entitle it to compete or exhibit on table, and again, all premiums should be only to growers of fruit exhibited. JACOB NIXON, Superintendent, Class H. Fruit.
Winfield Courier, November 1, 1883.
Jacob Nixon has got the best farm team in the county. It is a span of mares, one Clydesdale, four years old, weighs 1720 pounds; the other, a Norman, three years old, weighs 1740 pounds. We count on some deep plowing and heavy crops on the Nixon farm hereafter.
Winfield Courier, November 22, 1883.
ROLL OF HONOR. We publish below the roll of old soldiers in this county drawing pensions from the government for injuries sustained on account of service, with monthly rate of allowance. It shows that there are one hundred and forty-six soldiers in the county drawing pensions, and that the government pays to them monthly the aggregate sum of $1,509.66-3/4. This is a record that no county but ours can show. It is certainly one that “Cares for him who has born the brunt of battle and for his widows and orphans.”
Nixon, Jacob, Winfield, wd lt side of head, $4.00, September 1882.
Winfield Courier, December 6, 1883.

Regular Meeting Cowley County Horticultural Society, Dec. 1, 1883. Meeting called to order by President. On motion Society voted to pay one-half of expense of delegate to State Horticultural Society at Ottawa, Dec. 5th to 7th. Members requested to leave samples of fruit at COURIER office for exhibition. Notice given to increase membership fee to one dollar at January meeting. A full attendance requested at this meeting. Mr. Maxwell exhibited 2 new apples. Adjourned. JACOB NIXON, Secretary. JAS. F. MARTIN, President.
Winfield Courier, January 10, 1884.
Register Nixon’s record of temperature shows on Friday last 2 degrees below zero, and Saturday morning at half past seven, fourteen and a half degrees below. The coldest days last year were the 19th and 20th of January, ten degrees below.
Winfield Courier, January 10, 1884.
Regular Meeting of Cowley County Horticultural Society, Jan. 5, 1884. Society called to order by the President. Minutes of Dec. meeting read and approved. Treas. reported 77 members on roll, with 11 paying members, as per notice. Motion made by G. W. Robertson to make annual dues $1 per year in our constitution—carried by two-thirds vote of members present. Mr. Geo. Ordway of the city enrolled as a member. Interesting remarks by Pres. Martin and Elder Cairns on Horticultural work and reports. Circular No. 6 report to State Secretary referred by Society to R. I. Hogue and Nixon, Secretary. On motion the following officers were elected for 1884: J. F. Martin, President; Dr. Marsh, Vice President; Jacob Nixon, Secretary; G. W. Robertson, Treasurer. On motion R. I. Hogue elected Vice President of this society as member of the State Board for 1884. On motion Elder Jas. Cairns was elected an honorary member of this Society. Elder Cairns returned his thanks to the Society for the honor conferred and pledged his continued cooperation and assistance in horticultural work in our beautiful country. General discussion on the Red Cedar, and the suggestion to make arrangements to secure cooperation in securing Red Cedar seedlings. On motion Treasurer instructed to pay $6.25 as one-half of delegate’s expenses at Ottawa Dec. 6 and 7. On motion adjourned to meet first Saturday in February.
                              JACOB NIXON, Secretary. J. F. MARTIN, President.
Winfield Courier, January 17, 1884.
Register Nixon stepped “down and out” of the position he has so efficiently occupied for years, last Monday. He will remove to his Vernon Township farm in the spring.
Winfield Courier, January 17, 1884.
On Monday afternoon the stockholders of the Cowley County Fair and Driving Park Association met in the Opera House for the purpose of re-organizing the Board of Directors for the year 1884, and receiving reports of the condition and doings of the Association for the year. About seventy-five stockholders, representing nearly all of the subscribed stock, were present. Jacob Nixon owned two shares of stock.
Winfield Courier, February 21, 1884.

We advise every person in Cowley County who intends to start an orchard now or in the future to preserve the article by Mr. Jas. F. Martin, on the first page of this paper. Mr. Martin is president of the Cowley County Horticultural Society, also of the County Fair Association, and his conclusions are drawn from practical experience in Cowley County, not by himself alone, but by the fifty or more members of the County Horticultural Society. These two societies, under the enthusiastic leadership of Mr. Martin, supplemented by the hearty cooperation of such men as Messrs. Nixon, Hogue, Hawkins, Robertson, Millspaugh, Linn, Maxwell, and a host of others are doing a work for the advancement of the agricultural interests of our county valuable beyond measure.
Winfield Courier, March 20, 1884.
Ex-Register Nixon, now living on his farm in Vernon, lost one of his six hundred dollar span of Clydesdale mares last week. He brought them from Iowa some time ago and the loss breaks one of the best draft teams in the county.
Winfield Courier, May 15, 1884.
                        Class I. Fruit and Nursery Stock. Superintendent: Jacob Nixon.
                                                        (Grown by Exhibitor.)
                                                   Lot 1—Fall Apples. [BEST]
[Listed by peck: Maiden Blush, Rambo, Cooper’s Early White, Late Strawberry, Lowell.]
                                                       Lot 2—Winter Apples.
[Listed by peck: Winesap, Ben Davis, Jonathan, Rawle’s Janet, Missouri pippins, Dominie, Wagener, Willow Twig, Smith’s Cider, Grimes’ Golden Pippin, any other variety, Best Cowley County seedling Apple.]
                               Lot 3—Peaches (not less than five specimens to plate).
[Listed as best display: Heath Cling, Ward’s Late, Large Early York, Steadley, Crawford’s Late, Cowley County seedling.]
                                 Lot 4—Pears (not less than five specimens to plate).
[Listed as best plate: Bartlett, Seckel, Flemish Beauty, Duchess d’Angouleme, Louise B. de Jersey, Vicar of Wakefield, and other variety.
                                                            Lot 5—Grapes.
[Listed as best plate: Concord, Delaware, Dracut Amber, I’ve’s Seedling, Catawba, any other variety.]
[Listed as best display: fruit, five of each variety to plate, from any one orchard in Cowley County (to be entered as one exhibit only); second best.]
[Best display: general nursery stock, Kansas growth; forest trees, nursery stock, Kansas growth; evergreens, nursery stock, Kansas growth; shrubs and ornamental.]
Winfield Courier, June 19, 1884.
Special Meeting of Horticultural Society. Society called to order on June 14th, 1884, by the President. Curculio’s at work on the plums, reported by Mr. Rocher. President Martin said that a smudge from coal tar would drive them over the way to your neighbors. Mr. Thirsk has tarred his trees and killed them. General discussion on the cherry. Mount-Muncie cherry recommended by several members at state meeting last winter. Mrs. Thomas exhibited silk worms on screen, which were the center of attraction on the COURIER table. Subject for next meeting: Culture and care of small fruits. Sample of fine Dutch Currants from Mr. S. C. Sumpter. Adjourned to meet first Saturday in July.
                                   J. F. MARTIN, President. J. NIXON, Secretary.
Winfield Courier, August 7, 1884.

