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George L. Gale

                                                           Rock Township.
                                     [Served as Cowley County Commissioner.]
             [Handled Sheep and later Cattle with Son-in-law, E. J. “Gene” Wilber.]
Rock Township 1882: George L. Gale, 65; spouse, Mary J., 55.
[Note: From an article printed in 1885 it became apparent that George L. Gale handled hogs, cattle, and sheep. He also planted trees.]
                                               FROM THE NEWSPAPERS.
Winfield Courier, April 6, 1876.
Mr. G. L. GALE, a large property owner in Rock Township, called in upon the COURIER force this week. He leaves in a few days for his home in Lockwood, Michigan. Of course, he ordered the leading paper of the valley sent to his northern home.
Winfield Courier, September 27, 1877.
The following named gentlemen were nominated by the delegates from their respective districts as candidates for County Commissioners:
1st District: Geo. L. Gale.
2nd District: W. M. Sleeth.
3rd District: R. F. Burden.
Winfield Courier, October 11, 1877.
Of the County Commissioners we scarcely need speak. Messrs. Burden and Sleeth will be elected without opposition, and Mr. Gale, of this district, should and will poll the entire strength of the party. He is well known and esteemed as a citizen of Rock Township.
Winfield Courier, November 1, 1877.
ROCK, Oct. 27, 1877. HON. L. J. WEBB: Dear Sir: I notice in this week’s Telegram that it is claimed that my interests are not entirely in Cowley County, but rather in Butler. I will simply say to the voters of the first district, that I never owned a foot of land or property of any kind in Butler County. All the real estate I possess is located in this county. Yours truly, G. L. GALE.
The above from Mr. Gale, the Republican candidate for county commissioner for the first district, fully answers the insinuation that he is a Butlerite. Mr. Gale is a Cowley County man and as deeply interested in the welfare of this county as any other citizen. He is a warm, but judicious railroad man, and has heartily supported both the Parsons and the Emporia roads. He will use all judicious and honorable means in his power to secure the building of an east and west railroad through the center of the county, and another down the Walnut valley, in the shortest possible time, at the same time saving the county all unnecessary expense. The fears that some express that he will be disposed to throw obstacles in the way of any railroad company proposing to build into this county are entirely groundless. We confidently expect his election, and the aid of his strong, good sense, and his active work, in securing such improvements as our county still needs.
Winfield Courier, November 8, 1877.

We have been unable to obtain before going to press the full returns of the election in this county last Tuesday, but we can give the result with sufficient certainty. Troup, Independent, is elected county clerk by about 150 majority; Harter, democrat, is elected sheriff by over 100 majority; the republican candidates, Kinne for register of deeds, Haight for surveyor, Graham for coroner, and Gale, Sleeth, and Burden for commissioners are elected by large majorities, and Bryan, republican, is elected treasurer without opposition.
Winfield Courier, January 10, 1878.
The present board of county commissioners have been in regular session this week for the last time, and in reviewing their proceedings for the past year we are impressed with the good judgment they have displayed in the disposition of a great variety of difficult cases, and their general efficiency in conducting the business of the county. We do not believe there is a county in the state that has been better served by its board of county commissioners. Mr. White retires with the approval and confidence of the people, while Messrs. Burden and Sleeth, together with Mr. G. L. Gale, will constitute the board for the ensuing term, which gives the assurance that the affairs of the county will be equally well managed for two years to come.
Winfield Courier, January 17, 1878.
Monday, the 14th. New board: R. F. Burden, chairman; W. M. Sleeth and G. L. Gale. Appointed John B. Lynn and Frank Williams to assist Judge Gans in counting the county funds; appointed Jas. L. Huey trustee of Creswell Township, vice Leonard, resigned; let the pauper contract to Butterfield, of Silverdale Township; let the medical attendance to Dr. Shepard, of Arkansas City.
Winfield Courier, April 18, 1878.
The board of commissioners of Cowley County met in regular session at the county clerk’s office on the 8th day of April, 1878. Present: R. F. Burden, W. M. Sleeth, and George L. Gale, commissioners; James McDermott, county attorney, and M. G. Troup, county clerk.
Winfield Courier, May 9, 1878.
G. L. Gale, our county commissioner, has 30 acres of wheat, of which 23 acres are summer fallowing, which stands 4½ feet high on the average and promises from 40 to 50 bushels per acre. He is one of the best farmers in the county.
Winfield Courier, June 6, 1878.
Mr. G. L. Gale and Mr. R. F. Burden were in town last Monday and Tuesday to equalize the assessments. Mr. Sleeth was absent.
Winfield Courier, June 6, 1878.
Board of county commissioners met at the office of the county clerk.
Present: R. F. Burden, G. L. Gale, commissioners, and M. G. Troup, Clerk.
Ordered the ferry license granted to H. B. Pruden to be issued to J. C. Conley.
Approved the appointment of B. W. Jenkins, M. S. Teter, and W. A. Freeman, appraisers of nw. ¼ section 167, township 33, range 3 (school lands).
Changed several assessments and raised the general average of Beaver assessment 10 percent, Omnia 15 percent, Spring Creek 3 percent, Vernon 5 percent.
Approved of the appointment of J. P. Musselman as treasurer of Silverdale Township.

Winfield Courier, July 4, 1878.
The County Commissioners have been in session this week. We are not able to get a report of their proceedings for this issue. It will appear next week. Mr. Gale is in feeble health, but Messrs. Burden and Sleeth are in good condition.
Winfield Courier, August 8, 1878.
The county commissioners have been in session this week. Present: Burden, Sleeth, and Gale.
Winfield Courier, October 3, 1878.
For Representative—88th District, E. C. Manning.
For Representative—89th District, A. A. Wiley.
For County Attorney, E. S. Torrance.
For Probate Judge, J. W. Millspaugh.
For District Clerk, E. S. Bedilion.
For Superintendent of Public Instruction, R. C. Story.
For County Commissioner—1st District, G. L. Gale.
G. L. Gale, our candidate for Commissioner, is an able, intelligent, sensible, and honest man of the soundest judgment, and ever awake to the best interest of the county. . . .
Winfield Courier, November 21, 1878.
Our County Board. We cannot forbear a word of commendation for the fearless, just, and manly course of action of our county commissioners in relation to the two railroad petitions which were presented to them last Monday. There was a struggle between the partisans of the two roads for priority in the time of holding the elections. The advocates of the road whose petition was first presented were present in force, demanded immediate action, and got hot and clamorous. They indulged in insinuations and threats against the board, and more particularly against Mr. Burden, who told them to go ahead and execute their threats for he would not act until he had time to consider the matter and to advise with the county attorney, who was absent that day. The matter was postponed until the next morning, when the county attorney was present and the board had carefully examined and considered the matter. The order for the election was then made under the condition and understanding that a stipulation should be filed limiting the amount of bonds to be voted to that road to $144,000. The board did right, as they always do. Burden cannot be persuaded or intimidated into any action until he is sure it is right, and will do right and for the best interests of his county whether it suits his personal interests or not. The same may be said of Gale and Sleeth. A better, truer, more efficient board of county commissioners no county ever had.
Winfield Courier, January 2, 1879.
Judge 13th Judicial District.—Hon. W. Campbell.
Board of County Commissioners.—R. F. Burden, G. L. Gale, W. M. Sleeth.
County Clerk.—M. G. Troup.
County Treasurer.—T. R. Bryan.
Probate Judge.—H. D. Gans.

Register of Deeds.—E. P. Kinne.
Supt. Pub. Inst.—R. C. Story.
Sheriff.—C. L. Harter.
Coroner.—W. G. Graham.
County Attorney.—James McDermott.
Clerk District Court.—B. S. Bedilion.
County Surveyor.—N. A. Haight.
Deputy County Surveyor.—J. Hoenscheidt.
Winfield Courier, January 16, 1879.
Board of County Commissioners met in regular session [Janu­ary 6, 1879]. Present: R. F. Burden, W. M. Sleeth, and G. L. Gale, commissioners, James McDermott, county attorney, and M. G. Troup, county clerk.
Winfield Courier, March 20, 1879.
Whereas, the county commissioners of the county of Cowley, State of Kansas, at a special meeting, held March 10th, 1879, made an order of which the following is a copy.
“At a special meeting of the county commissioners of Cowley County, holden at the office of the county clerk in the court­house in the City of Winfield in said county on the 10th day of March A. D. 1879, there were present: R. F. Burden, Chairman; W. M. Sleeth and Geo. L. Gale, Commissioners; with E. S. Torrance, County Attorney, and M. G. Troup, County Clerk; a petition was presented to the Board, signed by two-fifths of the resident taxpayers of said county which, with the signatures omitted is as follows: to wit:
“To the Honorable the Board of County Commissioners of the county of Cowley and State of Kansas:
“Inasmuch as the Southern Kansas and Western Railroad Company proposes to construct a line of railroad into and through the county of Cowley, in the State of Kansas, the undersigned, being more than two-fifths of the resident tax payers of said county, respectfully petition your Honorable Board to call a special election in said county at as early a day as is practica­ble, and legal, and at such special election to submit to the qualified electors of said county, a proposition to subscribe 68 thousand (68,000) dollars to the capital stock of said Southern Kansas and Western Railroad Company, a corporation duly organized and existing under and by virtue of the laws of the State of Kansas, and to issue the bonds of said county in the like amount of sixty-eight thousand (68,000) dollars, in payment of said subscriptions, said bonds to be delivered to said railroad company for like amounts of the capital stock thereof as follows: Fifty-one thousand (51,000) dollars when said railroad is in operation to the point herein after named, near the city of Winfield in said county, and the remaining seventeen thousand (17,000) dollars when the said railroad is in operation to the western line of said county. . . . [Called for special election on Tuesday, April 29, 1879.]
Winfield Courier, November 11, 1880.
The following are the names of the enterprising citizens who brought in the returns from different townships on the night after the election.
Rock:  S. P. Strong, J. M. Harcourt, W. H. Grow, W. H. White, G. L. Gale, R. Boothe, H. Fisk, J. B. Holmes.