Monthly Meeting of the Horticultural Society. The Cowley County Horticultural society met in regular monthly session August 2nd. President J. F. Martin appointed Messrs. Short and Mentch committee on fruit on exhibition. Capt. Ashby, from Chanute, committee from State Society to collect fruits for New Orleans Exposition, stated that the committee had received samples of all fruits that had matured to date. He stated that he would visit our county fair, and would furnish jars and material to any person who had any extra specimens to furnish to the state society for the exposition. By Jacob Nixon. Hales Early and Early Rivers Peaches and Cooper’s Early White apples.
Winfield Courier, August 21, 1884.
Our Horticultural Society. The display of fruit at the meeting of the Cowley County Horticultural Society held in the COURIER editorial room last Saturday was magnificent beyond our powers of description. Apples were brought that were all but perfect in every way, grapes of every variety, peaches as fine as ever produced in any state, and garden vegetables the equal of any. The discussion on the various topics of planting, pruning, grafting, and training, with the result of different methods before them was most interesting and valuable to those who were so fortunate as to be present. The growth of the society has been gratifying to the COURIER, not alone for the good it is accomplishing, but as a compliment to President Jas. F. Martin, Messrs. Nixon, Mentch, Short, Cairns, Robertson, Hogue, Maxwell, and the few other faithful and enthusiastic members of the Society who have stood by it in all the struggles and trials of its infancy. They have persisted in the work until today it is fast becoming a power for the dissemination of practical knowledge that will result in much good in Cowley in a most material way. To all persons interested in fruit growing we say come out and attend these meetings and our word for it will be abundantly repaid.
Winfield Courier, August 21, 1884.
Special Meeting Horticultural Society. August 16th, 1884. Society called to order by President. Minutes of last meeting read and accepted. President appointed Messrs. Gillett and Secretary committee on fruit exhibition. Communication from State Secretary read and passed. J. P. Short, Esq., appointed committee on part of Society to preserve specimens of fruit for state committee. All members and all others requested to leave specimens at meeting of Society on first Saturday in September. Fruit notes taken from display on table of Society Aug. 16th, 1884.
Winfield Courier, August 28, 1884.
The Fair Association have ordered baskets and plates for the use of our horticultural exhibitors at the fair. Will fruit men make a note of this and let the secretary know what number will be wanted. Jacob Nixon, Secretary, County Horticultural Society.
Winfield Courier, August 28, 1884.
To exhibitors of fruit for fair. “Leave all stems attached to apples, wrap each apple and peach in newspaper to prevent bruising.” Our state society is expecting Cowley County to furnish the perfect fruit from the state for the New Orleans exhibition.
                         Jacob Nixon, Secretary, Cowley County Horticultural Society.
Winfield Courier, September 11, 1884.
Monthly Meeting of the Horticultural Society. September 6, 1884.
President appointed committee on fruits and horticultural products on the table: Messrs. G. W. Robertson, A. DeTurk, and Richardson, committee. Report of committee as follows:

J. R. Richardson has apples of the following varieties: Fall Pippin, Priors Red, Pen Red Streak, two varieties unknown; all very large and fine. Mr. Jennings: Fall Pippin and Pen Red Streak, fine. G. W. Robertson: Rambo, Grimes Golden, Willow Twig, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, Finks Seedling, Maiden Blush, English Russet, Domine, Ben Davis, and Medium. Mr. DeTurk: Apple unknown, Peon, Duchess De Angolene, Clapps Favorite. Grapes: Norton’s Virginia. Peach: Gross Mignonna, Ward’s Late, Foster, Late Delaware, unknown; all fine. C. J. Brane: Jonathan Gravenstein, Ben Davis; all very large. J. Nixon: Apples, Pa Red Streak or Wine, Autumn Strawberry, two varieties unknown. Wilson Shaw: St. Lawrence apple; very large. Dr. Van Doren: the grape “Prentiss.”
Winfield Courier, October 2, 1884.
Best platter Bartlett pears, Andrews Dawson, 1st; Jacob Nixon, 2nd.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 8, 1885.
Minutes of the Regular Meeting of the Cowley County Horticultural Society held at the
“Courier” Office on Saturday, January 24, 1885. Meeting called to order by the President. Treasurer’s report for 1884 was heard and adopted. On motion vouchers were ordered drawn for one half of the expenses of the society’s delegates to the State Horticultural Society for 1884.
Secretary Nixon read a report on fruit failures.
“A record of my failures in orchard culture may be of interest to beginners. It has been a large factor, at least in my experience in fruit culture in Cowley County. I have now some 14 acres in orchards and shelter belts. I will try and keep this ground fully occupied by trees and plants by replanting where they die out, and substituting good for worthless varieties. The fact that the first settlers planted their first orchards with little or no reliable information as to varieties and culture adapted to our climate, has been a serious drawback and the thousands of dead and worthless trees has been dearly bought experience to our orchardists in this county. The free exchange of experience in fruit growing is most commendable, all thereby sharing in its benefits, or its warnings. Considerations of this character alone induce me to give this society a brief history of my failures in fruit culture in Cowley County. As you are probably aware, there are four distinct and separate soils in Cowley County. First, our upland, limestone land; second, the valley of the Walnut and its tributaries, a black loam with clay subsoil; third, the Arkansas bottom proper; a sandy loam resting on a gravel base, permeated with water from the river (to be considered in the near future the best fruit land in Kansas); fourth, the foot hill of the Arkansas valley on the east side, which has a mulatto soil—containing a large amount of sand ground to fine powder by the action of the elements in ages past, also a large amount of iron pyrites in strata. This soil retains moisture and affords excellent drainage. On this mulatto soil my orchard is located, which seems peculiarly adapted to the peach and pear, judging from results so far attained. With these four and distinct soils in our county, it is of especial interest to our fruit growers to know what varieties to plant that will be successful on their soil, and not be governed in their selection of varieties from a soil in no way adapted to their wants. These fruit districts are as sharply defined as the hills and valleys which are their cause.