Winfield Courier, December 9, 1880.
On the second Tuesday in January Mr. Burden leaves the board of county commissioners and is succeeded by Mr. L. B. Bullington. For six years, Mr. Burden has been a member of the board and to his energy, tact, and splendid business qualifications, assisted by the counsel and advice of Mr. Gale, now the senior member more recently by Mr. Harbaugh, the people of Cowley County are largely indebted for the successful manner in which their business has been transacted.
Mr. Bullington, the incoming member, will prove a worthy successor to Mr. Burden. From an intimate association with him during the last campaign, we found him to be a first class businessman, a close observer, an open, outspoken gentleman, and one in whom the people may safely confide their interests. With Messrs. Gale, Harbaugh, and Bullington at the helm, the affairs of Cowley County will be in safe hands.
Winfield Courier, January 13, 1881.
Commissioner Gale has been elected chairman of the Board for the ensuing year. This is eminently proper, as Mr. Gale is thoroughly acquainted with county business, is prompt, firm, and discreet in the consideration of matters which come before the Board, and will guard the people’s interests faithfully.
Winfield Courier, January 13, 1881.
The new Board met on Monday, Messrs. Gale and Bullington present, and organized by electing G. L. Gale chairman for the coming year. The proprietors of the Telegram, Monitor, and COURIER, then presented propositions for the county printing. After some discussion the matter was laid over till the next morning, when, the commissioners failing to agree, action was postponed until the first Tuesday in February, when Commissioner Harbaugh will be present.
The proposition of S. E. Burger for the keeping of the poor was accepted. Dr. Graham was appointed as county physician. The Board ordered that at the bond and township election the judges and clerks should be sworn in the second time; that two ballot-boxes be provided, and that all the judges and clerks sign the poll-books. The Board then adjourned to meet the first Friday in February.
Winfield Courier, February 10, 1881.
OFFICE OF COUNTY CLERK, Winfield, Kans., Feb. 4, 1881.
Board of Commissioners met in special session as a board of commissioners.
Present: G. L. Gale, chairman; L. B. Bullington, commis­sioner; Frank S. Jennings, county attorney; J. S. Hunt, county clerk.
The following fees for judges and clerks of the election held February 1, 1881, were presented and allowed.
Winfield Courier, February 10, 1881.

The Board of Commissioners met in called session last Friday, Messrs. G. L. Gale, chairman, and L. B. Bullington, commissioner, present. The canvass of the proposition to sell railroad stock gave for 2,132; against 724.
The valuation on lot 17, block 94, Winfield, reduced from $2500 to $25 and a corresponding amount of tax remitted.
The road tax of Tisdale township was remitted.
County Clerk was ordered to purchase an index to the commissioners’ journal and have the same written up.
The valuation of lots 5, 6, 7, and 8, section 3, township 35, range 6, reduced from $278 to $174.
Valuation on southeast ¼, section 3, township 35, range 6, reduced from $320 to $200.
Valuation on northeast quarter of southwest ¼ and lot 3, section 15, township 35, range 6, reduced from $128 to $80.
Winfield Courier, February 24, 1881.
In making out the papers for the sale and transfer of the stock in the S. K. & W. railroad from the county to the purchas­er, there were some errors which made the transfer defective and the papers were sent back for correction.
Commissioners Gale and Bullington met at the county clerk’s office on Monday of this week and made the proper correction. It is said that they also sent Messrs. James Harden, treasurer, and M. L. Robinson to New York and Boston to buy bonds.
These two gentlemen started east on Monday eve, but we suppose on their own expense and for their own purposes for the Commissioners have no power or authority to put the county to any expense for such a mission. They probably have gone to see the inauguration of the president and other sights and can well afford to do so, but the idea that they expect the county to pay their expenses is preposterous. The idea that they would be of any particular use to the county in finding and buying bonds at a low rate is equally absurd. The state has a financial agency in New York and the bankers of that institution live in the midst of bonds and stocks and know now more about our bonds, where to get them and what they are worth, than two new men could learn in six months. All our Commissioners need to do is to send the funds to the financial agency and instruct them to buy our bonds to the best advantage for the interests of the county. The idea of sending men from here to do the business is absurd and ridicu­lous.
We suppose that the howl raised in some quarters because the bonds were not bought in when the stock was sold, might have worried the commissioners some and made them feel that they ought to hurry up the matter of buying in the bonds in some way, so that when asked to send these experienced intelligent men east to hurry up the matter, without looking up the law or considering the use of sending them, they in their individual capacity and not as commissioners told them to go. But the story soon got out that the commissioners had sent them on this wild goose errand at the expense of the county and then commenced a howl indeed. Almost every man we met made either an angry comment in condemna­tion or a ridiculous comment in disapproval. We would ask the people interested to keep cool and not to get excited. The commissioners are trying to do the best thing for the interests of the county and will not pay out the people’s money for any expenses not warranted by law.

The gentlemen named have a right to go east and buy bonds for that matter just as we fellows who stay at home have the same right.
Winfield Courier, March 3, 1881.
We are very much surprised at an editorial in this week’s COURIER in relation to the subject, “Our Stock and Bonds.”
The following is the official action of the commissioners, and we want to say for Messrs. Gale and Bullington that neither of them were to blame for the necessity that caused the board to take the action detailed below.
On Feb. 21, 1881, the Board of county commissioners met in official session. Present: G. L. Gale, chairman, L. B. Bullington, member, and J. S. Hunt, county clerk.
The board directed the county clerk to correct the journal entry of February 4th and February 7th, 1881. Said entries were accordingly corrected. These errors were informalities in regard to the transfer of the stock of the Southern, Kansas and Western railroad.
On motion of the chairman it was resolved that James Harden, county treasurer of Cowley County, and M. L. Robinson be appoint­ed and empowered as a special committee to take the correct­ed papers relating to the special election, held February 1st, 1881, and AT THE EXPENSE OF COWLEY COUNTY, proceed to Kansas City, Missouri, and have the same approved by Wallace Pratt, attorney, to whom the original papers had been referred by Charles Merriam, trustee; then proceed to New York and Boston and purchase for and in behalf of Cowley County, Kansas, forty-six thousand two hundred and forty dollars worth of the outstanding bonds of the said Cowley County, Kansas, provided the seven percent bonds of the said Cowley County can be purchased at a commission or premium of not more than two and one-half percent; the six percent bonds of said Cowley County at not more than par and accrued interest, and the ten percent bonds of the said Cowley County at a rate correspondingly beneficial to the inter­ests of said county, or any of said specified bonds to the amount of forty-six thousand two hundred and forty dollars worth at as much better rates for the interest of said county as possible. And if the present purchase can be made at such rates or at most one percent of such rates, this committee shall ascertain as much as possible in relation to whom the holders are of such bonds at what rate and the lowest rate any of said bonds can be purchased, etc., and make a full report of all of said items on their return.
Board adjourned. J. S. HUNT, County Clerk.
We clip the above from the last Monitor and will remark that when we wrote the editorial in the COURIER alluded to and when we went to press we had not been furnished a copy of the commissioners’ proceedings, and as they are usually furnished the county paper by the clerk, we had not been to the records to examine them. We had heard rumors on the street concerning the proceedings, which struck us as improbable for the reasons then given. Now that we have a copy of the official proceedings, we make the correction by publishing them as above.