“Taking my claim October 1st, 1870, my first apple trees, 250, and 24 Standard pear (Bartlett, Seckel, and Belt Lucrative) were started the fall of 1872. In November 1873 I planted 200 more apple trees. The drought and grasshoppers of 1874 killed nearly all of these and the borers girdled some 50 of my first planting, killing the tops. These I grafted at the crown the spring of 1875 with Domine, Strawberry, and Vandevere Pippin with fair success. I have replanted from time to time as means would permit. Following previous training I headed my first apple trees high, planting them 22 x 30 feet apart, giving our hot suns a fine show to scald the trunks, and the borers a lodgement which they improved. This high heading also gave our Kansas winds a splendid leverage on the young roots, and necessarily all pointed their limbs toward the north star. I also noticed that these old trees persisted in growing their fruit as far in that direction as possible. Seedling peaches were planted between these apple trees in the spring of 1879, making the trees stand 15 x 20 feet apart, which has induced a good upright growth the last two years. These peaches will soon be removed for firewood from want of proper care and failure with me. In March, 1874, I planted one dozen each of Mountain, Smith’s Imp., Houghton and Porter gooseberries, and White Dutch, Fertile d’Pallua, Versailles and White Grape currants, none left. Also Red Antwerp Miami and a native raspberry. These with the exception of the Red Antwerp ( which were eaten by gophers) have done well.
“My first planting of blackberries was the Kittatinny from A. S. Fuller, of Ridgewood, New Jersey, whose stock was from the original plant, which has done well. I will fruit the Lawton and Snyder next summer if not winter killed. The Wilson, Triumph d’ Gand and Hovey strawberries have been a failure with me. The Sterling and Great American promise to give some returns—I have not tested the Crescent as yet. In forest trees and evergreens I am growing a few Red Cedar and a single Juniper. Soft Maple were greatly injured by the borers in 1874. Of later years they seem to be generally free from their work. Black Ash transplanted from the bottoms have been a nesting place for the borer and are a nuisance, scattering the seed over my apple orchard, requiring the removal every spring of thousands of young plants. The Cottonwood makes a magnificent growth, free from insects and making good windbreaks, and is useful for many purposes on a farm. The common Catalpa (Bignoids) is making a large growth easily broken by the wind and full of seed the past season. This variety is comparatively worthless. I prefer the Cottonwood to it. The Specidsa is no doubt valuable, but the Russian Mulberry or Osage is known to be adapted to our climate and will make fully as valuable timber.
“I have Walnut, Coffee tree, Elm, common Mulberry, Burr Oak, Sycamore growing slow, very slow. They are free so far, excepting the Walnut, from insect depredations. In conclusion, I will describe an attachment to my Diamond Plow for orchard culture that is a great convenience and satisfaction in using—no patent. I attach a gauge wheel in front of end main beam by two bolts, cutting off clamping ends of frame near axle. I then put on extra 2 x 4 beam, putting in a long bolt instead of the short bolt through the beam and handle, bolting both beams together at the rear, put on 16 inch clevis bolted to clevis hole in main beam; for plowing from trees, bolt at right angles to right side of small beam, with false or second beam through it bolted fast. To this false beam attach the clevis and single tree and the horse can walk in the furrow and you can cut a full furrow—plowing up to the very trunks of small trees and plants. For plowing to the trees, the false beam is placed on the left side of main beam. I will give it a trial on the cultivator another season.”

Fruit lists to be given by several members for discussion at next meeting.
Mr. Hogue was appointed chairman of said committee. President requested Mr. Hogue to prepare a paper for the next meeting, on wind breaks for orchards. Also Mr. Ordway and Mr. Adams papers on subjects of their own selection. Mr. Ordway asked, Can we obviate the slanting of trees in this climate and protect the trunks and get heads lower?
Mr. Hogue and Mr. Ordway appointed committee to prepare articles for next meeting.
Secretary appointed a committee to make report on publication of report.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 22, 1885.
Mrs. Jacob Nixon was one of the winners at the Bee Hive Prize Drawing.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

We wish to call the attention of our citizens to the Cowley County Horticultural Society, which is exerting a quiet but potent influence for good and which has for the President and Secretary two of the most well known and public spirited citizens of the county: J. F. Martin and Jacob Nixon. A few enthusiastic farmers and horticulturists organized the Cowley County Horticulture Society, and they, with the assistance of some new members, have steadily worked away under many discouragements, circulating valuable information as to the different varieties of fruit and modes of culture adapted to this climate; warning the people against being hum-bugged by irresponsible “tree peddlers”; and in many ways contributing to the success of fruit growing; until now Cowley County stands in the front ranks for fruit raising and the products of her orchards and vineyards were sought for to add to the beauty and variety of the state exhibit at the New Orleans Exposition. While much has been accomplished, yet fruit growing here is comparatively in its infancy, as is shown by the fact that many thousands of dollars worth of apples and other canned and dried fruits are annually shipped into this county. There are new dangers which our fruit growers must face; such as the codling moth and other insects, which have done destructive work in older eastern counties, and are already appearing in our own. These can only be successfully fought by organized and united efforts, and the owner of a town lot with a dozen fruit trees is, or should be, interested in this organization as well as the growers of fruit for market. The Horticultural Society desires to extend its work to meet the increased importance of the fruit interests of the county. It has the opportunity to obtain valuable collections of insects made by our own citizens, for which it should furnish proper cases, and employ an expert to classify. It also desires to make the beginning of a horticultural library which may be added to from time to time, and to which its members may have free access. These and other important things for the public good, it desires to do; but to do them will require funds, and in raising these it asks the cooperation of the citizens of the county, not by donations but by simply joining the society and paying the very moderate annual membership fee of one dollar. If a hundred new members could be obtained—and this would be but a small proportion of those who should join—the fund so raised would enable the society to do much of the work it desires to do, and be of incalculable benefit to the fruit interests of the county. We do not believe that there is a landholder, from the one who has a lot with a few fruit trees to the large fruit grower with twenty or more acres in orchard but will receive much more than a dollar’s worth of benefit from a year’s membership in this society besides having the satisfaction of contributing his share towards a work of such great importance to the present and future population of the county. The society at its last meeting appointed one of its members, Mr. F. A. A. Williams, to make a special effort to increase the interest in, and membership of the society, and those desiring to join the association or obtain information about it can do so by conferring with or addressing him, at Winfield.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.
Cowley County Horticultural Society. The secretary, Jacob Nixon, reported that he had made no arrangements as yet regarding the publication of compiled reports.
We hope to be able to follow this by other articles showing, 1st, The profits of timber culture; 2nd, The varieties for timber culture; and 3rd, Methods of propagation.
Mr. Pierson would plant peach for a quick growing wind break. Mr. Gale stated that the box elder made a thick, dense shade. Mr. Householder fixed the appearance of the Russian mulberry, Secretary Nixon said the Russian mulberry does well with him. President: The cedar is good. Secretary Nixon reported Hales early Almaden and Foster peach buds badly winter killed.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 12, 1885.
The Cowley County Horticultural Society held its regular monthly meeting last Saturday at the COURIER office, President Jas. F. Martin in the chair. The Secretary, Jacob Nixon, read minutes of last meeting, which were adopted. Members present expressed the conviction that the peach buds were uninjured and that prospects indicated another big crop this year.
R. I. Hogue, chairman of the committee previously appointed to prepare a fruit list suitable for Cowley horticulturalists, submitted a list which was discussed and adopted.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, April 30, 1885.