We do not wish to do injustice to any parties connected with this matter and are disposed to give to all the credit of desir­ing in their action to accomplish the best interests of the county. We know that the commissioners would act in no other way but for the interests of the county according to their best judgment; but we must be permitted to dissent from the course taken and to hold that there was no use in sending delegates east to buy bonds, and that there is no law to authorize the payment of the expenses of such delegates out of the county treasury. We think a mistake has been made in trying to rush this matter and still believe that a considerable sum of money might be saved for the county by waiting awhile for the holders of our bonds to discover that we are not going to take the first offers at any price, and that they must come down in their prices to value or they cannot sell to us. We believe that we can do better than to pay par and expenses for our 7 percent bonds.
Winfield Courier, March 3, 1881.
On last Tuesday, Feb. 25, there was a panic in Wall street, resulting from the opposition of the national banks to the funding bill and their attempts to coerce the government, and stocks declined largely, ranging from two to seventeen percent decline. Messrs. Robinson and Harden must have arrived in New York at a good time, for we suppose there must have been a pressure to sell our Cowley 7 percent bonds as well as other bonds. If they have chanced upon a time when they could buy at 95, it may not be so bad a scheme after all.
Winfield Courier, May 12, 1881.
The public sheep shearing held last Wednesday under the auspices of the Cowley County Wool Growers and Sheep Breeders’ Association, proved to be a much greater success than the manage­ment had hoped for. Almost every flock in our county was repre­sented, and several of the leading wool growers of Butler County were present with some of their finest sheep. Much interest was exhibited, and the shearing was visited by crowds of visitors all day long.
During the early part of the afternoon it was almost impos­sible for persons to move about, so thick was the crowd. The sheep exhibit and the interest manifested in the matter was a surprise to many, who had no idea of the magnitude the sheep business has attained in this county, nor of the excellent grade of stock. This shearing has done much for sheep breeding by awakening an interest in sheep raising among persons who have heretofore been indifferent as to the demands of sheep men for protection. We think that could half the counties in the state make as good an exhibit as Cowley sheep, men would have no difficulty in getting a dog law through the next legislature.
Perhaps the finest lot of sheep on the grounds were those of Mr. Copeland, of Butler County. His exhibit consisted of one three-year-old Merino weather and two two-year-old Merino bucks. The weather sheared 25 pounds and weighed after being sheared 117 pounds. His buck “Gen. Grant” yielded a fleece of 35¼ pounds, and weighed after shearing 113¼ pounds. “Phil Sheridan,” another two-year-old Merino buck, weighed 128½ pounds, and fleeced 36½ pounds.
Senator Wilkie, of Butler County, brought two magnificent two-year-old Merino bucks, one of which was imported. Only one of his, “Captain Jack,” was sheared, however. The “Captain” weighed, after shearing, 122½ pounds, and his fleece tipped the beam at 28¼ pounds.

Mr. Uhl, Butler County’s far-famed sheep man, was present with six of his thoroughbred Merinos. Only four were sheared. Two yearling ewes, one weighing 77 pounds and fleecing 18 pounds; the other weighing 66 pounds and fleecing 15. One three-year-old ewe, weight, 92, fleece, 19½; and one yearling buck, weight, 103 pounds, fleece, 25¾.
Eight of our Cowley County flocks were represented. Messrs. Meech & Blue brought several thoroughbred two-year-old Merino bucks and three yearling lambs, a first cross between Merino buck and Colorado ewes. Two of these lambs were sheared and showed remarkable results. The first one weighed after shearing 51 pounds, and fleeced 9 pounds. The second weighed 48 pounds and fleeced 6¾. These lambs being from ewes which fleece at best from effect of the cross is apparent. One of their two-year-old bucks weighed after shearing 89 pounds and fleeced 24½, the second best, according to weight of carcass, sheared on the grounds. Another of their two-year-old Merino bucks weighed 82½ pounds, fleece 21½..
Mr. Wimple made a good showing. One of his ewes, a two-year-old Cotswold, yielded 9 pounds of fleece, and pulled the scales at 151 pounds. One year-old Merino buck weighed after shearing 103 and left 26 pounds on the board.
Mr. Linn, one of Cowley’s most energetic sheep raisers, exhibited two two-year-old bucks, thoroughbred Hammond stock, and several lambs. The bucks sheared 26¼ and 24¼ pounds, and weighed after shearing 63½ and 24¼ pounds. The lambs were not sheared.
Mr. Linn carries off the palm, one of his Merino bucks having sheared more to weight of carcass than any on the grounds. Mr. Meech showed second best heaviest fleece to weight of mutton. In this respect our Cowley County folks laid it over Butler nicely.
Mr. John Stalter, Cowley’s veteran sheep man and one of the largest owners, was on hand with two of his thoroughbred Merino bucks. They were fine-looking fellows, two year olds. One of them sheared 30 pounds and walked off with 123½ pounds of carcass remaining. The other weighted 109 pounds, and dropped 20 pounds of fleece.
Mr. Taylor, another Butler County man, brought a yearling Merino buck, which sheared 24 pounds and weighed 99.
Mr. Brown exhibited three fine Cotswolds. One two-year-old buck and two two-year-old ewes. The buck only was sheared. It fleeced 16½ pounds, weight after shearing, 195½.
Mr. Newcomb had a two-year-old Colorado ewe sheared. It weighed after the operation 56½ pounds and fleeced 3½ pounds. Not enough to pay for shearing and the wear and tear of the sheep.
Mr. Saunders brought several Merino bucks and a ewe and a lamb; did not have any of them sheared.

When the shearing commenced, the Association offered premi­ums, $5 to the best shearer, $3 to the second, and $2 to the third. A committee was selected to award the prizes, and the boys sailed in. Those contesting for the prizes were John Snider, Lafe McPherson, J. E. Majors, M. M. Kennedy, A. S. Taylor, W. Cole, and W. N. Young. The committee chosen to award the prizes were W. Stapleton, of Ohio; W. A. Campbell and G. L. Gale, of Cowley; C. B. Vail, of Elk; and W. Snodgrass, of Butler. The way the wool flew around was a caution, and if there is any county round about that thinks it can trot out better sheep shearers than Cowley, we should like to have them give us a hint to that effect. The shearing closed about five o’clock, and the committee awarded the first prize to Mr. Cole, the second to Mr. Kennedy, and the third to Mr. Taylor. All the boys “shock” with the lucky contestants, and the first annual sheep shearing of the Cowley County Wool Growers and Sheep Breeders Association wound up in the pleasantest manner possible.
Our Butler County visitors went home feeling they had been well treated and left hearty invitations to attend their shearing at Douglass next week. Although we have to admit that Butler County beats us a little in average weight of fleece and heavy mutton this year, we give them fair warning that it is the intention of our sheep breeders to push them hard next year, and that due diligence will be used to accomplish this end.
The effects of this meeting will be felt by the flocks all over the county and will be made apparently by better exhibits and heavier fleeces next year. Although our reporter spent the largest part of the afternoon on the ground, he failed to get several important paragraphs. One of the most important which escaped his notice was quickly observed by the astute Telegram reporter. Here it is:
“The reporter heard a number of the sheep men regretting the lack of interest taken by the press of the county in not having reporters on the ground that a thorough publication of what was done might be given to the people throughout the county. The only reporters present were Mr. Hulse, of the Douglas ‘Index,’ and the ‘Telegram’ man.”
Winfield Courier, June 2, 1881.
Rock Creek Township will present the name of our present efficient chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, for renomination by the republican county convention this fall. His past record is an all sufficient guarantee for the future. Geo. L. Gale is the man for the place.
Winfield Courier, July 14, 1881. Editorial.
Commissioner Gale assures us that the books, papers, and records in the County Clerk’s office are in much better condition than they ever were before. He says that Captain Hunt under­stands his work perfectly; is careful, painstaking, accurate, and obliging, and, above all, honest beyond the shadow of a doubt. This was not news to us, but we were pleased that the chairman of the board is observing things carefully in this direction.
Winfield Courier, July 14, 1881.
Board of county commissioners met in regular session. Present: G. L. Gale, H. Harbaugh, and L. B. Bullington, commis­sioners, and F. S. Jennings, County attorney, and J. S. Hunt, County clerk.
Winfield Courier, August 4, 1881.
George L. Gale will accept a nomination for reelection to the office of county commissioner.
Winfield Courier, September 1, 1881.
Commissioner G. L. Gale wishes to know what the people desire in relation to the purchase of a poor farm for the county. He has thought of submitting the question of buying such a property at the next election. It would be a good idea. The cost of keeping the poor of this county is about $2,000 a year and is likely to increase. This amount for one year applied in the purchase, and the second year in improvements, would be likely to make the institution pay subsequent expenses and save further taxation.

Winfield Courier, December 22, 1881.
Commissioners Gale and Harbaugh were in town Friday looking after the improvements being made on the courthouse square.
Cowley County Courant, January 5, 1882.
Commissioners Gale and Harbaugh are doing the work in the commissioner’s court, Mr. Bullington not yet having put in an appearance. Mr. Gale has been suffering severely for some time with the rheumatism, and is not looking as well as we usually see him. Business is being pushed right along, but there will probably be a three or four days session.
Winfield Courier, January 5, 1882.
On the evening of Dec. 31, in order to bid adieu to the old year, a small party of the people of northern Rock assembled at the residence of Mr. G. L. Gale to “ring out the old and ring in the new.” Wit, wisdom, and wealth were in profusion. Jet Williams, and that prince of good fellows, G. H. Williams, drew the bows across the fiddle strings and oh! How they did “mill ‘em around and square ‘em up.” It was glorious to look upon. When supper was served all retired feeling it was “good to be there.” May Mr. Gale and his noble lady live long and enjoy life.
Winfield Courier, January 12, 1882.
GEORGE L. GALE. Mr. Gale retires from the chairmanship and board of the County Commissioners, with honor and the approval and best wishes of his constituents. He is a man of strict integrity, sound judgment, clear thought, and wide information; and all these qualities he has exercised in an eminent degree in the service of his county. He is one of the best farmers in the county and has done much to make the county what it is. Long may he wave.
Cowley County Courant, January 12, 1882.
The newly organized Board of County Commissioners now in session is one in which, we think, the county may place unlimited confidence, and rest assured that the interests of the entire county will be subserved in a high degree. We will be pardoned if we speak individually of the members of the board.
Mr. Henry Harbaugh, in accordance with the old-time prece­dent in favor of seniority, was elected chairman, and we believe the action was one of wisdom as well as courtesy.
When Mr. Harbaugh came on the board, he was known to few of the county besides those of his own neighborhood; and the manner in which his neighbors urged his name for the office, without his individual efforts, and vouched for his ability and integrity, showed a confidence in what they claimed that is now, we think, shared by the county at large. Known among his neighbors as an excellent businessman and a model farmer, he has, we can confi­dently state, given to the discharge of his duties as commission­er the same careful but energetic attention which he has shown in the management of his private affairs. Possessed of no egotism, or an overestimation of his opinions, he has been firm in the discharge of what he has honestly considered his official duties, and has watched carefully over the interests of his district and the more general ones of the county at large. The additional duties and responsibilities which the chairmanship will devolve upon him will be discharged with ability and sus­tained with integrity.

Mr. L. B. Bullington has served one year as commissioner, and has been absent from the State a portion of that time. What we have observed of his official acts leads us to believe that he is qualified for the office he holds, and will, besides a desire to work within the law, be governed by a strong and healthy element of common sense.
Mr. S. C. Smith, the newly elected member, is too well known in this city to require any comments or recommendations. Repre­senting considerable property interests himself, he is ripe in business experience, and is well known among our citizens as possessing ability of the first order, and is respected for inflexible adherence to what is right, regardless of personal or political considerations. He has often been requested to accept important offices, but has as often declined, and his present position was thrust upon him while he was out of the State. There is, in our mind, no question but that the interests of this city will be carefully watched over, nor any doubt that all sections of the county will receive a like attention, unmixed with prejudice or partiality. These considerations lead us, as said, to think that the new board will justify all expectations.
In this connection we cannot help but speak of the retiring member, G. L. Gale. For the last two years we have been inti­mately acquainted with his acts as commissioner, and do not hesitate to accord to him a full measure of praise for honest and conscientious service, etc.
Winfield Courier, February 2, 1882.
Gypsum. Mr. Geo. L. Gale says he is going to experiment with ground gypsum (plaster of paris) during the coming year. He believes that the well-known effect of sowing this plaster on the ground in the east is wonderfully stimulating vegetable growth and will be the same here, and that the inexhaustible beds of gypsum in the counties immediately west of here will be an invaluable source of wealth in this county when understood and utilized. When that is done, the grass question is solved if not the corn and wheat question also. Why do not men with sufficient means go to grinding and manufacturing this rock for such purposes?
Winfield Courier, February 2, 1882.
Ex-Commissioner Gale spent a pleasant half hour with us Saturday. Mr. Gale, like Mr. Burden, has left his mark on the history of Cowley County, and will hereafter devote his time to improving his farm in Rock Township. The intelligence and sound business sense of Geo. L. Gale has helped carry Cowley through some dangerous shoals and her people will always honor him for the faithful manner in which he discharged the trust.
Winfield Courier, March 16, 1882.

Teachers’ Association. According to appointment, the teachers of the Northwestern Division met at Darien schoolhouse on the evening of March 3rd. The night was beautiful, and the attendance larger than at any previous time. Little Dutch, Valley Center, and Darien schools were well represented, and the evening was occupied very pleasantly with exercises from the different schools. The attendance at the Saturday meeting was small; but the program was taken up, and the different subjects discussed. Most of the work was retrospective, and the teachers all agreed that our monthly meetings had been beneficial to both schools and teachers. As an evidence of that fact, on motion it was decided to adjourn to meet again at Valley Center schoolhouse, on the first Friday evening of October, 1882. The vice president and secretary pro tem, were appointed to arrange a program for that time. The following is a list of teachers and patrons of the N. W. Division, who have attended one or more of the six Saturday meetings.
Messrs. Porter Wilson, A. H. Limerick, R. B. Corson, J. Martindale, R. B. Hunter, Geo. Wright, Albert Brookshire, L. McKinley, and J. E. Hicks; and Misses Villa M. Combs, Fannie M. McKinley, Mrs. A. Limerick, and Nannie Wilson. Patrons: G. L. Gale, Rock Township, and Mr. Meece, Ninnescah Township. The Association wishes also to express its thanks to P. W. Smith for the interest he has manifested in its welfare.
L. McKINLEY, Secretary pro tem.
Cowley County Courant, May 25, 1882.
A Courant representative visited Rock township yesterday. To say that this is the best township in the county would lay the Courant liable to the charge of toadyism from which it prides itself on being so free. It is, however, one of the several very best in any county. No township in the county combines so many natural advantages. Besides vast quantities of the richest bottom land, there is abundance of timber, pure water in plenty, and exhaustive building and fencing stone, to be had for the quarrying; and wheat and corn everywhere. We think it probable that Rock township should be credited with having raised the biggest wheat in the State, that is, the largest yield to the acre. The acreage is not so large this year as last, but gives promise of being the best crop yet raised in that wheat raising township.
The Rock store kept by that clever, sensible Republican, George H. Williams, is the political headquarters, and may be said to be the county seat of Rock township. Here may be found a few congenial souls almost any time of the day. And the wayfarer can be accommodated with any kind of a discussion he feels himself capable of taking a hand in. The versatile Harcourt will lock horns with him on temperance, the conscientious Gale will hold him down on religion or the want of it, while Uncle John Holmes can wear him out on hogs and cattle. These gentlemen all live handy, and can afford now, to take their ease. They are in no sense loafers. They are men who have gathered a big compe­tence by hard work and good management, who now feel that they have earned a rest on the shadowy side of their lives.
John Holmes, Esq., is the most extensive farmer in the county. He owns a thousand acres of the choicest land, nearly all of it in wheat and corn. We had the good fortune to be invited to dinner with Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Harcourt, where in company with Mr. and Mrs. Commissioner Gale, we passed a pleasant hour. This is decidedly a Hoosier neighborhood, every man within a radius of several miles having been lucky enough to get away from Indiana.
Winfield Courier, July 13, 1882.
Ex-Commissioner Gale was shaking hands among his friends Friday. It’s his first visit to the metropolis for a long time.
Winfield Courier, August 10, 1882.
State Convention Delegates: W. P. Hackney, C. M. Scott, S. B. Fleming, J. S. Hunt, Geo. L. Gale, P. B. Lee, S. P. Strong, Barney Shriver.

State Convention Alternates: E. M. Reynolds, J. D. Guthrie, H. L. Marsh, D. S. Sherrard, M. Christopher, Sol. A. Smith, Harvey Smith.
Winfield Courier, August 10, 1882.
Convention Notes. Geo. L. Gale of Rock, Capt. Shaw and S. M. Fall of Windsor, Uncle John Wallace of Dexter, H. C. Catlin of Liberty, and others of the “Old Guard,” were on hand Saturday to advise while the younger fellows did the fighting.
Winfield Courier, August 31, 1882.
Ex-Commissioner Gale and Gene and Mrs. Wilber were down from Rock Friday.
Winfield Courier, September 14, 1882.
Ex-Commissioner Gale and wife left week before last for a visit to their old home in Michigan. They will be absent probably two months. The best wishes of a host of friends go with them.
Winfield Courier, November 16, 1882.
Ex-Commissioner Gale and wife returned from a visit to their old home week before last.
Winfield Courier, February 15, 1883.
ROCK: S. Williams, trustee; A. W. Railsback, clerk; G. L. Gale, treasurer; Reuben Boothe and M. N. Martindale, J. P.’s; A. B. Tuggle and J. C. Martindale, constables.
Winfield Courier, March 15, 1883.
A surprise party was given to Mr. and Mrs. Gale last week. All came away highly pleased.
Gale and Wilber sold 500 head of fat wethers to Smith of Augusta, averaging 108. Price $5.15.
Winfield Courier, May 3, 1883.
Messrs. S. P. Strong and Ex-Commissioner Gale, of Rock, were in the city Friday. Mr. Strong is one of the ten candidates for register of deeds, and withal one of the most whole-souled, genial gentlemen in the county. He measures four feet around the waist but will keep up with the head of the procession unless the weather gets mighty warm.
Winfield Courier, May 10, 1883.
Fair Meeting. A mass meeting of farmers was held in the Opera House Saturday afternoon to consider the Fair question. A goodly number of farmers from every part of the county were present. W. J. Millspaugh, of Vernon, was elected chairman and S. P. Strong, of Rock, secretary. The report of the committee on soliciting subscriptions to the stock reported four thousand eight hundred dollars taken. The committee was then increased by the following additions, one in each township.
Rock Creek: Geo. L. Gale.
The Secretary was instructed to prepare and forward to each of the township committee blank subscription lists, with the request that they circulate them at once. This committee was instructed to report with the lists at a public meeting in the Hall at 2 o’clock, May 19, when all who have subscribed to the stock are requested to be present and form a permanent organization.
Winfield Courier, May 17, 1883.