The Peach Borer. A late number of the Prairie Farmer contained an article on this pest of our peach growers from the pen of Prof. A. J. Cook, which will not be amiss now. He says: “The little white caterpillars, with 16 legs, that eat the bark and sapwood, often girdling peach trees just beneath the earth, and causing gum to ooze out, are peach bores. A beautiful blue wasp-like moth lays eggs at the base of the trees in July and August. These soon hatch, and the little larvae begin to feed on the bark and sapwood. When winter shuts in, they will be from a quarter to nearly three-eights of an inch long. Next June they will pupate in their own chips, and the moth come again in July and August. The sure way to destroy these harmful bores is to dig them out in September, and again in April and May. In September, because if left, later they will do much damage. But some are at this time so small that they will escape notice, and hence the necessity of a further search in April. Ashes do not prevent egg-laying; the carbolic acid and soap mixture will. This should be rubbed on the base of the tree in July. I have but little doubt the kerosene and soap mixture placed underground, close to the tree, would kill the larvae, though I have not tried it.” A persistent fight the last year with the borer has convinced me that they must be hunted for early and late. A young tree may not show any sign of gum oozing from the collar of the tree, yet be badly injured, the gum escaping into the loose soil. The soil should be removed from the collar down to the main roots and the bark scraped with a knife, removing and burning all gum and eggs or larvae. Wood and coal ashes have not proved more than a partial protection. When the ashes were piled up in a hill around the tree, the swaying of the tree caused the ashes to work down around the roots, which have in a measure prevented damage. It will be time well spent for fruit growers to look to their old seedling trees, which in early days were planted on nearly every farm and town lot, and consign them root and branch to the wood pile, and replace them with varieties that will pay for their care and culture in luscious fruit. JACOB NIXON.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 2, 1885.
Web Worms. For the information of our young entomological correspondent, “Typo,” from Hackney, I will state that in a letter from C. V. Riley, Entomologist of the Department of Agriculture at Washington, in acknowledgment of a box of the web worms sent to him June 19th, he says: “They are the larva of the small moth Eurycreon rantalis—it is very destructive this season over a wide extent of country in Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and the Indian Territory.” Where they can be used with safety, he recommends Paris Green and London Purple mixed with water and sprayed as for potato Beetle.
The last week in my corn fields, I used a cracker box lid hinged to front cross piece of each cultivator. This strikes every hill in a vertical position, jarring the worms to the ground, when the dirt is thrown over them, running the shovels as deep as the teams are able. In the pastures they have a decided preference for the clovers, eating all kinds down into the crowns. Timothy, orchard grass, oat grass, and blue stem are exempt from their ravages. All vegetables, except tomatoes, are greatly damaged and destroyed in this neighborhood. The replanted corn and late corn, has, in a measure, been destroyed. Some fields of millet have been eaten as bare as a floor. In some fields the moths are yet busy depositing the eggs for a second drop of larva. I have seen the leaves of some young apple trees injured. No other varieties damaged as yet. JACOB NIXON.
Kellogg, Kansas, June 29, 1885.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 30, 1885.
The Cowley County Horticultural Society held its regular monthly meeting last Saturday, in the real estate office of Curns & Manser, President J. F. Martin in the chair, and Secretary Jacob Nixon at his desk, with a good attendance of members.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 30, 1885.
Mr. Jacob Nixon, of Vernon, informs us that the second brood of the web worm—Enrycreon Lantatis—have made their appearance. Their second visit will probably result in no damage to our farmers, rather a benefit, as they are foraging so far on pig weed that has grown up in the fields since the disappearance of the first brood.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, August 27, 1885.
The Horticultural Society will hold its regular meeting in Curns & Manser’s building on Saturday, Sept. 5th, at 2 p.m. This will be an important meeting as it will be the last previous to the Fair. A large exhibition of fruit is expected at the Fair, and the Society will give all the aid and information possible to this end. Jacob Nixon, of Kellogg, is secretary of the society, and also superintendent of the fruit department of the Fair, who will gladly favor all asking information.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, September 3, 1885.