Proceedings have been inaugurated by J. Wade McDonald, attorney, to condemn the water in the river above the Winfield Mills for the purposes of the City Waterworks, and Judge Torrance has appointed to appraise the damages R. F. Burden, G. L. Gale, and W. M. Sleeth.
Winfield Courier, May 24, 1883.
More Fair Matter. We publish in full below the Charter and By-laws of the Fair Association. The organization is now complete and at work. Every farmer should read this carefully and be ready to suggest any changes necessary at the next regular meeting.
CHARTER. The undersigned do hereby voluntarily associate ourselves together for the purpose of forming a private corporation under the laws of the state of Kansas, and do hereby certify: FIRST, That the name of this corporation shall be “The Cowley County Fair and Driving Park Association.” SECOND, That the purposes for which this corporation is formed are to encourage and promote the agricultural, horticultural, mechanical, and live stock interest of Cowley County, Kansas, and the establishment and maintenance of a driving park and speed ring, and to acquire, hold, and control all real and personal property necessary, proper, and convenient for carrying out the purposes aforesaid. THIRD, That the place where its business is to be transacted is at Winfield, Cowley County, Kansas. FOURTH, That the term for which this corporation is to exist is ninety-nine years. FIFTH, That the number of directors or trustees of this corporation shall be seventeen (17), and the names and residences of those who are appointed for the first year are:
A. H. Doane, Winfield.
A. T. Spotswood, Winfield.
D. L. Kretsinger, Winfield.
J. B. Schofield, Winfield.
C. C. Black, Winfield.
W. J. Hodges, Winfield.
E. P. Greer, Winfield.
W. S. Mendenhall, Winfield.
Sam Phoenix, Richland Township.
S. S. Lynn, Vernon Township.
G. L. Gale, Rock Township.
Henry Harbaugh, Pleasant Valley Township.
R. F. Burden, Windsor Township.
E. B. Nicholson, Dexter Township.
J. W. Millspaugh, Vernon Township.
J. B. Nipp, Creswell Township.
J. F. Martin, Vernon Township.
SIXTH, That the estimated value of the goods, chattels, lands, rights, and credits owned by the corporation is ten thousand ($10,000) dollars; that the amount of the capital stock of this corporation shall be ten thousand ($10,000) dollars, and shall be divided into two hundred (200) shares, of fifty ($50) dollars each, non-assessable above face value.
In testimony whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names, this 3rd day of May,
A. D., 1883.

(Signed) A. T. Spotswood, W. S. Mendenhall, J. B. Schofield, A. H. Doane, Charles C. Black, Ed. B. Greer, D. L. Kretsinger, Wm. J. Hodges, S. C. Smith.
Personally appeared before me, a notary public in and for Cowley County, Kansas, the above named: A. T. Spotswood, W. S. Mendenhall, J. B. Schofield, J. Wade McDonald, Ed. P. Greer, D. L. Kretsinger, A. H. Doane, Wm. J. Hodges, and S. C. Smith, who are personally known to me to be the same persons who executed the foregoing instrument of writing, and duly acknowledged the execution of the same.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name, and affixed my notarial seal, this 4th day of May, A. D., 1883.
             LOVELL H. WEBB, Notary Public. (My commission expires Sept. 8, 1883.)
I, James Smith, Secretary of State of the State of Kansas, do hereby certify that the foregoing is a true and correct copy of the original instrument of writing filed in my office May 5th, A. D., 1883.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name, and affixed my official seal.
Done at Topeka, Kansas, this fifth day of May, A. D., 1883.
JAMES SMITH, Secretary of state.
                            [I SKIPPED THE CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS.]
Winfield Courier, May 24, 1883.
Minutes of Fair Meeting. May 10th, 1883. The directors of the Cowley County Fair and Driving Park Association met at the office of A. H. Doane & Co. Present: Directors Millspaugh, Martin, Gale, Burden, Leslie, Harbaugh, McDonald, Spotswood, Doane, Baden, and Nicholson.
J. W. Millspaugh was called to the chair and D. L. Kretsinger chosen secretary. On motion of Mr. Spotswood, the meeting proceeded to the election of officers as follows.
For president, J. F. Martin; for vice president, A. T. Spotswood; for secretary, E. P. Greer; for treasurer, A. H. Doane; for General Superintendent, D. L. Kretsinger.
On motion of Mr. Kretsinger, Messrs. Harbaugh, Martin, Millspaugh, Lynn, Spotswood, Doane, and Greer were appointed a committee on premium list, to report at the next meeting of the directors. On motion of Mr. Lynn, the superintendent was instructed to commence work on the speed ring and cleaning up the ground. On motion of Mr. Doane, the meeting adjourned until Saturday, May 26, at 1 p.m.    D. L. KRETSINGER, Secretary.
Winfield Courier, May 24, 1883.
OPERA HOUSE, May 19, 1883. The stockholders of the Cowley County Fair and Driving Park Association met pursuant to adjournment. Mr. Millspaugh called S. P. Strong to the chair and D. L. Kretsinger was chosen secretary. Minutes of last meeting read and approved. The committee on subscription of stock reported progress and were on motion continued. On motion of Mr. Martin, the meeting proceeded to a permanent organization, without change of officers. The charter was then read and approved. A form of constitution and by-laws was then submitted by the secretary. Mr. Short moved they be adopted as read. Mr. Lynn amended to read and adopt by sections. Motion prevailed as amended.

Sec. 1 to 13 read and adopted. Sec. 14 amended to read “four-fifth consent or vote,” instead of unanimous.
Section 1 to 10 of the by-laws made and approved. On motion of Mr. Gale, the constitution and bylaws were then adopted as whole. After quite an interesting talk on the part of secretary and stockholders, a sense of the meeting was had instructing the Directors to push the work of improvement of grounds as fast as possible. On motion the meeting adjourned. D. L. KRETSINGER, Secretary, S. P. STRONG, Chairman.
Winfield Courier, May 31, 1883.
Ex-Commissioner Gale was down from Rock Monday and made us a pleasant visit accompanied by his cousin, Mr. Gale, from Ohio, and an old friend, Mr. Glasgow, a resident of this state. They are wonderfully pleased with Cowley and her people.
Winfield Courier, July 5, 1883.
Messrs. Gale, Burden, and Sleeth, the commissioners appointed to condemn the water privilege for the Water Company, met Thursday and made the awards. Bliss & Wood were allowed twenty dollars as their share of the damage, the Tunnel Mill ten dollars. None of the mills were present to put forward their claims and it is understood will contest in the courts the right of the Water Company to take what they have before legally acquired.
Winfield Courier, September 6, 1883.
Dan. Maher, of Richland, Z. B. Meyer, of Pleasant Valley, and H. McKibben, of Tisdale, a committee on order of business, and G. L. Gale of Rock, H. P. Wagner of Dexter, and R. J. Mead, of Spring Creek, committee on resolutions.
Committee on credentials reported the following named delegates and alternates for their respective townships.
ROCK: Geo. L. Gale, Chas. Holmes, W. H. Grow.
Alternates: Bryan Tuggle, Theo. Stevenson, Jack Martindale.
For Register of Deeds, Dr. Wagner presented the name of H. C. McDorman; Mr. Gale presented S. P. Strong; J. M. Barrick presented Wm. White; W. E. Tansey presented Jacob Nixon; D. M. Patton presented N. W. Dressie; A. J. Crum presented S. S. Moore; Dr. Carlisle presented T. H. Soward; and J. S. Strother presented J. S. Rash. Twelve ballots were taken...Total vote 99. Necessary to a choice, 50. Soward having 50 votes on the 12th ballot, was declared nominated, and his nomination was made unanimous. Closest one in votes next to Soward: McDorman.
Winfield Courier, October 25, 1883.

Hessian Fly. We are informed by Mr. G. L. Gale that the Hessian fly has made its appearance in his neighborhood, and is killing the wheat rapidly. It commenced on the fields of Mr. J. B. Holmes and has destroyed over a hundred acres for him, and is spreading in his and other neighboring fields. It is a fly about the size and appearance of a grain of chess. It deposits its egg on top of the leaf and it or the grub works down inside the stem into the roots and kills the roots. It is said that a heavy frost would arrest their ravages. Mr. R. J. Yeoman informs us that in the states east of here, when this fly appears, the farmers turn all the stock they can get upon the wheat fields and feed them down to the ground, so that the fly has no chance to deposit eggs where they will do hurt, and wait for frost. Mr. T. S. Green thinks that the damage was done before the rains set in and that since then no eggs have been deposited. He also thinks that only wheat sown very early will be affected.
Winfield Courier, January 17, 1884.
The Darien schoolhouse in Rock Township was destroyed by fire Friday night. Some wood had been put in the drum of the stove to dry. This caught fire, fell out on the floor, and set the building on fire. All of the paraphernalia of the school, many of the scholars’ books, and some belonging to the teacher, Miss Leota Gary, were destroyed. Darien was one of the oldest schoolhouses in the county, and has been a place of rendezvous for the denizens of Upper Walnut for many years. The old walls could have told many tales of red-hot political meetings where Uncle Reuben Boothe held the boys level, or deep-laid plans to “capture the delegation” or “put up a trick,” in which George Williams, Harcourt, Strong, Gale, Grow, Wilber, and a host of others, were participants. Let a new house, raised on the ashes of the old one, be called “Darien.”
Winfield Courier, January 17, 1884.
On Monday afternoon the stockholders of the Cowley County Fair and Driving Park Association met in the Opera House for the purpose of re-organizing the Board of Directors for the year 1884, and receiving reports of the condition and doings of the Association for the year. About seventy-five stockholders, representing nearly all of the subscribed stock, were present.
George L. Gale owned one share of stock.
Winfield Courier, April 24, 1884.
The following were elected delegates to the Judicial convention:
M. S. Teter. S. W. Chase, Geo. L. Gale, P. B. Lee, M. G. Troup, Prof. C. T. Atkinson.
Winfield Courier, May 22, 1884.
The Republican Judicial convention for the 13th Judicial District met at the Courthouse in Winfield Tuesday, May 20th, at 2 o’clock p.m. It was called to order by Adrian Reynolds of Elk County. Isaac G. Reed, of Sumner County, was elected chairman and Adrian Reynolds secretary.
The following committees were appointed.
On credentials: J. M. Thralls, M. G. Troup, S. W. Chase, Wm. P. Lynch, Richard Speed.
On order of Business: Jas. Lawrence, G. L. Gale, I. H. Bonsall, J. I. Crouse, S. P. G. Lewis.
The committee on credentials reported the following list of DELEGATES. 
Sumner County: James Lawrence, Isaac G. Reed, I. M. Thralls, S. P. G. Lewis, Orie Fitzgerald.
Chautauqua County: J. I. Crouse, Wm. P. Lynch, Richard Speed.
Elk County: Adrian Reynolds.
Cowley County: M. S. Teter, S. W. Chase, G. L. Gale, J. W. Millspaugh, M. G. Troup, I. H. Bonsall, T. H. Soward.
The following persons were chosen as a JUDICIAL CENTRAL COMMITTEE.
Cowley County: M. G. Troup, Geo. L. Gale, I. H. Bonsall, T. H. Soward.
Chautauqua County: R. G. Ward, D. E. Shartell.

Elk County: Adrian Reynolds, C. W. Rambo.
Sumner County: J. M. Thralls, S. P. G. Lewis, Jas. Lawrence.
The convention then adjourned.
At a meeting of the Judicial Central Committee, it organized by electing M. G. Troup, chairman; and Adrian Reynolds, secretary.
Winfield Courier, August 14, 1884.
Republican Primary Election. The Rock Township Primary will be held at Rock on Saturday, August 16th, at 4 o’clock p.m. G. L. Gale, Chairman, Committee.
Winfield Courier, October 23, 1884.
Mr. G. L. Gale has retired from his splendid Rock Township farm and become a permanent resident of this city. His years of labor on Cowley soil have given him a competency that now affords graceful ease.
Gale made comments about cattle at Farmers’ Institute...
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.
Then followed general discussion.
Mr. Adams: “I would like to ask whether animals for beef should be well fed with grain through the whole period of growth, or fed mainly on roughness, grass, etc.?”
Dr. Perry: “The plumpness of the young animal should be kept up by feeding grain whenever it is necessary.”
Mr. Gale, Rock Township. “I have had good success in feeding steers corn alone without roughness; would say especially never let an animal intended for beef shrink or lose anything. Whenever you let it lose a pound, you are losing money with compound interest.”
Mr. Thomas. “Stock hogs run on red clover would bring a cent a pound more than those fed in corn alone; probably because their digestive apparatus was better developed and they could gain more when fattened.”
Mr. Merydith of Dexter: “My cattle fed mainly on roughness gained faster, and made a better growth when put on pasture than those of one of my neighbors who had fed mainly on grain.”
Mr. Gale: “The fattest lot of steers I ever saw in Kansas were two year olds which had been fed almost entirely on corn sold for $72 a head the spring they were two years old. Steers taken from grass, fat, and put on grain will lose, or at least, not gain any for four weeks or more.”
Mr. Gale: “A patch of oats makes fine pasture for hogs and is the next thing to red clover.”
We hope to be able to follow this by other articles showing, 1st, The profits of timber culture; 2nd, The varieties for timber culture; and 3rd, Methods of propagation.
Mr. Pierson would plant peach for a quick growing wind break. Mr. Gale stated that the box elder made a thick, dense shade. Mr. Householder fixed the appearance of the Russian mulberry, Secretary Nixon said the Russian mulberry does well with him.
President: The cedar is good.
Secretary Nixon reported Hales early Almaden and Foster peach buds badly winter killed.

Mr. Thirsk: The Downing and Crescent strawberries do the best if you do not give them good attention.
Mr. Gale: I have the currant planted on the north side of a small house that does well. The opinion of members present was that the currant should be planted on the north side of a stone or board fence.
Ex-Commissioner Gale, of Cowley County, has growing on his farm in Rock township about five acres of Cottonwoods, the cuttings for which were planted in the spring of 1878. The distance is about 4 to 7 feet; the cuttings were put 8 to 10 inches deep. He cultivated them two years, since which no attention has been given them. The trees are now five to eight inches in diameter and forty feet high. Mr. Gale thinks that forty cords of wood could now be cut from each acre, which, if valued at $3 per cord on the ground, would make a total of $120 per acre or $600 for the five acres. This gives more than $17 to the acre per annum. Much of this timber if used for the various purposes of the farm, where it could be kept above the ground, would be of much more value than if used for cord wood. Mr. Gale regards this timber belt as nearly or quite equal to a straw shed as protection to stock in cold, windy weather. The value of the grove for purposes of wind break, a protection to the birds, and in beautifying his home are more than sufficient for the annual rent on hand, so that with little care and expense he realizes a much greater cash return on this land than if he had cultivated the same in annual crops. If Mr. Gale was interrogated as to what part of his farm he regards as of the greatest value, no doubt he would reply that it is that part where his buildings, his orchards, and his groves were located and that if the orchards and groves were removed, the farm would be greatly depreciated in value.
On the first of May, 1880, the writer planted 3,700 one year old catalpas. The ground on which they are planted is divided by a draw or ravine, the soil of which is quite good for the purpose, but not better than most of the bottom land in this county. On either side of this draw the land is quite poor, partaking somewhat of a gumbo soil. The trees were brought from Ohio the November previous to planting and planted very late in the spring and the season following was the dry season, so that the considerations were unfavorable to success. They stand four feet apart each way. The first and second seasons they were plowed three times each and hoed twice, and two plowings were given them the third season; since which no attention has been given them. The trees standing on the poorer soil now average eight inches in circumference and seven feet high; and those in the good soil thirteen inches in circumference and twelve feet high.
                                                       ESTIMATED COST.
3,700 plants at $6 per 100:                                     $22.20
Preparing grounds and planting:                               $  6.00
Cultivating seven times:                                           $10.00
Two hoeings:                                                                $  3.00
Rent of land five years:                                            $25.00
Interest not exceeding:                                            $20.00

There are now standing on the ground 3,600 trees and no one would place their value at less than five cents each, which would aggregate $180. Certain it is that the owner would not have the ground cleared of the trees for double the amount. Three years hence and fence posts can be cut in order to properly thin the trees when the yearly income may continue perpetually.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.
Cowley’s Farmer’s Institute is now a permanency. A good number of our wide-awake farmers met at the COURIER office Saturday last with Mr. J. S. Baker, of Tisdale, in the chair and Mr. F. A. A. Williams, of Winfield, Secretary.
Dr. C. Perry, chairman of the committee on organization, submitted a plan of organization, which was discussed and adopted as follows.
WHEREAS, Everyone engaged in the business of agriculture can be benefitted by having at command the combined experiences of practical men engaged in said business, and more particularly so where the peculiarities of climate and soil have to be learned before successful results can be obtained; and
WHEREAS, That if a proper spirit of emulation can be excited among us the result will be that the standing of the agricultural profession will be raised in the estimation of the whole community in this region and that values of agricultural property will be greatly enhanced.
Therefore, we, the undersigned farmers in Cowley County, do hereby organize ourselves into an association to be called The Farmers Institute of Cowley County, Kansas.
The objects of this association will be to hold regular meetings for the discussion of agricultural topics and the dissemination of facts, which shall tend to produce the results before stated.
Anyone interested in the cultivation of the soil or the raising of livestock can become a member of this association by the annual payment of the sum of fifty cents.
The officers of this Association shall be a President, Vice President, Secretary, and Treasurer, who shall be elected annually and who shall perform the duties usually required of such officers.
There shall be a Board of Directors, which shall be composed of the aforesaid officers, ex-officio and one member in each township, who shall take in charge the interests of the Association, each in his respective township, and to have for a part of his duty the organization of a local Farmers Club auxiliary to this Association. The before named Board of Directors to have the complete management of the affairs of this Association.
The officers of the Association shall be the officers of the Board who, with two directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.
There shall be an annual meeting of this society continuing two or more days for the election of officers and for the discussion of agricultural topics in accordance with a program arranged by said Board of Directors, and there shall also be such other meetings as the Board of Directors shall call.
Any other rules and regulations can be added to these articles of association by a majority vote of members present at the annual meeting.
After the adoption of the plan of organization, the following members were enrolled, and paid their admission fee.
G. L. Gale, M. H. Markcum, R. J. Yeoman, J. S. Baker, J. F. Martin, F. W. McClellan, W. E. Merydith, F. H. Burton, Dr. C. Perry, R. T. Thirsk, A. H. Broadwell, D. C. Stevens, H. McKibben, S. P. Strong, and F. A. A. Williams.