The Horticultural Society will hold its regular meeting in Curns & Manser’s building on Saturday, Sept. 5th, at 2 p.m. This will be an important meeting as it will be the last previous to the Fair. A large exhibition of fruit is expected at the Fair, and the Society will give all the aid and information possible to this end. Jacob Nixon, of Kellogg, is secretary of the society, and also superintendent of the fruit department of the Fair, who will gladly favor all asking information.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, September 24, 1885.
The Third Annual Exhibition of the Cowley County Fair & Driving Park Association opened this morning. In the agricultural and horticultural departments things begin to loom immensely. Obese pumpkins, huge melons, and various mammoth exhibitions of Cowley’s prolific prolificness are lying all around. The display of grains, vegetables, and grasses by W. C. Hayden and Jas. F. Martin are grand—will down anything any county in the west can show up. Among leading horticultural exhibitors so far are S. C. Sumpter, of Walnut; S. C. Cunningham, Ninnescah; Henry Hawkins, Vernon; S. P. Strong, Rock; J. B. Callison, Spring Creek; W. C. Hayden, Walnut; Jake Nixon, Vernon. The several displays are grand, exhibiting forcibly the fruit proclivities of Cowley.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, October 1, 1885.
Official List of Premiums Awarded at the Cowley County Fair, September 21st to 25th, 1885. The list given below shows money premiums only. Checks for same will be ready after October 1st, and must be claimed by November 1st, 1885, or forfeit to the association. (See rule 12.) Diplomas for exhibits having no competition may be had by calling at the Secretary’s office.
Class H.—FRUIT. Lot 1. Apples.
Plate Maiden’s blush. H. Hawkins 1st, J. Nixon 2nd.
Plate McAfee’s Nonesuch. F. Williams 1st, J. Nixon 2nd.
Plate white winter Pearmain. S. C. Sumpter 1st, J. Nixon 2nd.
Plate Ben Davis. Mentch & Son 1st, J. Nixon 2nd.
Plate Wagener. H. Hawkins 1st, J. Nixon 2nd.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, October 15, 1885.
Among the guests at the Nixon-Millington wedding last Thursday evening were Mrs. Henry E. Asp, of Winfield; and Mrs. Jas. M. Dever, of Topeka. Among the presents were: Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Nixon, groom’s brother, illustrated Shakespeare.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, November 12, 1885.
Cowley County Horticultural Society. Society called to order by President Martin. Minutes of last meeting passed to next meeting. Notice from State Secretary of meeting of the State Society at Manhattan Dec. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. Revision of the voted fruit list for State Society taken up and made the business of the Society for the day’s session. On motion J. F. Martin and Jacob Nixon were elected delegates to the State meeting. Mr. Morgan Martin exhibited three fine seedling pears from his orchard; also Smith Cider and Missouri Pippin apples. Mr. T. A. Blanchard showed fine Smith Cider, Winesap, Rawles Genet, and unknown variety. Adjourned to Dec. 5th. J. F. Martin, President; Jacob Nixon, Secretary.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, December 10, 1885.

Mr. and Mrs. James F. Martin and Jacob Nixon returned Saturday from the annual meeting of the State Horticultural Society, at Manhattan. The meeting was large and of great interest and profit. The location was a good one, giving an opportunity to see the workings of the State Agricultural College. Mr. Martin delivered a very fine address on Forestry, which THE COURIER will shortly publish. Mr. Nixon exhibited some very fine specimens of Cowley fruits and vegetables.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 11, 1886.
The Cowley County Horticultural Society held its first meeting for this year, with President Jas. F. Martin presiding and Secretary Jacob Nixon at the recorder’s desk, and a good membership present. Communication was read from State Secretary Brackett by President Martin—that serious apprehension was entertained in regard to the condition of fruit trees the past winter. President Martin expected little fruit from budded, but expected some from seedling trees. Dr. Perry said that snow was heaped up around the old peach trees.
On motion of Mr. Thirsk, the Society voted to pay half of the delegates’ expenses to the State meeting, viz: $8.50 each: order drawn on treasurer for said amounts. Dr. Perry, in behalf of Winfield National Bank, tendered to the Society the free use of the room in the new addition for their use at any time. Thanks of the Society were voted for their offer.
The election of officers for 1886 resulted as follows: President, J. F. Martin; Vice-President, Dr. C. Perry; Secretary, Jacob Nixon; Treasurer, G. W. Robertson; Trustees, Messrs. Millspaugh, Thirsk, and F. A. A. Williams.
Motion made and carried that Mr. Maxwell and G. W. Robertson be appointed committee to arrange for monthly meeting at Arkansas City in April.
Jacob Nixon, one of the delegates to the meeting of the State Horticultural Society, submitted the following report.
“Mr. President and Gentlemen of Cowley County Horticultural Society: As one of the delegates to the annual meeting of State Society at Manhattan, Kansas, December 1st, 2nd, and 3rd, 1886, I submit the following report of the proceedings, with comments and notes.
“Leaving Winfield Monday evening I arrived at Manhattan at 3:20 p.m., Tuesday. The sessions of the Society were held in the Congregational Church; M. B. Newman, vice-president, presiding. President Gale was absent in Florida for his health. There was a full attendance from the northern and central part of the state and a light one from the south and southwest. I shall not enumerate the essays and discussions held before my arrival Tuesday.
“The first I heard was Prof. Failyers, ‘Fertilizers for Orchards.’ He stated: ‘Out of 13 elements 3 are absolutely necessary to plant growth, viz: Nitrogen, Potassium or Carbon, Calcium Phosphate.’ He considered good barnyard manure the best for orchard culture, as it contains all the elements necessary to tree and fruit growths. (There is, as you are well aware, a prejudice against manures among our farmers, they preferring to move the stable and save the trees from the forced growth in our virgin souls.) He recommended an occasional top dressing of lime and wood ashes, especially in sandy soil.
“‘Peach Culture in Southern Kansas,’ by L. A. Simmons, of Wellington, was a full exposition of the common practices of many in close planting and neglect on cultivation, and the results are unsatisfactory returns from the trees in a very short time.

“The evening session was held in the chapel of the State Agricultural College. First was the annual address of President Newman replete with instruction and prompting to more earnest work in the Horticultural art in the future, as a guide to the new tree planters in our young state. The President’s address was followed by the address of welcome by President Fairchild, of the State Agricultural College, with response by President Newman. The next was ‘Some notes on Taste in Lawn Planning,’ by Prof. Popenoe, which was timely and full of useful information not only to the members of the society but to the young students of the college. He gave a list of the successful evergreen and deciduous trees on the College grounds, which we will obtain in the report for 1885. At the close of Prof. Popenoe’s paper, a social meeting was held in the large rooms and hall, in renewing old and forming new acquaintances among members, College professors, and students.
“December 2nd the session opened by Secretary Brackett on ‘Fruits of the Arkansas Valley,’ from his notes of travel the past summer. He paid our fruits a high compliment and showed two Missouri Pippin apples grown at Garden City, medium or below in size as grown by us, but extra in color and texture. At Sterling he found a German who has raised some 50 seedling pears that were making an extraordinary growth. He closed his report by a not overdrawn (to us) encomium on the fruits of the Valley and predicted it to be the fruit belt of the state. Mr. H. E. VanDenan read Secretary Brackett’s report on the Russian Apricot and those present when he was here will recall his conclusions and advice on that occasion. I might, for the benefit of new members and those not present, state that he said it was ‘pay no fancy prices but secure seed and test for yourselves.’ In a conversation with J. J. Measer, delegate from Hutchinson, he stated that he would not recommend extensive planting of the Russian apricot until choice varieties are produced by selection, and then propagate from these by grafting. He can send any of our members one year old plants, two feet high, by mail for 11 cents each: two year old plants, 15 cents each, are not mailable. He stated that seed sold this season for $11.00 per bushel. ‘Profits of fruit-growing’ by A. J. Holman, Leavenworth County. He considered a good salesman the main requisite to successful fruit growing. The business may be slightly overdone in some localities for the present. ‘Cut out all dead wood and sticks until better times’ would be his advice to all.
“‘New Fruits’ by Abner Allen, of Wabaunsee, considered grapes as showing the most improvement. He was sorry that unprincipled dealers substituted old for new varieties, entailing loss and debarring further efforts to secure better fruit for the house or market. He would favor state and national experimental stations.
“New Apples. Wythe, Blue Mt., Piles’ Winter Small, Picket’s large and handsome, quality good; Cedar Falls, season, August, not equal to Red Astrachan; Stump and Early Colton, not fully tested.
“Grapes. Brighton good; Early Victor ripe Aug. 10th, good; Pocklington, two weeks later than Concord. Lady Washington, rots and mildews badly.
“A member from Missouri Valley Horticultural Society stated that the Clayton dropped badly. Allen would not recommend it as yet, not fully tested.
“Report on ‘Small Fruits,’ by J. W. Williams, of Ottawa, Franklin County, reported 5,000 qts. of Crescent strawberries from one acre; other varieties, nothing. One-third acre of Sharpless, product one qt.; Crystal City, none; Ironclad, none; Cumberland Triumph, little; Wilson small berry, not profitable. Mt. Vernon, Glendale, Miners Prolific, fair yield; Crescent best; Col. Cheney second for early, and Miners Prolific for late.

“Raspberries. Souhegan had done the best. Would recommend Smith’s Iron Clad for sandy soil, and Reliance for low bottom lands.
“B. F. Smith, of Lawrence, from Committee on Small Fruits, reported on strawberries viz: Chas. Downing, best berry; Capt. Jack, good shipper; Windsor Chief, few; Mt. Vernon, latest; cannot ship Cumberland Triumph; Jersey Queen, better; Ridwell, good, but not productive; Fink not productive; Jas Vicks good in 1884, but not good this year; Manchester rusts badly and of poor quality; Glennale productive and fine, good shippers. Sucker State and Lakin promise well.
“Raspberries Souhegan uninjured by winter of 1884-1885. Smith’s Iron Clad one-half crop this year.
“Maj. Holsinger, Rosedale: Smith’s Iron Clad and the Taylor have stood the winter of 1884-1885 uninjured on the Missouri bluffs. Would plant the Kittatinny on the north slope. Considered the Turner and Gregg extra good. Houghton gooseberry the best and only one wanted for market.
“J. M. Shepherd, Abilene: Davidson’s Thornless made large wood growth and little fruit; grew the Kittatinny with no injury from winters.
“Strawberries. “Berry Culture in Southern Kansas,’ by D. C. Bowen, of Cherryvale, was read by Mr. Willis. Would plant strawberries in rows 4½ ft. apart and 15 inches in row; mulch in winter and leave on through the summer. Willis, of Ottawa, in marking out strawberry beds, uses two lines and two men; walks on lines and moves over both lines at once. Diehl, of Olathe, opened furrow and spread roots on small mounds in furrow, then filled up with hoe. A. J. Holman used four-running marker and set with spade. Holsinger used the marker and opened light furrow with small plow. L. A. Simmons, of Wellington: Crescent fertilized with Wilson’s Albany is the best. J. B. Mitchell, in Ohio State meeting, planted Crescent between Wilson and Jocunda; more prolific, solider, larger than fertilized with Downing, as Downing is not the same shape as Crescent. (See page 97-8 of State Report of Ohio.) Downing has not fruited well with them. Cumberland Triumph did as well as the Crescent the second year. Kentucky for late, good; Davidson’s Thornless, the best; early McCormick, good—cuts canes down to 18 inches; plants corn to shade. Mr. Fisk had 20 acres in small fruits, keeps 100 stands of bees to fertilize his strawberries in early spring before insects become common to carry the pollen from flower to flower. They fertilize the Crescent from Downing at 10 rods. The bees will injure over-ripe fruit that has been punctured by wasps, etc.
“Berries and Apples. Afternoon session. Simmons, of Wellington, re-elected master for the Southern district. Secretary Brackett’s annual report read and referred to committee.
“‘Space Among Trees,’ by Col. John Davis, of Junction City. Would plant forest trees 4 x 4 ft. and early bearing apple trees 15 to 16 ft. apart each way; considered the first ten years after they commence bearing the most profitable in the west. Close planting insured early fruiting, protection from the winds, ease of gathering; as soon as crowded to cut out three-fourths of the trees, leaving one-fourth as a permanent orchard. He would plant few varieties and those together in rows or blocks. This suggestion will quadruple the profit on a given area of orchard, and arrest the attention of market orchardists. His motto is ‘plant thick and thin quick.’