The officers of the Institute were selected as follows.
Mr. S. P. Strong, of Rock township, President; Mr. F. W. McClellan, of Walnut, Vice President; Mr. F. A. A. Williams, of Winfield, Secretary; Mr. M. H. Markcum, of Pleasant Valley, Treasurer.
The following board of township directors was elected, conditioned on their becoming members of the organization.
Bolton, Amos Walton; Beaver, F. H. Burton; Vernon, R. J. Yeoman; Ninnescah, L. Stout; Rock, E. J. Wilber; Fairview, T. S. Green; Walnut, R. T. Thirsk; Pleasant Valley, A. H. Broadwell; Silverdale, George Green; Tisdale, J. S. Baker; Winfield, Dr. Perry; Liberty, J. C. McCloy; Richland, D. C. Stevens; Omnia, W. R. Stolp; Silver Creek, John Stout; Harvey, R. S. Strother; Windsor, Samuel Fall; Dexter, W. E. Merydith; Cedar, J. H. Service; Otter, Mr. Mills; Sheridan, J. R. Smith; Maple, Mr. Fitzsimmons, Creswell, Ed. Green; Spring Creek, H. S. Libby.
On motion, M. H. Markcum, F. W. McClellan, and Dr. C. Perry were appointed a committee on plan of work.
Jas. F. Martin was elected honorary vice president of the Institute by a unanimous rising vote.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 5, 1885.
An adjourned meeting of the Cowley Co. Farmers’ Institute was held at the COURIER office Saturday last, with President S. P. Strong, of Rock, in the chair. Secretary F. A. A. Williams read minutes of last meeting, as previously published, and they were adopted.
The following are the standing committees as appointed by the President.
On Horticulture, R. T. Thirsk.
Soils and cultivated crops, Dr. Perry.
Grasses, F. A. A. Williams.
Breeding and marketing stock, F. W. McClellan.
Farm buildings, G. L. Gale.
Forestry, J. F. Martin.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 12, 1885.
The Cowley County Horticultural Society held its regular monthly meeting last Saturday at the COURIER office, President Jas. F. Martin in the chair. The Secretary, Jacob Nixon, read minutes of last meeting, which were adopted.
Mr. F. A. A. Williams, appointed at last meeting to solicit memberships to the Society, reported fifteen new members and four renewals. Mr. Williams was continued, and Messrs. G. L. Gale and John Mentch were also appointed to assist in enlarging the membership.
Mr. Gale broached the Hessian fly subject, and said that the egg is deposited on the leaf of wheat, instead of the root, as some recent writer has said, and is carried down to base of stock by dew and rain; also, that a dry, warm spring was very much against this fly.
                                                COWLEY COUNTY WOOL.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, April 9, 1885.

’Gene Wilber returned last week from a business trip to Indiana. He brings orders from the large manufacturing firm for which he handled wool last season to furnish them this year one million pounds. This means that Gale & Wilber will take for manufacture all the wool raised in southwestern Kansas, at a net cash price which leaves out the profit generally exacted for two or three sets of “middle men,” and which the wool grower has heretofore had to pay. The manufacturers for whom they are agents say Cowley County will makes the best and finest of flannels, and it is all to be worked up into this class of goods.
[Note: Above article reflects the partnership of George L. Gale with his son-in-law, E. J. (“Gene”) Wilber. See E. J. Wilber, who raised sheep.]
Winfield Courier, Thursday, April 16, 1885.
The Cowley County Farmers’ Institute held its regular monthly meeting at the COURIER office, Saturday last with President S. P. Strong in the chair. Secretary F. A. A. Williams reported having received the Kansas City Price Current as ordered, and read letters from wholesale implement firms relative to furnishing members of the Institute with machinery. The Secretary was instructed to subscribe for the Winfield DAILY COURIER, containing market reports, draw an order for amount of three months subscription, and keep on file, in the COURIER office, with the Daily Price Current. On motion of J. F. Martin, Ed P. Greer was elected honorary member of the association. The secretary was instructed to procure a safe receptacle for the papers, records, and other property of the association. Ed P. Greer was elected assistant secretary. M. H. Markcum, J. W. Millspaugh, and G. L. Gale were appointed a committee to interview our implement firms and lay before them a proposition from a Kansas City firm to give reduced rates on implements to members of the Institute and see if they will do the same. The committee was instructed to file their report with the assistant secretary for members desiring information. Messrs. Strong, Perry, Gale, and others gave experience as to clover and wheat. Some clover and alfalfa had winter killed, but a good deal of it was coming up thick with young plants from last year’s seed. All agreed that clover seeds much more heavily in this country than in the east. Dr. Perry thought the raising of clover seed would be a very profitable industry in this country. Mr. Millspaugh advocated deep plowing for all crops, especially for corn. [Cannot read next sentence.] Other members thought grass would do well in most places if the ground was properly prepared, and the wild [?] nature subdued. Mr. Martin had great faith in grass growing in Cowley County. Had shown his faith by investing nearly a hundred dollars in grass seed. Reported fruit buds generally in fine condition, raspberries somewhat injured. It was voted that the Institute meet at 2 p.m., and adjourn at 4:30 p.m. Mr. Markcum and Dr. Perry were appointed a committee to see about a larger room for meeting.
               [Note: Paper had white-out spots in above article and items below it.]
Winfield Courier, Thursday, May 21, 1885.
Geo. L. Gale started out today on a wool-buying tour. He will take in Newton, Larned, Sterling, Peabody, and other points. He will be gone about two weeks.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, June 18, 1885.

Thursday was the occasion of much joy to the people of Winfield and vicinity. The Opera House was filled with rejoicing people. Early in the evening the House commenced to fill, and impatiently waited for the gentlemen to put in an appearance for whom they had gathered to welcome. The Courier Cornet Band discoursed sweet music, sufficient to charm a God of olden times. Everybody felt happy. On motion of W. C. Robinson, John C. Long was unanimously elected chairman of the meeting. Mr. Long was heartily cheered upon taking the platform. The following is in substance Mr. Long’s address.
Fellow Citizens: We do not meet here tonight to raise funds, but to jollify over what has been accomplished. (Cheers.) For the past three months we have been successful in every enterprise undertaken. (Cheers.) Through the noble leadership of a gentleman, who is in our presence, and his assistants, we have been successful. (Cheers.) We have a gentleman in our midst earnest in the cause in which he is enlisted, of serving the Lord. A gentleman who has just put forth his best endeavors and zeal in working up this enterprise. A gentleman without whose aid, I believe, we would have failed. The Conference at first had engrafted in the articles determining to erect this college, that it be centrally located. This gentleman advocated the partiality of this clause, and the men composing the conference, in their fair-mindedness and good judgment, made the location at any place of easy access. The seven members of this committee were from other towns, yet they at once saw the superior offers and natural advantages of Winfield and through the efforts of this gentleman, of whom I have been speaking, and his co-worker, we have gained the victory. Fellow citizens, I refer to Rev. B. Kelly and Judge T. H. Soward.”
Cheer upon cheer and cries of “Bro. Kelly!” nearly lifted the roof off the house, which were only quieted by he gentleman coming forward and, though tired, made a happy speech to his admiring listeners, substantially as follows.
Dear Friends: I hesitated about coming here at all tonight. I was about ready to go to bed when I was urged to come up here awhile. I do not take any credit in performing my duty in regard to this college. I believe we have an excellent people. They know what we wanted and had the grit to go and capture it. (Cheers.) I think we have the most beautiful city in Kansas and among the most intelligent people in Kansas. We are on the eve of great prosperity. I don’t know whether we have railroads enough or not; if we haven’t, let us get some more. (Cheers.) I believe we can make ourselves second to no place in Kansas if we can get two more railroads and a few other things, we can soon be first in Kansas. We can get there, my friends. (Cheers.) We had a good committee at Wichita. Some of our sister cities underrated us. I don’t think Wellington did. Every fellow from Hutchinson that was at Wichita was a real estate man, with the exception of two or three Methodists. All of our sister cities had many representatives. My friends, your representative went in alone, and, in a five minutes speech, which was one of the most concise and business like speeches ever put before a committee, captured this college. (Cheers.) The committee saw at once that your representative, Judge T. H. Soward, (Cheers.) knew what he was talking about and had that something ready and willing to offer. We offered the committee everything they wanted. We forgot one thing—our sand. (Laughter.) We have many good things in Winfield. We have the grandest band I ever heard. My friends, I’m too tired to say much tonight. I wish to say right here, we are entitled to all we have and we expect to get more. (Cheers.) I have been a Methodist minister for eighteen years. I never have gone into any speculations, but I know of no people I would help quicker than the people of Winfield. God bless you.
At the close of Bro. Kelly’s speech, he was cheered time after time, when cries of “Soward” filled the room. Finally Judge Soward made his appearance and after some little time contrived to gain a hearing, and in his usual happy vein spoke substantially as follows.