“E. P. Diehl, of Olathe, read an essay on ‘Horticulture in Connection with Farming.’ Net proceeds $250 per acre in berries on good locations. Distant markets did not make returns to justify the grower to properly enrich his ground and employ the help necessary to make it a paying business; home markets are the best.
“F. Wellhouse, Fairmont, from Committee on Apple: natural animal enemies of the orchard. Report was ordered to be embodied in the manual.
“‘Horticultural Peculiarities of 1885,’” by Maj. Holsinger. Nothing new to report from his own grounds; a Mr. Campbell, of Johnson County, has a forty acre apple orchard, always keeps plenty of hogs in his orchard to take up the fallen wormy fruit; has the finest fruit in that section while his neighbors have heavy losses from Codling moth.
“General discussion followed a query on cherry stocks. Members seemed about equally divided in their preferences between Morello and Mahaleb stocks.
“‘Some of the Needed Means to Promote Horticulture in Our State,’ by J. B. Schlitpher, of Sterling, was an earnest and able plea for school text books on Horticulture, Entomology, Botany, and Ornithology, making these a part of the required course of study in our common schools, enabling the child to distinguish between insect friend and foe. Evening session free.
“‘Frauds and Tricks in Trade,’” by S. Reynolds, of Lawrence, who gave a long list of Russian apple victims for 1885. Cowley County headed the list to the song of $120,000. Mr. Reynolds has the faculty of calling things by their right names in good, old-fashioned English that is refreshing to lookers on, but decidedly uncomfortable to tricksters.
“Address by Baker, of Topeka, on ‘The State Horticultural Society,’ was very good.
“Following was an able lecture on ‘The Limitation of Horticultural Experiment,’ by President Fairchild of the State College—absolute accuracy is unknown and unattainable in fruit experiments in dealing with nature and nature’s laws in plant and tree growth.
“Prof. Kelleman gave a lecture on Mildent, Black Knot on plum, illustrated by large charts. His history of these parasitic fungi commanded the closest attention from the large audience—a lecture that every fruit grower appreciated.
“Visiting College and Grounds. Thursday, December 3rd. By invitation of the college professors, the forenoon was spent in visiting the college and grounds under the guidance of Profs. Shelton and Popenoe and Farm Superintendent; the workshops, orchards, barns, stocks, greenhouse, and fish ponds were inspected. After services in chapel, the students spent an hour in manual labor. The class at the grafting tables showed commendable dexterity and received many hints of value from the nursery: members of State Society. The evergreens and deciduous trees and shrubs on the grounds showed good care and growth. I noticed that orchard grass, clovers, and timothy had formed a heavy sward in front of main building, where the soil was very thin and full of stone. Trial plats of thick and thin seeding of winter wheat looked fine: the fly gave no sign of its work. Prof. Shelton reported a yield of 63 bushels to the acre of the Yellow Dentcorn this year, and King Phillip, an early variety, some 45 bushels per acre. These two varieties were the only kinds raised on the farm. Steps should be taken at once to test a large number of varieties. I think these grounds should be made the experimental station of the State to test and disseminate new desirable varieties of grain and trees and shrubs. Will not our college professors and state legislators make a move in this direction at an early day?

“More Reports Given. Afternoon session. Report of committee on geology read by L. A. Simmons, a continuation of the papers in former State Horticultural reports. Following this was ‘Vine Culture in 1885,’ by J. Weidman, of Pleasant Valley. He reported Brighton good, Pekin good, Pearl poor, Dracut Amber made extra growth, Early Victor early and good. Would recommend as best for general planting Concord, Elvira, Martha, Champion, Early Victor, and Dracut Amber, Abner Allen, Wabaunsee. Considered Moore’s Early about an average with other early varieties, quality not extra.
“‘Insects of the Apple,’ by E. N. Godfrey, of Greenwood County. For canker worm would use one pound of London Purple in 50 gallons of water sprayed on trees with force pump, or kerosene emulsion of two parts kerosene to one part sour milk in 15 parts water applied as above. Would recommend Doyle’s method of tying a band of cotton around the trunk of tree the first warm day in spring. Would not use lights in orchard for codling moth, as many friends were killed as foes.
“R. R. Turner, of Cedar township, reported to me the appearance of the canker worm in his section last spring. We must prepare to fight them to secure a crop of apples.
“‘Utility of Windbreaks,’ by Maj. Z. S. Ragan, of Missouri, was read. He urged the planting of evergreen groves and belts for protection of stock. Cattle and sheep do better among them than in barns and sheds, which need no repairs. Evergreens shed their needles and unlike deciduous trees, do not blow away with the first gust of wind, but lie on the ground and retain the moisture. He urged planting along the highways, and cooperation among farmers and suburban residents in employment of landscape gardeners to beautify their grounds and homes.
“‘Why are there not more trees in Central Kansas?’ by Hon. Martin Allen, of Hays City. ‘The cranks of one age are the heroes of the next age,’ might be applied to the tree planters in Kansas, his reasons or causes for the treeless plains were first, prairie fires; second, beavers; third, buffalo. In a heavy timbered country as the Ohio and Allegheny country in an early day, late spring frosts killed the fruit until the country was partially cleared. Has not the removing and stripping of the soil of this heavy timber been a blessing to the treeless plains in directing the rainfall to the west, records sustained by conclusion.
“‘Russian Mulberry,’ by I. Hosmer of Emporia, who gave a description and showed a two year old tree some 12 feet in height, this specimen suggests selection as in the Russian Apricot, as with the cottonwood plenty of water is necessary for a rapid growth at the expense of durability.
“‘Obstacles to more general tree planting,’ by our President, J. F. Martin, was an exhaustive and able treaty on forest tree planting, and as we have the promise of its early publication in THE COURIER, I will not give a report of it.
“Evening Session. ‘Floriculture,’ by Mrs. E. E. Fuller, of Ottawa, read by Mrs. Kedie of State college, was good. This was followed by ‘Kansas Horticulture,’ by Geo. Y. Johnson, of Lawrence. This was an excellent history of the State Horticultural Society in his happy and entertaining manner, of great interest to the young members as well as older ones.
“An address on forestry was given by Prof. Jas. H. Canfield, of State University, in his inimitable view of humor and forcible illustration of facts that were irresistible.
“Closing address by President Newman.