Fellow Citizens: In 1879 Kansas was pretty dry in more ways than one. About this time I landed in your city and took a drive out east; coming back I strayed into the Presbyterian Sunday School. I made up my mind if the Lord did not make this city and country for the blessed and happy, I couldn’t tell where I could find that country. I have been working pretty hard for the past few days and feel too tired tonight to say much. When I came back from Wichita the other day, and before I left, Bro. Kelly was of the opinion we had the college; I felt assured it would be so. I came home and would have slept in peace, but my baby had the colic. (Laughter.) This county is the most beautiful county that God’s sun shines upon. I took some of my Kentucky friends out yesterday down about Arkansas City and Geuda Springs, and every place they come by they would say, “I’m going to have that place!” They are coming here to locate; they have capital, and many more will follow. (Cheers.) I have been proud of Cowley ever since I came here. We have the most enterprising people on the face of the globe. My expectations have been fully realized within the last three or four weeks. My friends, taking into consideration the hard times of the past winter, it is wonderful, the success that has been accomplished in raising funds for this College and other enterprises. It shows the enterprise of the people of Winfield. But, my friends, we want more projects. These railroads and College won’t make our city alone; we must encourage manufactories and men of capital to come here. We can get them. We want the Orphan’s Home for the soldiers. I believe Cowley County can capture it. (Cheers.) By all means we want to locate individuals, and are going to do it. (Cheers.) We must not stop; there is no stopping place in this country. We want a little more smoke from manufactories, no matter if it does cause us to paint our houses a little oftener. But a short time ago, a friend of mine, traveling through California, the so-called garden spot of the world, said he believed Southern Kansas was destined to be the center of the horticultural district. We want men here with enterprise enough to scrape the hair off and cut the throats of our hogs instead of shipping them to Kansas City. (Cheers.) I would like to see a big pork-packing establishment—not too close to town, but just a little ways off, you know. (Laughter.) . . . .
Among the more potent factors in obtaining this great enterprise for Winfield were the soliciting committees who circulated the sub-papers with wonderful energy and success. They raised nearly twenty thousand dollars in this way—almost every man, young and old, in the city made good subscriptions, with many donations from the ladies. Nothing could more plainly demonstrate the great liberality and public spirit of our citizens. There is no doubt that without such assiduous labor on the part of these soliciting committees, Winfield would never have got the college. The committee for Winfield city were: Capt. J. B. Nipp, Judge T. H. Soward, Judge H. D. Gans, Capt. T. B. Myers, Prof. A. Gridley, J. E. Conklin, Frank Bowen, and J. E. Farnsworth. Those soliciting in adjacent territory, as near as we can ascertain, were: Rev. B. Kelly, Col. Wm. Whiting, Rev. S. S. Holloway, Rev. J. H. Snyder, A. H. Limerick, J. A. Rinker, T. J. Johnson, Dr. S. R. Marsh, J. W. Browning, J. A. McGuire, George Gale, D. W. P. Rothrock, D. A. Sherrard, D. Gramme, W. E. Martin, A. Staggers, W. D. Roberts, E. M. Reynolds, J. C. Roberts, and C. Hewitt.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, June 25, 1885.
Miss Lou Wilber, Fred Wilber, Frank Wilber, and George Harcourt, of Rock, were down Sunday visiting George L. Gale.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, August 6, 1885.

Some rapscallion relieved Mr. G. L. Gale’s barn, east 10th Avenue, of a good set of single harness Thursday. He could have helped himself to the horse and buggy just as well. It was evidently some fellow with a horse and buggy who merely borrowed the harness—to be returned when he gets ready.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, August 6, 1885.
Geo. L. Gale is not alone in the harness steal. Mr. Gale was speaking to his neighbor, J. P. Stewart, about the theft, when Mr. Stewart remarked that the thief could have got a new set by coming to his (Stewart’s) barn. Mr. Stewart, going to his barn shortly afterward, found that the thief had acted upon his suggestion. His bran new harness were gone. Misery loves company.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, October 22, 1885.
George L. Gale is building a residence just south of H. B. Schuler’s residence in Highland Park. Mr. Gale is now digging the third cellar, having made a trade for other lots further west of where he intended to build first. He will build a neat two story house.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, October 22, 1885.
The following are the real estate transfers filed in the office of Register of Deeds since our last issue.
Highland Park Town Company to Mary J Gale, tract in sw qr 23-32-4e: $500.00.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, December 17, 1885.
The committees, appointed at the citizens’ meeting, to work up the submitting of propositions for the extension of the Florence El Dorado & Walnut railroad from Douglass to Winfield, met yesterday afternoon in McDougall’s hall to determine on the apportionment of the amount of aid asked. Judge T. H. Soward called the meeting to order. S. P. Strong was chosen chairman and W. J. Wilson, Secretary. M. L. Robinson then explained the object of the meeting, to get everything in readiness for aggressive work in submitting the propositions and securing this road. The townships through which the road will run were represented as follows.
Rock: S. P. Strong, H. F. Hornady, E. J. Wilber, and W. H. Grow.
Fairview: J. C. Page and T. C. Covert.
Walnut: J. C. Roberts, J. B. Corson, John Mentch, T. A. Blanchard, J. Anderson, W. D. Roberts, and E. M. Reynolds.
Winfield: H. H. Siverd, J. A. Eaton, D. L. Kretsinger, Col. Whiting, T. H. Soward, B. T. Davis, M. L. Robinson, S. J. Smock, G. H. Crippen, J. E. Conklin, W. P. Hackney, G. L. Gale, Chas. Schmidt, W. J. Wilson, Ed P. Greer, H. E. Asp, A. H. Limerick, F. C. Hunt, and J. W. Curns.
Committees were appointed as follows to see that this matter is properly worked up.
Winfield: Capt. Nipp, J. E. Conklin, D. L. Kretsinger, C. Schmidt, Col. Whiting, J. A. Eaton, and A. H. Doane.
Walnut: J. B. Corson, J. P. Short, J. C. Roberts, T. A. Blanchard, and W. D. Roberts.
Fairview: M. C. Headrick, J. C. Page, A. H. Limerick, J. W. Douglas, and T. S. Covert.
Rock: G. L. Gale, G. H. Williams, H. F. Hornady, E. J. Wilber, J. M. Harcourt, S. P. Strong, J. B. Holmes, and John Stalter.

Every movement must have money back of it to insure its success. This and other enterprises needing agitation take money. Contributions were called for to be placed in the hands of the Winfield Enterprise Association for use in submitting these railroad propositions and any other progressive enterprise for which the Association sees necessity. Over $500 was subscribed as follows.
G. L. Gale, $5.00.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 28, 1886.
E. E. Weir, of La Porte, Indiana, a friend of Gene Wilber and G. L. Gale, is in the city. He is a young attorney of good appearance and looks through the west with view of location.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 28, 1886.
Still the enterprises necessary to a big city in every respect cluster around us. Yesterday the Winfield Creamery building was sold at Sheriff’s sale. It was bought by Gale and Wilber, for King and Fildes, big woolen manufacturers in La Porte, Indiana, for whom Messrs. Gale and Wilber are the agents in this section. This building is bought as the inauguration of a big woolen mill—a mill where the thousands of pounds of wool raised in this country can be manufactured into fabrics right here, instead of shipping the wool east, and bringing the goods back, paying double freight, with a low market for wool. It is through Messrs. Gale and Wilber, who have been buying wool here a year or more for King and Fildes, that determined these manufacturers to locate this nucleus here. Mr. Wilber went east in the fall and clinched this enterprise. The machinery for three scouring machines has been bought and will be put in at once. The full machinery for manufacturing fabrics will very likely be put in by next fall—a branch factory to the firm’s eastern one, which is one of the largest of the kind in the east. In the meantime Gale & Wilber will handle all the wool that can be bought in this section, concentrating and scouring it here and shipping it to La Porte. This is the inauguration of an institution whose benefits to Winfield, Cowley County, and surroundings will be incalculable.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 25, 1886.
Gene Wilber has a dispatch stating that John Fildes of the woolen mill firm of King & Fildes, of La Porte, Indiana, who have bought the creamery, will be here Monday, to be followed shortly by three complete wool scouring machines to be put in at once. They will likely have to double the present size of the creamery building. This will make one of our biggest institutions, and soon develop into a full-fledged woolen mill. Messrs. Gale & Wilber, resident managers and buyers, expect to handle a million pounds of wool this year, with all the pelts they can get.
Winfield Courier, Thursday, March 4, 1886.
The following are the real estate transfers filed in the office of Register of Deeds yesterday.
Read & Robinson to G L Gale, Sheriff’s deed to lots 8, 9 & 10, blk 15, Robinson’s ad to Winfield: $1,070.
Geo L Gale et ux to F C King and John Fildes, lots 8, 9 & 10, blk 15, Robinson’s ad to Winfield: $1,070.


Cowley County Historical Society Museum