“Notes. I exhibited at state meeting a seedling apple from the orchard of H. C. Hawkins, which gives promise of being very productive and a long keeper; also from the orchard of M. L. Martin, one of our members, a plate of that much debated apple, the Kansas Keeper, which was pronounced the true apple of that name, by Allen, Brackett, Wellhouse, and others present. This apple seems to be especially adapted for the divide between the Walnut and Arkansas, productive and excellent. Mr. Martin’s seedling pears attracted unusual attention and favorable comment, and upon my assurance that it was a real seedling and not a known variety, was recommended most favorable for trial. Mr. Martin is fortunate in securing this seedling to our winter list of pears, for the chances are one in ten thousand that the product is worthy of even trial. Van Morse, with his 80,000 seedlings, only produced two cases worthy of propagation in that Eden of pear culture: Belgium. JACOB NIXON.”
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 25, 1886.
The Codlin Moth. The presence of this dreaded enemy of the apple in many of the orchards in our county, and the advent also of the Canker worm in the Southwestern part of the county last year admonishes us that effective remedies must be applied for their removal if we wish to raise good apples in the years to come.
An article on the Codlin Moth by the late Hon. Jno. A Dixon of Oskaloosa, Iowa, in the Iowa Horticultural Report for 1884 is so good that I will give it entire. The arsenical solution that he recommends is one pound of arsenic in 200- gals. of water sprayed on the trees by a force pump. He writes: “There is no insect better known to the apple-growers than the codlin moth or apple worm. Wherever apples grow, the insect is to be found. It survives all the vicissitudes of weather and climate. Many remedies have been suggested by entomologists, but when fully tested, have been found of little practical value. The paper, cloth, and tar bandages have been highly recommended, and thoroughly tested, but failed to accomplish their purpose, and have gone out of use. Prof. Riley, after recommending these remedies for years, finally says the bandage, no matter how carefully applied, leaves enough of the insects to fully continue the species. Riley’s evidence, as well as the experience of fruit-growers, proves that what all these book remedies amount to, is simply to trap a part of the worms after they have wasted the apples, and leaving enough with their increase to destroy the next apple crop.

I have often wondered why some method was not discovered to destroy apple pests before they have ruined the apple crop, instead of trapping a few of them after they have done their mischief, and have taken some pains to determine, if possible, what chances there are, if any, to destroy the worm before it goes into the apple. Riley says the moths soon pair, and the female flits from blossom to blossom, deftly depositing in the calyx of each a tiny yellow egg. Harris says the eggs begin to hatch in a few days after they are laid, and the little apple worms produced from them immediately furrow into the apple, making the way gradually from the eye toward the core. It does not require a great amount of observation to prove that the eggs cannot be deposited in the calyx while the apples are in blossom. It is not sufficient that the corolla has dropped from the apple, but the pistil and the eighteen or twenty stamens that grow compactly around it, and fully occupy the little cup for several days longer, must also have vacated their place before the egg can be deposited in the calyx. When the apple worm is hatched, it is about three sixteenths of an inch in length, is as slender as a delicate hair. It makes the opening in the shell to one side of the part that it rests on and is glued to the apple, so that the shell is not removed from the apple; and from this opening, it protrudes its head far enough to reach the apple at the nearest point, and after taking a meal, it draws its head back into the shell and rests there until hunger compels it to repeat the operation. After the worm becomes too large to get entirely back into the shell, it rests with its head in the excavation, or on the surface of the apple, and the use of the shell is not abandoned until the hole in the apple is deep enough to take in the full length of the worm.
In this insect economy, this diminutive egg shell seems to be of as much use in sheltering this fragile little larvae after it is hatched at it was previously.
The round headed apple tree borer in like manner also uses the egg shell for a shelter until it is fully embodied in the bark of the tree. The growth of the apple worm is very slow, except in length, until after it gets full length into the apple, which requires from ten to twelve days. At this stage of growth, the worm is nearly three-eighths of an inch in length, and has about doubled its hair like thickness. But the main growth of the worm is during the last ten days of its larval existence, and the principal mischief or excavation they do in the apple is during this time. When they have the apple, they go as directly in hunt of a place to spin their cocoon, as a hungry plow-boy does for his dinner, at the sound of the bell. The only chance to stop it is in its few hours’ journey to the place of spinning its cocoon.
As we have heretofore stated in our efforts to destroy the canker worm with the arsenic solution, we discovered that it was also a complete remedy for several others of the worst orchard insects. After two or three days’ work, we observed in looking over the sprinkled parts of the orchard, that we had not left a single canker worm, or tent caterpillar (the latter were all dead in their tents), and after sprinkling a part of the orchard infested with buculatrix (a leaf tineid), we noticed they too had utterly perished. The latter are not a very common insect, but if left alone, kill every fruit they attack. When it comes to apple picking in the fall, we were most agreeably surprised in not being able to find a single wormy apple in the orchard. As a part of the young orchard borders close up to an old pioneer orchard by the house, which was badly infested with the apple worm, and a considerable number of trees in this part of the young orchard were the year previous about as badly infested with them as the old orchard, we could not account for their absence on any other grounds than the arsenic poisoning.
Since 1876 we have sprinkled our young orchard two different seasons, and with results fully confirming our first conclusions as to the value of the arsenic solution on the above named insects. Besides the chances the apple worm has of being poisoned to death in the first meal it takes in cutting a hole through the apple skin, every night when the dew moistens the leaves and apples, the poison is redistributed, and there is a possibility that each morning, when it goes for its breakfast, it may find its little excavation a cup of poisoned dew.
This constant spreading and redistributing of the arsenic solution on the leaves and fruit, evidently has much to do with its efficacy as an insect remedy. The young apple, and especially the leaflets that surround the calyx, are heavily coated with tick down or apple furze, which is capable of retaining a large amount of the solution.

This remedy if carefully applied when the average apple is the size of a pea or a little larger, will make a clear sweep of them, and as the other three insects above named are hatched about the same time, they will all perish together, and the orchard will not be bothered with them for three or four years, or until it is stocked up again from neighborhood orchards.
“Prof. J. L. Budd says in Rural New Yorker that arsenic is soluble and does not clog the sprinkler like Paris Green.” No ill effects have been reported from its use. Cases have been reported of its use on cabbage, etc., in gardens, and it is considered safe in the proportion given by all who have used it. JACOB NIXON, Kellogg, Kansas.
                                       HACKNEY HAPPENINGS. “MARK.”
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 4, 1886.
Jacob Nixon’s horticultural article in last week’s COURIER was interesting and instructive, and worthy of perusal by every farmer. Jake is a close observer and good authority on horticultural matters.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 11, 1886.
Cowley County Horticultural Society. Minutes of February meeting read, corrected, and adopted; in delegates report read trustee for master; Van Mons for Van Morse, apple manual for natural; 2 score (or 40) for 2 cases; treatise for treaty, etc.
Secretary Nixon: “Considered that in our climate, when a tree is established that nine-tenths of the loss is from want of proper training in shaping the head to prevent limbs from splitting off by keeping a central stem in every tree with limbs equidistant at the start, our orchards will not decay.”



Cowley County Historical Society Museum